Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is a community or fandom of people interested in science fiction in contact with one another based upon that interest. SF fandom has a life of its own, but not much in the way of formal organization. Most called "fandom" within the community, it can be viewed as a distinct subculture, with its own literature and jargon. Science fiction fandom started through the letter column of Hugo Gernsback's fiction magazines. Not only did fans write comments about the stories—they sent their addresses, Gernsback published them. Soon, fans were writing letters directly to each other, meeting in person when they lived close together, or when one of them could manage a trip. In New York City, David Lasser, Gernsback's managing editor, nurtured the birth of a small local club called the Scienceers, which held its first meeting in a Harlem apartment on December 11, 1929. All the members were adolescent boys. Around this time a few other small local groups began to spring up in metropolitan areas around the United States, many of them connecting with fellow enthusiasts via the Science Correspondence Club.
In May 1930 the first science-fiction fan magazine, The Comet, was produced by the Chicago branch of the Science Correspondence Club under the editorship of Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis. In January 1932, the New York City circle, which by included future comic-book editors Julius Schwartz and Mort Weisinger, brought out the first issue of their own publication, The Time Traveller, with Forrest J Ackerman of the embryonic Los Angeles group as a contributing editor. In 1934, Gernsback established a correspondence club for fans called the Science Fiction League, the first fannish organization. Local groups across the nation could join by filling out an application. A number of clubs came into being around this time. LASFS was founded at this time as a local branch of the SFL, while several competing local branches sprang up in New York City and began feuding among themselves. In 1935, PSFS was formed; the next year, half a dozen fans from NYC came to Philadelphia to meet with the PSFS members, as the first Philadelphia Science Fiction Conference, which some claim as the world's first science fiction convention.
Soon after the fans started to communicate directly with each other came the creation of science fiction fanzines. These amateur publications might or might not discuss science fiction and were traded rather than sold, they ranged from the inept to professional-quality printing and editing. In recent years, Usenet newsgroups such as rec.arts.sf.fandom and blogs have somewhat supplanted printed fanzines as an outlet for expression in fandom, though many popular fanzines continue to be published. Science-fiction fans have been among the first users of computers, personal computers and the Internet. Many professional science fiction authors started their interest in science fiction as fans, some still publish their own fanzines or contribute to those published by others. A regarded history of fandom in the 1930s can be found in Sam Moskowitz's The Immortal Storm: A History of Science Fiction Fandom Hyperion Press 1988 ISBN 0-88355-131-4. Moskowitz was himself involved in some of the incidents chronicled and has his own point of view, criticized.
Organized fandom in Sweden emerged during the early-1950s. The first Swedish science fiction fanzine was started in the early 1950s; the oldest still existing club, Club Cosmos in Gothenburg, was formed in 1954, the first Swedish science-fiction convention, LunCon, was held in Lund in 1956. Today, there are a number of science fiction clubs in the country, including Skandinavisk Förening för Science Fiction, Linköpings Science Fiction-Förening and Sigma Terra Corps. Between one and four science-fiction conventions are held each year in Sweden, among them Swecon, the annual national Swedish con. An annual prize is awarded to someone that has contributed to the national fandom by the Alvar Appeltofft Memorial Fund. SF fandom in the UK has close ties with that in the USA. In the UK there are multiple conventions; the largest regular convention for Literary SF fandom is the British National convention or Eastercon. Strangely enough this is held over the Easter weekend. Committee membership and location changes year-to-year.
The license to use the Eastercon name for a year is awarded by votes of the business meeting of the Eastercon two years previously. There are larger events run by UK Media Fandom and commercial organisations run Gate Shows The UK has hosted the Worldcon several times, most in 2014. News of UK events appears in the fanzine Ansible produced by David Langford each month; the beginning of an Italian science fiction fandom can be located between the late 1950s and early 1960s, when magazines such as Oltre il Cielo and Futuro started to publish readers’ letters and promote correspondences and the setting-up of clubs in various cities. Among the first fanzines, Futuria Fantasia was cyclostyled in Milan in 1963 by Luigi Cozzi, its title paid homage to Ray Bradbury's fanzine by the
Justine Evans is a British wildlife filmmaker featured in many BBC Natural History Unit productions such as Planet Earth and Frozen Planet. She is an expert on filming nocturnal animals. Evans graduated from film school at Bournemouth & Poole College of Art and Design in 1991. Shortly thereafter, she started filming short campaigns for the RSPB about lowland heathland bird habitats in her spare time and ended up working with the BBC Natural History Unit as a camerawoman and presenter of several nature films and series. In 1997, Evans first appeared as an additional cinematographer in "Wild Wolves", a BBC-produced episode for the American popular science television series Nova. In 1998, she travelled to Venezuela as part of the filming team of The Life of Birds, produced by Mike Salisbury and presented by David Attenborough. In one of the episodes, she filmed oilbirds in a cave using low light cameras, with Attenborough providing commentary in the dark. On episode seven, "Great Plains", of the series Planet Earth and her colleagues were able to film a pride of 30 lions hunt an elephant in the dark.
Evans used infrared night vision equipment to film the hunt after following the animals for several days in harsh conditions. Until the ambush techniques used by a pride of lions had never been filmed before. In 2009, as part of the episode "Primates" of the BBC documentary series Life, Evans went to Guinea to film chimpanzees; the chimpanzeest had created an entire tool kit to dip for ants and soften palm hearts using leaf stalks, to hammer nuts with precision. In 2013, using starlight cameras, Evans filmed the social nocturnal behaviour of black rhinos in the Kalahari as part of the BBC documentary series Africa; this was the first time. In more recent productions, Evans has moved in front of the camera to appeared on screen in several natural history expeditions. In the Lost Land of the Tiger series, Evans is in Bhutan with Gordon Buchanan, Steve Backshall, George McGavin, big-cat biologist Alan Rabinowitz to determine whether there are tigers in this area of the Himalayas. In the first episode, Evans appears at the top of a tree looking for tigers and other nocturnal animals with night vision equipment when a tropical lightning storm hits.
In 2013, Evans travelled to the forests of Myanmar with wildlife filmmaker Gordon Buchanan and zoologist Ross Piper for the BBC documentary series Wild Burma: Nature's Lost Kingdom. Their mission was to establish whether Burma's forests were indeed a crucial stronghold for iconic animals disappearing from the rest of the world, such as Asian elephants, pangolins, a host of rare jungle cats, as well as to demonstrate the incredible diversity of all species in the area. Evans won a News & Documentary Emmy award in the category Outstanding Individual Achievement in a Craft: Cinematography – Nature as one of the cinematographers for Great Migrations at the 32nd News & Documentary Emmy Awards in 2011. Evans was nominated for a Primetime Emmy for Outstanding Cinematography for Nonfiction Programming in 2004 and 2005 for her low-light camera work on Survivor: Palau and Survivor: Guatemala
Save Historic Newmarket is grassroots organisation based in Newmarket, with the stated aim of preserving the town as the global centre of the horseracing industry and the many thousands of jobs it provides, as a potential World Heritage Site. It came to national attention as one of many groups opposed to the Hatchfield stud farm development. Newmarket is regarded as the global centre of thoroughbred horse racing, it is one of two major business clusters in the other being the Cambridge Science Park. The horse racing and breeding businesses provide over 8,500 jobs in the town alone. However, it has been noted that whilst being the leading employer, the racing industry in the town is fragile for a number of reasons, one being the difficulty of providing for the safe movement each day of the thousands of horses that are kept in Newmarket through the town to its training grounds. Save Historic Newmarket began with small projects, including advising retailer Majestic Wine on a redesign of their new shop in the town in the planning stage.
It is now one of the company's showcase shops. The group supports development in the district area surrounding Newmarket and has supported a number of towns in the district who wish to increase their housing allocations. However, it supports the view of major local businesses that the proposed use of Hatchfield farm for 1,200 houses would be disastrous for the town's small and major businesses and employees owing to a congested and inflexible road system in the town and poor present means of movement for horses around the town. Over 3,000 horses live in Newmarket, most need to use the training grounds on a daily basis. Save Historic Newmarket first came to national attention in 2009 by organising opposition to plans by Edward Stanley, 19th Earl of Derby to build on the land adjacent to his Staney House stud farm; the group and its affiliates have argued that the development represents a poor cost-benefit bargain, as it threatens the town's future as a major economic and employment centre, whilst providing a residential development suited to nearby towns which have requested more houses than they have been allocated in local plans.
The development has been opposed by major local employers including the Jockey Club, Godolphin racing, Darley Stud, trainers Sir Michael Stoute, Henry Cecil, James Fanshawe, Luca Cumani, John Gosden, Clive Brittain, John Berry and many others. Senior managers of Godolphin Racing admitted that they could be forced to leave Newmarket if the development was approved, it is estimated that Godolphin and sister company Darley's departure from Newmarket would lead to the loss of at least 1,000 jobs. On 2 June 2010, Forest Heath Planning Councillors unanimously rejected Lord Derby's plans on five separate grounds; this was the first such local decision following announcement of the abolition of Regional Spatial Strategies by Conservative Communities and Local Government Minister Eric Pickles. Edward Stanley, 19th Earl of Derby appealed the unanimous rejection of his plans. Local residents have said. A group of local residents and businesses including Save Historic Newmarket challenged the district council's planning strategy in the High Court, arguing it was flawed.
On 25 March 2011, a Mr Justice Collins quashed the entire planning strategy related to Newmarket. The council and Lord Derby, who had joined them in opposing the local residents, were ordered to pay 90% of the groups' costs and refused leave to appeal. Lord Derby's appeal proceeded throughout much of summer 2011, was the subject of protests from local residents and businesses. On 23 March 2012, the Communities and Local Government Minister Eric Pickles, acting on the recommendation of the planning inspector, dismissed the appeal, a decision that Lord Derby did not accept. Soon after, Lord Derby again applied for planning permission for the whole area building 400 houses but marking the whole area for development; the plans were rejected by Newmarket Town Council, all Newmarket's councillors on Forest Heath District Council. However, councillors for other towns voted for them, they were approved by a majority decision; the Secretary of State called the plans in, a decision is expected in December 2015.
The group has opposed an application to replace the town's communal playing fields with a Sainsbury's supermarket. The application was refused. Save Historic Newmarket Save Historic Newmarket on Facebook
The 2014–15 UEFA Champions League knockout phase began on 17 February and concluded on 6 June 2015 with the final at Olympiastadion in Berlin, Germany to decide the champions of the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League. A total of 16 teams competed in the knockout phase. Times up to 28 March 2015 were CET, thereafter times were CEST. All draws were held at UEFA headquarters in Switzerland; the knockout phase involved the 16 teams which qualified as winners and runners-up of each of the eight groups in the group stage. Each tie in the knockout phase, apart from the final, was played over two legs, with each team playing one leg at home; the team that scored more goals on aggregate over the two legs advanced to the next round. If the aggregate score was level, the away goals rule was applied, i.e. the team that scored more goals away from home over the two legs advanced. If away goals were equal thirty minutes of extra time was played; the away goals rule was again applied after extra time, i.e. if there were goals scored during extra time and the aggregate score was still level, the visiting team advanced by virtue of more away goals scored.
If no goals were scored during extra time, the tie was decided by penalty shoot-out. In the final, played as a single match, if scores were level at the end of normal time, extra time was played, followed by penalty shoot-out if scores remained tied; the mechanism of the draws for each round was as follows: In the draw for the round of 16, the eight group winners were seeded, the eight group runners-up were unseeded. The seeded teams were drawn against the unseeded teams, with the seeded teams hosting the second leg. Teams from the same group or the same association could not be drawn against each other. In the draws for the quarter-finals onwards, there were no seedings, teams from the same group or the same association could be drawn against each other; the draw was held on 15 December 2014. The first legs were played on 17, 18, 24 and 25 February, the second legs were played on 10, 11, 17 and 18 March 2015. 3–3 on aggregate. Paris Saint-Germain won on away goals. Barcelona won 3–1 on aggregate.
1–1 on aggregate. Atlético Madrid won 3–2 on penalties. Juventus won 5–1 on aggregate. Real Madrid won 5–4 on aggregate. Bayern Munich won 7–0 on aggregate. 3–3 on aggregate. Monaco won on away goals. Porto won 5–1 on aggregate; the draw was held on 20 March 2015. The first legs were played on 14 and 15 April, the second legs were played on 21 and 22 April 2015. Barcelona won 5–1 on aggregate. Real Madrid won 1–0 on aggregate. Bayern Munich won 7–4 on aggregate. Juventus won 1–0 on aggregate; the draw was held on 24 April 2015. The first legs were played on 5 and 6 May, the second legs were played on 12 and 13 May 2015. Barcelona won 5–3 on aggregate. Juventus won 3–2 on aggregate; the final was played on 6 June 2015 at the Olympiastadion in Germany. The "home" team was determined by an additional draw held after the semi-final draw. 2014–15 UEFA Champions League
The Socialist Workers Party was a Trotskyist political party in India. The party was established in 1965 by activists in Mumbai; these included two former leading members of the Revolutionary Workers Party: S. B. Kolpe, who became editor of the party journal, Marxist Outlook, Murlidhar Parija, who became the party's general secretary, it aligned itself with the United Secretariat of the Fourth International. In 1968 the party recruited Gour Pal a leading figure in the Revolutionary Communist Party of India, significant numbers of trade unionists from the Communist Party of India and the Revolutionary Socialist Party; the SWP opposed the Naxalite rebels, who they criticised for their isolation from the urban working class. It supported the independence movement in Bangladesh; the party opposed nominally revolutionary parties, such as the RCP and RSP, which participated in state governments. However, until early 1969, it co-operated with many of those parties in the Marxist League of Kerala. In the 1970 Kerala state elections it stood one candidate.
In 1971, the SWP renamed itself the Communist League. Magan Desai became party secretary, the journal was renamed Red Spark. During The Emergency of 1975-1977, it lost many long-standing members, some forming the Bolshevik Leninist Group; the party continued to operate into the mid-1980s. In 2012, a party of a similar name, the Workers' Socialist Party was established in India based on the principles of the Fourth International of 1938, its platform includes achieving Indian reunification through a proletarian revolution. Worker Socialist: Central Organ of the Workers' Socialist Party
Avatarium is a Swedish progressive rock / doom metal band from Stockholm, founded by Candlemass songwriter Leif Edling in 2013. In the winter of 2012 Candlemass founder and bass player Leif Edling started to work on a new project and wrote a few demos. Looking for musical partners, he first reached out to his friend, Opeth front man Mikael Akerfeldt, but due to a lack of time, he had to decline. Therefore, Stockholm-based guitarist Marcus Jidell offered to help. Soon, Tiamat drummer Lars Sköld and keyboarder Carl Westholm joined the new band and the line-up was completed by Jidell's wife Jennie-Ann Smith, whose deep and bluesy voice added a new touch to Edling's typical heavy doom riffs. By September 2013, they released their first EP Moonhorse and in November, their critically acclaimed eponymous full-length debut followed through Nuclear Blast; the band's first live show outside of Sweden took place at the Dutch Roadburn Festival in April 2014, in the fall of the same year, the Swedes released the EP All I Want, which featured percussions US musician Michael Blair.
After a European tour and several festival appearances, the band entered the studio once more to record their second album: The Girl with the Raven Mask was released worldwide in October 2015 and was voted "album of the month" in several leading European magazines, such as Rock Hard and Metal Hammer. It was nominated for the independent music prize Manifest in Sweden and in September 2016, Avatarium received the „Up And Coming“-award from Germany's Metal Hammer. For health issues, Leif Edling quit playing live shows with the band on their headline tour through Europe and Anders Iwers joined the band as a live member. Although Edling stepped out of the spotlight, he is still active as songwriter for the band and at the end of 2016, Avatarium entered the studio again to record their third album Hurricanes And Halos, together with their new bassist Mats Rydström and organist Rickard Nilsson; this time, singer Jennie-Ann Smith and guitarist Marcus Jidell contributed to the songwriting. The full-length album was released on May 2017 through Nuclear Blast.
Avatarium The Girl with the Raven Mask Hurricanes and Halos The Fire I Long For Avatarium, Line-Up at Rockharz Open Air 2018