In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science by reporting new research. Articles in scientific journals are written by active scientists such as students and professors instead of professional journalists. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are specialized, although some of the oldest journals such as Nature publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, scientific validity. Although scientific journals are superficially similar to professional magazines, they are quite different. Issues of a scientific journal are read casually, as one would read a magazine; the publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results.
Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record. Articles in scientific journals can be used in higher education. Scientific articles allow researchers to keep up to date with the developments of their field and direct their own research. An essential part of a scientific article is citation of earlier work; the impact of articles and journals is assessed by counting citations. Some classes are devoted to the explication of classic articles, seminar classes can consist of the presentation by each student of a classic or current paper. Schoolbooks and textbooks have been written only on established topics, while the latest research and more obscure topics are only accessible through scientific articles. In a scientific research group or academic department it is usual for the content of current scientific journals to be discussed in journal clubs. Public funding bodies require the results to be published in scientific journals. Academic credentials for promotion into academic ranks are established in large part by the number and impact of scientific articles published.
Many doctoral programs allow for thesis by publication, where the candidate is required to publish a certain number of scientific articles. Articles tend to be technical, representing the latest theoretical research and experimental results in the field of science covered by the journal, they are incomprehensible to anyone except for researchers in the field and advanced students. In some subjects this is inevitable given the nature of the content. Rigorous rules of scientific writing are enforced by the editors. Articles are either original articles reporting new results or reviews of current literature. There are scientific publications that bridge the gap between articles and books by publishing thematic volumes of chapters from different authors. Many journals have a regional focus, specializing in publishing papers from a particular geographic region, like African Invertebrates; the history of scientific journals dates from 1665, when the French Journal des sçavans and the English Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society first began systematically publishing research results.
Over a thousand ephemeral, were founded in the 18th century, the number has increased after that. Prior to mid-20th century, peer review was not always necessary, but it became compulsory; the authors of scientific articles are active researchers instead of journalists. As such, the authors receive no compensation from the journal. However, their funding bodies may require them to publish in scientific journals; the paper is submitted to the journal office, where the editor considers the paper for appropriateness, potential scientific impact and novelty. If the journal's editor considers the paper appropriate, the paper is submitted to scholarly peer review. Depending on the field and paper, the paper is sent to 1–3 reviewers for evaluation before they can be granted permission to publish. Reviewers are expected to check the paper for soundness of its scientific argument, i.e. if the data collected or considered in the paper support the conclusion offered. Novelty is key: existing work must be appropriately considered and referenced, new results improving on the state of the art presented.
Reviewers are unpaid and not a part of the journal staff—instead, they should be "peers", i.e. researchers in the same field as the paper in question. The standards that a journal uses to determine publication can vary widely; some journals, such as Nature, Science, PNAS, Physical Review Letters, have a reputation of publishing articles that mark a fundamental breakthrough in their respective fields. In many fields, a formal or informal hierarchy of scientific journals exists. In some countries, journal rankings can be utilized for funding decisions and evaluation of individual researchers, although they are poorly suited for that purpose. For scientific journals and replicability of the scientific results are core concepts that allow other scientists to check and reproduce the results under th
Harana is an all-male vocal group from the Philippines. It is under Star Music. Star Music' head, Roxy Liquigan shared that it was Joseph and Bryan who inspired the formation of the boyband. “Last year kasi, may nakita akong video sa party ni Arjo Atayde. May video na sumasayaw si Bryan at si Joseph Marco na parang nagbo-boy band. So nagkaroon ako ng idea when we talked kami sa buong Star Music. Meron tayo Gim me 5. Ang wala sa industry natin ‘yung boy band na mga gwapo at nakakakanta at parang suave lang, Mr. Suave lang dating sa atin.” — he related. “Last year, I saw one of this video in Arjo Atayde's party. In that video, Bryan is dancing and Joseph is having like a boy-band thing. So here comes this idea when we talked about things together with everyone in Star Music. We have Gim me the teens; the thing we don't have in our industry is a boy band who are handsome and singers who have that Mr. Suave look in them.” — he related. Michael came into the picture when Star Music was looking for an artist to sing Joven Tan’s “Pare Mahal Mo Raw Ako,” an entry at the 2014 Himig Handog P-Pop Love Songs.
Marlo completed the group when he finished shooting for hit daytime show, Be Careful with My Heart. ASAP launched their newest boy group called “Harana” with members, Joseph Marco, Bryan Santos, Michael Pangilinan and Marlo Mortel with their carrier single, “Number One”. On ASAP Chillout, the boys serenaded their fans with their version of the 60’s hit, “Baby I need Your Loving”. After Harana served as opening act in KZ Tandingan’s concert at the Music Museum last 17 April 2015, more gig offers poured in for the group; the group showed that they’re the all-in-one package, showing off their charm, good looks and notable singing voices as they performed their debut single “Number One” at the OPM Fresh press conference last April 28. They performed at the “Most Wanted” concert of Daniel Padilla at the SM Mall Of Asia Arena last June 13, 2015; the group is composed of: Joseph "Joey" Marco Marlo Mortel Michael "Khel" Pangilinan Bryan Santos Star Music Official Website
Sara Del Carmen Jofre González was the President and CEO of the Georgia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce and founder of the Hispanic American Center for Economic Development in Atlanta. She received the Civic Venture's Purpose Prize, in 2007, for her work and leadership in social innovation. Sara Del Carmen Jofre González, the daughter of Ricardo Jofre and Cecilia Rodriguez Jofre, was born September 28, 1935 in Havana, but fled the country late in 1960 with her two young children, Luis de La Valette and Ofelia de La Valette, her first husband, a recognized equestrian who had represented Cuba in the Pan-American Games and whose family owned the Perez-Vento Sanatorium in Guanabacoa, had been publicly denounced by the new government controlled media as a counter-revolutionary and as such faced imprisonment and execution by firing squad. They relocated to New York City, she married Harvard fellow Dr. Fernando González and had a daughter, Isabel González, they relocated to Atlanta, Georgia in 1975. Sara and Fernando opened one of the first Cuban restaurants in Atlanta, Sarita's, reviewed by USA Today in 1986 and featured as one of the best Cuban restaurants in the country.
The restaurant closed, but she credited the experience as giving her the passion for wanting to help others succeed where she had failed. She worked for the Latin American Association in Atlanta as fundraiser, the International Olympic Committee as the director of Hispanic Community Relations, she has said of Fidel Castro's impact on her life: "Fidel Castro has done a lot of bad things, but in a way he changed me, who I am and who I was supposed to be." Sara has been interviewed for and featured in numerous media outlets including: The Economist, Atlanta Journal-Constitution, AARP Magazine, Delta Sky, The Chronicle of Philanthropy, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal with a special podcast on the Wall Street Journal web site, the BBC, PBS, local radio and television stations throughout Georgia. Sara sat on numerous boards including: Junior Achievement of Georgia, the Atlanta Stakeholder's Committee, the Atlanta Police Foundation, Vote America, her son, Luis de La Valette, is retired from the lumber industry.
Her daughter, Ofelia de La Valette, owns a dance studio, Dance 101, in Atlanta and her youngest daughter, Isabel Cristina Gonzalez Whitaker lives in New York City and is an editor for InStyle magazine and author of Latin Chic: Entertaining with Style and Sass. An advocate and leader for Hispanic economic growth and immigrant rights, she established many services and programs to aid the newly arrived as well as those seeking betterment through entrepreneurship; as President and CEO of the GHCC, she increased membership over 660% by targeting for the first time corporate entities headquartered in Georgia such as The Home Depot, The Coca-Cola Company, Georgia Power and Light, The UPS Company, AT&T as well as numerous local Hispanic firms. Of broadening membership to include corporate companies, she would proudly state that she "finally got them to eat black beans" and therefore they understood the relevance and importance of the growing Hispanic community, her leadership established the GHCC as the largest Hispanic Chamber in the Southeast.
She established the GHCC annual gala making it the largest event reaching the Hispanic market in the state of Georgia. In 2000, she created the Hispanic Caucus at Georgia State Capital, Hispanic Day at the Capitol, Political Candidates Forums helping to bring Hispanic politicians and Hispanic issues to wider audience in Georgia. In 2000 she created the Hispanic Business and Career Expo with more than 700 participants annually in Atlanta. In 2001 she established "HACED", the Hispanic American Center for Economic Development, the first business incubator for Hispanics in all of the southeast United States. Satellite offices and programs in Savannah, Athens, Cartersville, Gainesville, Moultrie, Newnan, Quitman, Tifton and Warner Robins, Georgia. "I come here everyday to try to help the Latino community." Gonzalez says in her 2007 Purpose Prize interview about the GHCC and HACED. "I see our organization as a bridge between corporate America. Through our small business incubator we try to address the individual needs to whoever comes to us."
From 2004 to 2007, Sara established, under the umbrella of the GHCC, the Argentine-American Chamber of Commerce, Dominican-American Chamber of Commerce, the Ecuadorian-American Chamber of Commerce to open doors to new markets for Georgia business and their foreign counterparts. "Sara and I were colleagues at the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games," said Atlanta Mayor Shirley Franklin. "She was a friend. She dedicated her life to her family and worked tirelessly to form alliances and partnerships for the betterment of the Hispanic community all the while advancing business opportunities for all minorities; as a friend she was warm and supportive in every step of my professional life. I offer my condolences to her family
Élodie Fontan is a French actress. She has appeared in more than fifteen television and film productions since 1996. Élodie Fontan started young in French commercials for Nissan and Euro Disney. She gained notoriety in 2009 by playing Alyzée, Clem's best friend, in the Clem series, broadcast on TF1. In 2014, she joined the cast of the comedy Serial Weddings alongside Chantal Lauby and Christian Clavier, she is part of La Bande à Fifi, a French comedy troupe bringing together Philippe Lacheau, Élodie Fontan, Tarek Boudali, Reem Kherici and Julien Arruti. She joined in 2018 the group of Les Enfoirés. Since 2016, she has been in a relationship with Philippe Lacheau. Élodie Fontan on IMDb
Sochi conflict was a three-party border conflict which involved the counterrevolutionary White Russian forces, Bolshevik Red Army and the Democratic Republic of Georgia, each of which sought control over the Black Sea town of Sochi. The conflict was fought as a part of the Russian Civil War and lasted with varying success from July 1918 to May 1919, ended through British mediation establishing the current official border between Russia and Georgia. Georgian claims came from the fact that the area was politically dominated by the medieval Kingdom of Georgia at the height of its prestige and strength, came under the rule of a successor, the Kingdom of Imereti and the Principality of Abkhazia; the area of increasing tourist interest, part of this region was detached by the Tsar's decree of December 25, 1904, from the Sukhumi district to become part of the Black Sea Governorate. The region was inhabited by a significant number of Georgians; the Russian general Anton Denikin and his colleagues insisted, that the border between Georgia and the White-controlled Kuban People's Republic should be that between the former Russian governorates of Kutais and Black Sea, i.e. in the north to the Bzyb River.
The conflict was preceded by a pro-Bolshevik revolt in Abkhazia that made the local post-revolution government, Abkhaz People's Council, to request aid from the Democratic Republic of Georgia and to join it as an autonomous entity. A Georgian force under Major General Giorgi Mazniashvili was deployed in the region and joined by an Abkhaz cavalry provided by local nobility. Mazniashvili repulsed a Bolshevik offensive from Sochi direction late in June and, following to the instructions from Abkhaz and Georgian authorities, advanced northward in order to liquidate a Bolshevik base which provided help to the Communist soldiers; the Georgian military operation, encouraged by a German military mission, resulted in the occupation of Adler and Tuapse along the Black Sea coastline. Mazniashvili was soon ordered to take control of the Tuapse-Maykop railway line and coordinate his actions with the White Russian Kuban government and Denikin's Volunteer Army waging an all-out war against the Red armies in South Russia.
Georgia regarded the White forces as allies against the common threats from the Bolshevist Moscow. This cooperation was, soon clouded by Denikin's calls for the reunited "Great Russia" with the Caucasus as its integral part. Early in September, the Georgians were forced out from Tuapse by the retreating Red Taman Army, under command of Yepifan Kovtyukh and pursued by Denikin's forces. Soon the White units took control of the town on September 8 forcing the Bolsheviks to retreat further toward Armavir. On September 18, a Council for Sochi declared the unification of the city and its district to the Democratic Republic of Georgia as a "temporary measure" against the threats from both Lenin and Denikin; the annexation by Georgia followed and caused an acute protest from the leaders of the White forces. On September 25, 1918, the White leaders and representatives of the DRG met in Ekaterinodar to find a peaceful solution to the dispute. Denikin demanded. An agreement was not achieved and the Whites halted the negotiations next day.
The same day Denikin captured Lazarevskaya at the northern outskirts of Sochi but he was unable to take full control over the region until the Red Army was defeated in North Caucasus. On February 6, 1919 the Georgian troops were forced back to the Bzyb river with their commander General Konyev, his staff captured by the Russians at Gagra. Georgia sent reinforcements, but the British representatives intervened establishing a demarcation line along the Bzyb; the captured Georgian officers were released. On March 14, 1919 a Georgian delegation presented at Paris peace conference a project of the borders of the country in which it demanded a part of the former Black Sea province up to the small river Makopse 14 km southeast to the town Tuapse; the negotiations, yielded no results. On April 12, 1919, a Sukhumi-based Georgian People's Guard and army units under General Mazniashvili launched a counteroffensive. Avoiding the British peacekeeping posts at the Bzyb river, they retook Gagra after a bloody clash and, in cooperation with the "Green" Russian guerillas, moved to the Mekhadiri river.
The British intervention however halted the Georgian advance. A new demarcation line was established south to Adler, on the Psou River. Along the border, a British expeditionary force took positions to prevent further outbreak of the war. On May 23–24, Russian Volunteers' and British representatives met in Tbilisi to find a peace resolution; this was the end of the conflict. Occasional skirmishes occurred, until the late 1919; the establishment of the current official Russian-Georgian border along the Psou was the main outcome of the Sochi conflict. The new border was de jure recognized by the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic and the Allies. Russian Civil War Aftermath of World War I R. H. Ullman and the Russian Civil War, pp. 219–20 Georgian-Abkhaz relations in 1918-1921, article by A. Menteshashvili The Caucasus map within the Russian Empire as of 1882 Alexander Serafimovich "The Iron Flood" Alexandre Bondar, Victoria Rozhkova "Three Days in Tuapse"
Robert "Bobby" M. Curtis is an American distance runner who ran professionally for the Hansons-Brooks Distance Project; as a student athlete at Villanova, he won the men's 5000 meters at the 2008 NCAA DI National Championship. Over the course of his running career, he struggled with insomnia. Curtis attended St. Xavier in Louisville, where he graduated in 2003; as a high school student, he won 19 state titles. He was named an All-American in cross country senior seasons. On March 10, 2002, Curtis won the boy's mile as a junior at the Nike Indoor Classic in Landover, with a time of 4:16.14. At the end of his junior outdoor season, he won the boy's mile in the Adidas Outdoor Track & Field Championships, finishing in 4:09.05. On November 9, 2002, Curtis won Kentucky's state high school cross country championship in Lexington, running the 5-kilometer course in 15:24 on a windy day. On April 11, 2003, he recorded his best high school time for the 3200 meters in 8:48.39 at the Arcadia Invitational. In spite of his performance at Arcadia, he still finished in fourth place among a deep field of runners.
That summer he set the US high school record in the outdoor 1000 meters, with a time of 2:24.79. Curtis was recruited by Villanova University. In February 2004, he began experiencing insomnia a night before a race, he left school for six months due to his insomnia. After practicing sleep restriction therapy with the guidance of medical professionals, he returned to an improved sleep schedule and returned to Villanova. In the fall of 2004, Curtis a sophomore, won his first Big East championship when he topped the field in cross country, he followed that performance with a 15th-place showing in that year's NCAA cross country nationals, earning collegiate All-American honors for the first time. Over the next two years, Curtis suffered various injuries and setbacks, it wasn't until the spring of 2007 that he returned healthy to competition. In the outdoor track season of 2007, Curtis ran a mile in 3:57.20, his first sub-4:00 mile. He won the NCAA East Regional 5000m race and placed second in the event at the NCAA Championships.
In his senior year at Villanova, Curtis enjoyed his greatest success. He won the 2007 Big East championship in cross country and finished fourth at that year's NCAA Championships, again earning All-American honors. In the spring, he won his second-consecutive NCAA East Regional 5000m, at the national championships, he posted a personal best time of 13:33.93 to win the race, his first national title as a collegian. His win made him Villanova's first outdoor individual national champion since Sydney Maree won the 1500m at the 1981 nationals. Curtis left Villanova having posted the second fastest 5000m time in school history. In the summer of 2008, Curtis signed a five-year contract with Reebok. In that year, he began to be coached by Nic Bideau, he trained with Craig Mottram in 2008. In March 2009, he experienced insomnia again. From 2008 to 2012, he trained with Melbourne Track Club along with Olympians Collis Birmingham and Ben St. Lawrence. During his time with Reebok, Curtis posted impressive times in the 3,000 meters, 5,000 meters, 10,000 meters and half-marathon.
Curtis represented Team USA at three international championships while with Reebok: The 2009 IAAF World Cross Country Championships in Jordan, the 2010 IAAF World Cross Country Championships in Poland and the 2010 International Chiba Ekiden in Japan. In 2011 Curtis made his premier in the marathon in the New York City Marathon and finished 14th overall in a time of 2:16:44. In 2012 Curtis qualified for the 10,000 meters in the U. S. Olympic Trials, he finished 10th in a time of 27:58.48. Curtis was sponsored by Brooks Sports and joined the Hansons-Brooks Distance Project, he went on to win the 2013 Gasparilla Distance Classic 8k in a course record 23:30, placed 2nd in the 2013 US 15 km Championships at the Gate River Run and 4th in the 2013 US 10k championships at the Peachtree Road Race. He ran his second marathon in Fukuoka, Japan on December 1, 2013, finishing in 2:13:24, he finished the 2014 Chicago marathon in 9th place overall in a new personal best time of 2:11:20. Most Curtis finished second overall at the 2015 USA Cross Country Championship, thereby qualifying for a spot on Team USA for the 2015 IAAF World Cross Country Championship in China.
Bobby Curtis at World Athletics Profile at Villanova University Bobby Curtis on winning the 2008 NCAA Track 5000 m title