Science fiction first appeared in television programming in the late 1930s, during what is called the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Special effects and other production techniques allow creators to present a living visual image of an imaginary world not limited by the constraints of reality; the need to portray imaginary settings or characters with properties and abilities beyond the reach of current reality obliges producers to make extensive use of specialized techniques of television production. Through most of the 20th century, many of these techniques were expensive and involved a small number of dedicated craft practitioners, while the reusability of props, effects, or animation techniques made it easier to keep using them; the combination of high initial cost and lower maintenance cost pushed producers into building these techniques into the basic concept of a series, influencing all the artistic choices. By the late 1990s, improved technology and more training and cross-training within the industry made all of these techniques easier to use, so that directors of individual episodes could make decisions to use one or more methods, so such artistic choices no longer needed to be baked into the series concept.
Special effects have been an essential tool throughout the history of science fiction on television: small explosives to simulate the effects of various rayguns, squibs of blood and gruesome prosthetics to simulate the monsters and victims in horror series, the wire-flying entrances and exits of George Reeves as Superman. The broad term "special effects" includes all the techniques here, but more there are two categories of effects. Visual effects involve photographic or digital manipulation of the onscreen image done in post-production. Mechanical or physical effects involve props and other physical methods used during principal photography itself; some effects involved a combination of techniques. Stunts are another important category of physical effects. In general, all kinds of special effects must be planned during pre-production. Babylon 5 was the first series to use computer-generated imagery, or "CGI", for all exterior space scenes those with characters in space suits; the technology has made this more practical, so that today models are used.
In the 1990s, CGI required expensive processors and customized applications, but by the 2000s, computing power has pushed capabilities down to personal laptops running a wide array of software. Models have been an essential tool in science fiction television since the beginning, when Buck Rogers took flight in spark-scattering spaceships wheeling across a matte backdrop sky; the original Star Trek required a staggering array of models. Models fell out of use in filming in the 1990s as CGI became more affordable and practical, but today, designers sometimes construct scale models which are digitized for use in animation software. Models of characters are puppets. Gerry Anderson created a series of shows using puppets living in a universe of models and miniature sets, notably Thunderbirds. ALF depicted an alien living in a family. In Stargate SG-1, the Asgard characters are puppets in scenes where they are sitting, standing, or lying down. In Mystery Science Theater 3000, the characters of Crow T.
Robot and Tom Servo, two of the show's main characters, are puppets constructed from random household items. As animation is free of the constraints of gravity and physical reality, it is an ideal technique for science fiction and fantasy on television. In a sense all animated series allow characters and objects to perform in unrealistic ways, so they are all considered to fit within the broadest category of speculative fiction The artistic affinity of animation to comic books has led to a large amount of superhero-themed animation, much of this adapted from comics series, while the impossible characters and settings allowed in animation made this a preferred medium for both fantasy and for series aimed at young audiences. Animation was all hand-drawn by artists, though in the 1980s, beginning with Captain Power, computers began to automate the task of creating repeated images. In recent years as technology has improved, this has become more common, notably since the development of the Massive software application permits producers to include hordes of non-human characters to storm a city or space station.
The robotic Cylons in the new version of Battlestar Galactica are animated characters, while the Asgard in Stargate SG-1 are animated when they are shown walking around or more than one is on screen at once. In general, science fiction series are subject to the same financial constraints as other television shows. However, high production costs increase the financial risk, while limited audiences further complicate the business case for continuing production. Star Trek was the first television series to cost more than $100,000 per episode, while Star Trek: The Next Generation was the first to cost more than $1 million per episode; the innovative nature of science fiction means that new shows cannot rely on predictable market-tested formulas like legal dramas or sitcoms. In the past, science fiction television shows have maintained a family friendly format that rend
The Federal Employees' Retirement System is the retirement system for employees within the United States civil service. FERS became effective January 1, 1987, to replace the Civil Service Retirement System and to conform federal retirement plans in line with those in the private sector. FERS consists of three major components: The FERS annuity, a defined benefit plan, Mandatory participation in Social Security, The Thrift Savings Plan, a defined contribution plan which operates like a 401. Since January 1, 1984, employees with fewer than 5 years of non-military experience on December 31, 1986, were covered under interim retirement rules under which they were covered by both CSRS and the Social Security system, they contributed their full employee share to Social Security. Employees with more than 5 years of non-military service on December 31, 1986, continued under the dual benefit coverage unless they opted to switch to FERS between July 1, 1986, December 31, 1987. Employees covered only by CSRS remained covered by it unless they opted to switch to FERS.
Once an employee elected to switch to FERS the choice was irrevocable. Most new federal employees hired on or after January 1, 1987, are automatically covered under FERS; those newly hired and certain employees rehired between January 1, 1984, December 31, 1986, were automatically converted to coverage under FERS on January 1, 1987. Rehired federal employees who worked prior to December 31, 1983, had 5 years of civilian service by December 31, 1986, can choose between remaining in CSRS or electing FERS within six months of rehire, but should the employee elect to switch from CSRS to FERS coverage, the election is irrevocable. Employees of Nonappropriated Fund Instrumentalities of the Departments of Defense and Homeland Security participate in a separate retirement system, except when retaining previous coverage under a different retirement system following a transfer. Employees hired prior to January 1, 2013 contribute 0.8 percent of salaries to their FERS annuity to their annuity, while employees hired in 2013 contribute 3.1 percent and employees hired in 2014 and thereafter contribute 4.4 percent.
The government matching portion is dependent on the employee's job classification and is based on actuarial assumptions, is subject to change. Unlike TSP, where an employee can choose not to participate and thus not have any withdrawals from salary, FERS contributions are mandatory. However, at retirement or separation from Federal service, one may ask for a refund of contributions made. However, a spouse or former spouse must be notified, a refund will not be allowed if it would end a court-ordered right for a spouse or former spouse to obtain benefits from the employee's Federal service, and if the employee returns to Federal service, a refund voids entitlement to an annuity based on the former service unless repaid upon return. In order to qualify for the standard FERS annuity an employee must have reached a minimum retirement age and have a specified number of years of "creditable Federal service". Credit for certain levels of military service may be repurchased for a specified percentage of prior salary plus accrued interest.
Part-time work is counted on a pro-rated basis. Any leave without pay days are counted as if limited to six months in a year; the MRA is based on the employee's birth year as shown on the table below: For an immediate retirement or a deferred retirement the employee must meet one of the following combinations of age and years of actual creditable service: Age 62 with 5 years, Age 60 with 20 years, At least the MRA with 30 years, or At least the MRA with 10 years. Employees facing either involuntary separation, or voluntary separation in lieu of a "reduction in force" can, in some cases, qualify for early retirement; the employee must either be age 50 with 20 years of actual credi
The first season of the Greek Cypriot reality talent show The Voice of Greece premiered on January 10, 2014 on ANT1. Based on the reality singing competition The Voice of Holland, the series was created by Dutch television producer John de Mol, it is part of an international series. The show is hosted by Giorgos Liagkas with Themis Georgantas serving as the backstage and social networking corresponding; the lead vocalist of the band Stavento, Michalis Kouinelis, Despina Vandi, Antonis Remos and Melina Aslanidou are the coaches of the season. The winner receives a record deal with Minos EMI; the first trailer for the season came out on September 13, 2013 which opened the submissions for the auditions. The auditions were held in Greece and Cyprus. Several artists were rumored to be part of the judging panel. Anna Vissi and Vandi were the first to be rumored as they are two of the biggest singers in both Cyprus and Greece. After being a judge on Dancing on Ice, Elena Paparizou was in the running for the judging panel.
On the running were Marinella and Nikos Karvelas. Remos and Vandi were the first to be confirmed as coaches followed by Kouinelis from Stavento and Aslanidou. Teasers from each coach talking about the show were shown on January 5, 2014, just five days before the premiere. Natalia Germanou was unofficially confirmed to be the host of the show. However, it was revealed that she had a proposition for the judging panel, turned down by the broadcaster after it was decided that the judges will be only professional singers. A few days after the unofficial confirmation, Sakis Rouvas, who hosted the Greek version of The X Factor, was rumored to be the host of the show. On December 5, 2013, the broadcaster revealed that Liagkas will be hosting the show with Georgantas being the V reporter; the first trailer premiered in September 2013 announcing the season and explaining how to participate. Four short trailers were broadcast in early-December, teasing its format. A few weeks before the premiere of the season, a trailer which featured the coaches going to the stage from backstage and a singer auditioning.
All the four coaches hit their buttons, with Vandi and Remos being the first two followed by Kouinellis and Aslanidou the same time. The premiere date was announced on the second version of the same changed trailer. Along with that trailer four short trailers were shown with each coach talking about the show and their expectations; the trailer for the battles was shown when the blind auditions where over, on February 24, 2014. It featured two singers going to the stage -- ring; each coach of the season had, after the blind auditions, sixteen acts in his team. During the battles each coach lost half of his acts. During the live shows, the coaches were losing two or one act until the final live where each coach had one act. Color key The blind auditions took place in the Kapa Studios in Attica; each coach had the length of the artists' performance to decide if they wanted that artist on their team. If two or more coaches have wanted the same artist the artist chose their coach. If only one wanted the artist the artist was defaulted in his team.
Once the coaches picked their team, they pitted them against each other in the Battles. The blind auditions episodes were aired on Fridays since January 10, 2014 until February 21, 2014 with the last blind audition being aired on Sunday, February 23, 2014. Color key The first blind audition episode was broadcast on January 10, 2014. Group performance: The Voice of Greece coaches – Medley of "Me Mia Agalia Tragoudia", "Den Eho Diefthinsi", "Iparhi Zoi", "Ine Stigmes", "Pidao Ta Kimata" The second blind audition episode was broadcast on January 17, 2014; the third blind audition episode was broadcast on January 24, 2014. The fourth blind audition episode was broadcast on January 31, 2014; the fifth blind audition episode was broadcast on February 7, 2014. The sixth blind audition episode was broadcast on February 14, 2014; the seventh blind audition episode was broadcast on February 21, 2014. The eighth and last blind audition episode was broadcast on February 23, 2014; the Battles took place in the Kapa Studios in Attica.
Two artists from each team compete against by singing the same song. The coach of the two acts decides which one will go through and which one will be eliminated meaning that eight acts from each team will get through the live shows; the battle advisors for these episodes were: Christos Sumka working with Antonis Remos, Dimitris Kontopoulos working with Despina Vandi, Dimos Anastasiadis working with Michalis Kouinelis and Antonis Mitzelos working with Melina Aslanidou. The Battles episodes started airing on Friday February 28, 2014 and will end on Friday March 21, 2014 after four episodes with eight battles taking place in each one. Color key The first battle round episode was broadcast on February 28, 2014; the second battle round episode was broadcast on March 7, 2014. The third battle round episode was broadcast on March 14, 2014; the fourth and last battle round episode was broadcast on March 21, 2014. Color key Artist's info Result details The live shows took place in the Kapa Studios in Spata, Attica.
Each coach has eight acts. The same process goes on to the second with sixteen acts from both lives making it to the third live show. From the third live and on, each coach loses one act; the eight semi-finalists had a song written by producers of Universal Greece. Though the songs of the eliminated semi-finalists were not
Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees in an area where there was no previous tree cover. Many government and non-governmental organizations directly engage in programs of afforestation to create forests, increase carbon capture. Sometimes special tools, such as a tree planting bar, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster. In some places, forests need help to reestablish themselves because of environmental factors. For example, in arid zones, once forest cover is destroyed, the land may become dry and inhospitable for the growth of new trees. Other factors include overgrazing by livestock animals such as goats and over-harvesting of forest resources. Together these may lead to the loss of topsoil. In some tropical areas, forest cover removal may result in a duricrust or duripan that seal off the soil to water penetration and root growth. In many areas, reforestation is impossible. In other areas, mechanical breaking up of duripans or duricrusts is necessary and continued watering may be essential, special protection, such as fencing, may be needed.
Several new studies suggest that forests attract rain and this may explain why drought is occurring more in parts of the world such as western Africa. A new study by Carol Rasmussen, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory gives the first observational evidence that the southern Amazon rain forest triggers its own rainy season using water vapor from plant leaves; the finding helps explain. A study by Douglas Sheil and Daniel Murdiyarso hypothesises that forest cover plays a much greater role in determining rainfall than recognized, it explains. Makarieva and Gorshkov have developed a hypothesis to explain how forests attract moist air and increase rainfall in area covered by trees. In Adelaide, South Australia, Premier Mike Rann launched an urban forest initiative in 2003 to plant 3 million native trees and shrubs by 2014 on 300 project sites across the metro area. Thousands of Adelaide citizens have participated in community planting days on sites including parks, transport corridors, water courses and coastline.
Only Native trees were planted to ensure genetic integrity. He said the project aimed to make it more liveable. There is extensive and ongoing Amazon deforestation.). There is ongoing afforestation effort in Brazil. In an afforestation hotspot outlined in Para, Brazil, 1 billion trees are intended to be planted to restore deforested lands by 2013. China has deforested most of its wooded areas. China reached the point where timber yields declined far below historic levels, due to over-harvesting of trees beyond sustainable yield. Although it has set official goals for reforestation, these goals are set over an 80-year time horizon and have not been met by 2008. China is trying to correct these problems by projects like the Green Wall of China, which aims to replant a great deal of forests and halt the expansion of the Gobi desert; the Green Wall of China Project has historical precedences dating back to before the Common Era. However, in pre-modern periods, government sponsored afforestation projects along the historical frontier regions were for military fortification.
A law promulgated in 1981 requires that every school student over the age of 11 plants at least one tree per year. As a result, China has the highest afforestation rate of any country or region in the world, with 47,000 square kilometers of afforestation in 2008. However, the forest area per capita is still far lower than the international average. According to Carbon Brief, China planted the largest amount of new forest out of any country between 1990 and 2015, facilitated by the country's Grain for Green programme started in 1999, by investing more than $100bn in afforestation programmes and planting more than 35bn trees across 12 provinces. By 2015, the amount of planted forest in China covered 79m hectares. From 2011-2016, the city Dongying in Shandong province forested over 13,800 hectares of saline soil through the Shandong Ecological Afforestation Project, launched with support from the World Bank. In 2017, the Saihanba Afforestation Community won the UN Champions of the Earth Award in the Inspiration and Action category for "transforming degraded land into a lush paradise".
Europe has deforested the majority of its historical forests. The European Union has paid farmers for afforestation since 1990, offering grants to turn farmland back into forest and payments for the management of forest. Between 1993 and 1997, EU afforestation policies made possible the re-forestation of over 5,000 square kilometres of land. A second program, running between 2000 and 2006, afforested more than 1,000 square kilometres of land. A third such program began in 2007. Europe's forests are growing by 8,000 square kilometres a year thanks to these programmes. According to Food and Agriculture Organization statistics, Spain had the third fastest afforestation rate in Europe in the 1990-2005 period, after Iceland and Ireland. In those years, a total of 44,360 square kilometers were afforested, the total forest cover rose from 13,5 to 17,9 million hectares. In 1990, forests covered 26.6% of the Spanish territory. As of 2007, that figure had risen to 36.6%. Spain tod
Kameli Ratuvou is a Fijian rugby union player. He is playing for professional English club, Saracens he joined the squad from Fiji for the 2006/07 season, his usual position is on the wing though he can play at centre and fullback. He has just signed a contract to keep him with Saracens until the end of the 2010 season. Ratuvou is an international for Fiji, played for them during the 2006 IRB Pacific 5 Nations, scored a try in the 24–23 loss against Tonga, he was selected to play for the Pacific Islanders for the tour of Great Britain. He scored tries in the games against Scotland. Fiji profile Saracens profile Pacific Islanders profile Scrum profile
Matazō Mimata is a Japanese comedian and actor. He is represented with Office Kitano. From 1992 to 2007, he acted, his former stage name and real name is Tadahisa Mimata. A former highschool amateur wrestler, Mimata has been a host to professional wrestling and combat sports shows, he has worked as a color commentator in shootboxing events, WWE tours and Pro Wrestling Zero1. On May 24, 2018, Mimata debuted as a professional wrestler in an "Electric Current Blast Death Match" in Zero1, wrestling against Taru in a losing effort. Matazō Mimata no Ōi! Ryōma e no Michi Matazō Mimata on Twitter Magic Factory Stage Production Department Profile – Office Kitano Official website – bar that he produced