click links in text for more info


Scilla is a genus of about 50 to 80 bulb-forming perennial herbs in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae, native to woodlands, subalpine meadows, seashores throughout Europe and the Middle-East. A few species are naturalized in Australia, New Zealand and North America, their flowers are blue, but white and purple types are known. Several Scilla species are valued as ornamental garden plants. Scilla has most been classified as belonging to the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae. Prior to that it was placed in the tribe Hyacintheae of the family Liliaceae; the precise number of Scilla species in the genus depends on which proposals to split the genus are accepted. For a discussion of the relationship of Scilla to the related genus, see that page. Other proposals separate the Eurasian species into a number of smaller genera such as Othocallis Salisb. E.g. Scilla siberica would become Othocallis siberica; the common bluebell of British and European bluebell woods, still referred to by a former name, Scilla non-scripta, is now known as Hyacinthoides non-scripta.

Several African species classified in Scilla have been removed to the genus Ledebouria. The best known of these is the common houseplant still sometimes known as Scilla violacea but now properly Ledebouria socialis; as of May 2018, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families accepts 86 species: Scilla autumnalis – Autumn squill: see Prospero autumnale Scilla maritima – Sea squill: see Drimia maritima Scilla nutans – Common bluebell: see Hyacinthoides non-scripta Scilla siehei – Glory-of-the-snow: see Chionodoxa siehei Scilla peruviana is of interest for its name. When Carl Linnaeus described the species in 1753, he was given specimens imported from Spain aboard a ship named Peru, was misled into thinking the specimens had come from that country; the rules of botanical naming do not allow a scientific name to be changed because it is confusing. Many species, notably S. siberica, are grown in gardens for their attractive early spring flowers

Nenè Nhaga Bissoli

Nenè Nhaga Bissoli is a footballer who plays as a defender. Born in Guinea-Bissau, she became a naturalized citizen of Italy in 2008, she has been a member of the Italy women's national team. Bissoli's football career began at the Libertas Castagnaro team, helping them to win the Veneto Regional Youth Tournament in 1999, playing in defence. In February 2008, Bissoli was selected for the Italian Women's Soccer team to play in the forthcoming 2009 quarterfinals for the UEFA Women's Championship, playing against Hungary and Romania. In 2009 she joined the national team to play against Armenia on 25th November. After a period of non-selection, a new manager Antonio Cabrini, met with Bissoli, selected to play in 2014 for the Cyprus Cup. Bissoli played in the 2015 qualification matches for the Women's Soccer World Cup. Bissoli played for Tavagnacco from 2011-14 and has played for Chievo Verona since 2017. Nenè Bissoli – UEFA competition record Nenè Bissoli on Instagram

Banrock Station Wetland Complex

Banrock Station Wetland Complex is a wetland complex located in South Australia, recognised as being of international importance by designation under the Ramsar Convention. It was listed on 21 October 2002 as Ramsar site 1221, it lies in the Riverland region of south-eastern South Australia and is adjacent to the Murray River. It is a floodplain wetland subject to an ongoing environmental restoration program by a commercial organisation which manages the wetlands and promotes ecologically sustainable land use practices. In 2002 Banrock Station Wines received the Ramsar Wetland Conservation Award in recognition of its conservation efforts. In 1963 Peter and Mavis Jackson bought Peter’s father Bill Jackson’s property, Banrock Station, in Kingston-on-Murray; the property had many kilometres of frontage on to the River Murray, but since the installation of a downstream lock in 1923, much of its shore line had been flooded and degraded. However, higher water levels made irrigation possible and Peter and May were among the first people to plant wine grapes in the Riverland — planting chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon in the 1960s.

Banrock Station is a viticultural property owned by, producing wine for, Accolade Wines, the former Hardy Wine Company. The wetlands on the property had been permanently flooded since the early 20th century. In 1992 a program began to restore the natural hydrological regime of alternate wetting and drying cycles that the wetlands had before locks and weirs were installed on the Murray, with the first major drying out taking place in 2007; the 1,375-ha wetland comprises a lagoon with associated swamp vegetation. It supports several regionally or nationally threatened animals, including the southern bell frog, regent parrot and river snail, it provides habitat seasonally for several species of migratory waterbirds. It offers a route for fish migrating around Lock 3 on the Murray during spring floods and provides spawning and nursery habitats for them. Potential threats to the wetlands include invasion by introduced species and rising saline groundwater. "Banrock Station Wetland Complex". Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention.

2002. Retrieved 11 March 2015. "Obituaries: Dr Susan Nelle, Mavis Jackson and Sandy Gallin". The Advertiser. 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017. Banrock Station Wetland Complex webpage on protected planet Banrock Station Banrock Station floods its internationally significant wetland 04 September 2013

Battle of Peonnum

The Battle of Peonnum was fought about AD 660 between the West Saxons under Cenwalh and the Britons of what is now Somerset in England. It was a decisive victory for the Saxons, who gained control of Somerset as far west as the River Parrett; the location of the battle is uncertain. The border between the West Saxons and the Britons of Somerset had been set at the Wansdyke along the ridge of the Mendip Hills following the Battle of Deorham and the Saxon occupation of Bath in 577. In 652, Cenwalh broke through at the Battle of Bradford on Avon. Relief for the Britons came when Cenwalh was exiled to East Anglia after a squabble with Penda of Mercia; some time after his return he renewed the attack on the British tribes and in 658 his army met the Britons for a climactic battle at Peonnum. The Saxons were victorious, Cenwalh advanced west through the Polden Hills to the River Parrett, annexing eastern and central Somerset; the territory gained. The border remained at the Parrett until 681–685, when Centwine of Wessex defeated King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd and his local allies, allowing them to occupy the rest of Somerset west and north to the Bristol Channel.

West Saxon rule was extended into Devon by King Ina. The battle is said to have happened æt peonnum, which means "at the penns". Penn is the Brittonic Celtic word for "head" or "top", which here is used for "hill" or "peak". Suggested locations include Penselwood, near Wincanton, called Penna in the Domesday Book, Pinhoe or Pen Beacon in Devon, Penn. Note that the highest point of the Mendip Hills is named Pen Hill. History of Somerset Timeline of the Anglo-Saxon invasion and takeover of Britain Ashe, From Caesar to Arthur, University of Michigan, 1960. Major, Albany F. Early Wars of Wessex, Cassell Press, 1978 Yorke, Barbara Wessex in the Early Middle Ages Leicester University Press ISBN 978-0-7185-1856-1

Christopher Daykin

Christopher David Daykin CB is a British actuary and civil servant. He was the head of the United Kingdom Government Actuary’s Department from 1989 to 2007 where he worked on social security, pension fund consultancy, national pension policy, population projections, risk management and pension reform, he is the second-longest holder of the post. After graduating from Cambridge University with an honours degree in mathematics in 1970, Daykin qualified as a Fellow of the Institute of Actuaries in 1973 where he served as President between 1994 and 1996, he was a President of the International Forum of Actuarial Associations in 1996-97 and was awarded the Medallist award from the International Actuarial Association in 2014. In 1993 New Year Honours, he was awarded a Companion of the Order of the Bath. In 1995, he was presented with an Honorary Doctor of Science from City University of London. Daykin was awarded the Gold Medal of the Institute of Actuaries in 1998 and the Medal of Merit of the International Social Security Association in 2007.

Daykin has published reports on issues such as the state pension scheme and co-authored the book Practical Risk Theory for Actuaries. He has a first class mathematics degree from Pembroke College, Cambridge University and attended Merchant Taylors' School, London. Government Actuary's Department Institute of Actuaries

Manfredi Mineo

Manfredi "Al" or "Alfred" Mineo was a Brooklyn-based New York mobster, who headed a strong American Mafia crime family during the Castellammarese War. Mineo's organization would become the present-day Gambino crime family. In the early part of the 20th century, New York had five Sicilian crime families. With the imprisonment of powerful Sicilian Mafia boss Giuseppe Morello in 1910, Salvatore D'Aquila, one of Morello's chief captains emerged as the new chief Mafia power in New York City in East Harlem and Little Italy, but he led a faction in Brooklyn, headed locally by Mineo. D'Aquila had assumed the title from Boss of Bosses. D'Aquila's family, with Mineo's Brooklyn faction included, reigned supreme through the 1910s. However, upon the advent of prohibition other Mafia crime families and non-mafia operations began to gain power and influence and cemented their positions around the city. One of these crime families was the former Morello crime family, taken over by Joseph "Joe the Boss" Masseria around 1920.

Former boss Giuseppe Morello was released from prison the same time and aligned himself with Joe Masseria against boss Toto D'Aquila and his underbosses, including Mineo. Manfredi Mineo would continue his rise within the New York Mafia and become D'Aquila's second in command or underboss of all his operations while still leading his own family in Brooklyn as a D'Aquila faction; as rivalries and animosity grew between the D'Aquila and Masseria families, Mineo would find himself in a precarious position. D'Aquila had sentenced Morello to death upon his release from prison, along with his ally Umberto Valenti, but through the intervention of Pittsburgh Mafia leader, Nicola Gentile, the death sentence on Morello and Valenti was revoked. With Valenti now in his debt, D'Aquila used this opportunity to recruit the feared Mafia leader in order to oppose the new Masseria-Morello alliance. Al Mineo faced the chance of losing power and influence within the D'Aquila crime family to Valenti, but in 1922 Valenti was murdered by Masseria-Morello forces.

By the mid-1920s Mineo and his top lieutenant Steve Ferrigno began to assess their position within the D'Aquila organization, understood at this time that the new power in New York was Joe Masseria, so Mineo secretly began to align himself with Masseria. On October 10, 1928, while standing next to his car, D'Aquila was murdered by gunmen. Mineo, who had aligned himself with boss Joe Masseria, more than played a direct role in planning the murder of his boss. After declaring his allegiance to Masseria and showing his distorted loyalty by betraying his former boss, Mineo's place atop the D'Aquila crime family leadership was cemented, he had secured his Brooklyn interests and would now command one of the larger Manhattan-based Mafia groups in New York. With Ferrigno as his second in command based in the Bronx, the Mineo crime family would control a number of rackets: bootlegging, gambling and extortion. Strong rivalries continued between various New York Mafia crime families and factions, the most heated rivalry being the one between Mineo's Manhattan-based allies in the Masseria crime family and those in the Brooklyn-based Castellammarese clan, a group of mafiosi from the Sicilian seaside town of Castellammare del Golfo, who rose to prominence during Prohibition and would become independent and oppose the dominance of boss Joe Masseria and his supporters such as Mineo.

The rivalries and animosities between the two groups would come to a head and a war within the Italian underworld would erupt and drag every Mafia crime family and faction in New York into the conflict. What became known as the Castellammarese War began in early 1930 and dragged on for the better part of two years, as New York Mafia leaders Joe Masseria and Salvatore Maranzano fought for dominance over the New York rackets. Mineo felt secure being aligned with Joe Masseria, who led the most powerful New York Mafia crime family and was recognized as the most influential crime boss in the city; the Masseria-Mineo alliance gained the upper hand in the war as their forces began to move on Castellammarese-controlled territories and rackets members, eliminating rivals at every opportunity, but on August 15, 1930, the tide began to change when Masseria's top advisor and war chief, Giuseppe Morello, was killed. Mineo was named Masseria's new war chief and strategist and surmised that the Castellammarese were gaining more support and more ground as the war dragged on.

Mineo felt the only solution was to find and kill Maranzano before he could kill Masseria, this being the only sensible solution to ending the war and re-establishing dominance over the New York Mafia. On November 5, 1930, Mineo and his lieutenant Steve Ferrigno were murdered in the courtyard of an apartment building on Pelham Parkway in the Bronx. Earlier in the week, several Maranzano gunmen had rented a first floor apartment in the building, their actual target was Masseria, observed entering the building earlier in the week. However, when the gunmen saw Mineo and Ferrigno in the garden, they seized the opportunity and shot both of them from the apartment window. After Mineo's death, Francesco "Frank" Scalice became crime family boss, he switched allegiance from Masseria to Maranzano, emerging as the winner in the gang war. It has been theorized that Scalise had arranged a secret deal with Maranzano to kill Mineo and become the organization boss, but Maranzano forces were able to eliminate Mineo without Scalise's help.

On April 15, 1931, Joe Masseria was shot and killed in a Coney Island rest