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The sclera known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing collagen and some elastic fiber. In humans, the whole sclera is white, contrasting with the coloured iris, but in other mammals the visible part of the sclera matches the colour of the iris, so the white part does not show. In the development of the embryo, the sclera is derived from the neural crest. In children, it is thinner and shows some of the underlying pigment, appearing blue. In the elderly, fatty deposits on the sclera can make it appear yellow. Many people with dark skin have darkened sclerae, the result of melanin pigmentation; the human eye is rare for having a pale sclera. This makes it easier for one individual to identify where another individual is looking, the cooperative eye hypothesis suggests this has evolved as a method of nonverbal communication; the sclera forms the posterior five-sixths of the connective tissue coat of the globe. It is continuous with the dura mater and the cornea, maintains the shape of the globe, offering resistance to internal and external forces, provides an attachment for the extraocular muscle insertions.

The sclera is perforated by many nerves and vessels passing through the posterior scleral foramen, the hole, formed by the optic nerve. At the optic disc the outer two-thirds of the sclera continues with the dura mater via the dural sheath of the optic nerve; the inner third joins with some choroidal tissue to form a plate across the optic nerve with perforations through which the optic fibers pass. The thickness of the sclera varies from 1mm at the posterior pole to 0.3 mm just behind the rectus muscle insertions. The sclera's blood vessels are on the surface. Along with the vessels of the conjunctiva, those in the episclera render the inflamed eye bright red. In many vertebrates, the sclera is reinforced with plates of cartilage or bone, together forming a circular structure called the sclerotic ring. In primitive fish, this ring consists of four plates, but the number is lower in many living ray-finned fishes, much higher in lobe-finned fishes, various reptiles, birds; the ring has disappeared in many groups, including living amphibians, some reptiles and fish, all mammals.

The eyes of all non-human primates are dark with small visible sclera. The collagen of the sclera is continuous with the cornea. From outer to innermost, the four layers of the sclera are: episclera stroma lamina fusca endotheliumThe sclera is opaque due to the irregularity of the Type I collagen fibers, as opposed to the near-uniform thickness and parallel arrangement of the corneal collagen. Moreover, the cornea bears more mucopolysaccharide to embed the fibrils; the cornea, unlike the sclera, has five layers. The middle, thickest layer is called the stroma; the sclera, like the cornea, contains a basal endothelium, above which there is the lamina fusca, containing a high count of pigment cells. Sometimes small gray-blue spots can appear on the sclera, a harmless condition called scleral melanocytosis. Human eyes are somewhat distinctive in the animal kingdom in that the sclera is plainly visible whenever the eye is open; this is not just due to the white colour of the human sclera, which many other species share, but to the fact that the human iris is small and comprises a smaller portion of the exposed eye surface compared to other animals.

It is theorized that this adaptation evolved because of our social nature as the eye became a useful communication tool in addition to a sensory organ. It is believed that the conspicuous sclera of the human eye makes it easier for one individual to identify where another individual is looking, increasing the efficacy of this particular form of nonverbal communication. Animal researchers have found that, in the course of their domestication, dogs have developed the ability to pick up visual cues from the eyes of humans. Dogs do not seem to use this form of communication with one another and only look for visual information from the eyes of humans; the bony area that makes up the human eye socket provides exceptional protection to the sclera. However, if the sclera is ruptured by a blunt force or is penetrated by a sharp object, the recovery of full former vision is rare. If pressure is applied the eye is very elastic. However, most ruptures involve objects moving at some velocity; the cushion of orbital fat protects the sclera from head-on blunt forces, but damage from oblique forces striking the eye from the side is not prevented by this cushion.

Hemorrhaging and a dramatic drop in intraocular pressure are common, along with a reduction in visual perception to only broad hand movements and the presence or absence of light. However, low-velocity injury which does not puncture and penetrate the sclera requires only superficial treatment and the removal of the object. Sufficiently small objects which become embedded and which are subsequently left untreated may become surrounded by a benign cyst, causing no other damage or discomfort; the sclera is damaged by brief exposure to heat: the eyelids provide exceptional protection, the fact that the sclera is covered in layers of moist tissue means that these tissues are able to cause much of the offending heat to become dissipated as steam before the sclera itself is damaged. Low-temperature molten metals when splashed against an open eye have been shown to cause little damage to the sclera while creating detai

Sand martin

The sand martin or European sand martin, bank swallow in the Americas, collared sand martin in the Indian Subcontinent, is a migratory passerine bird in the swallow family. It has a wide range in summer, embracing the whole of Europe and the Mediterranean countries, part of northern Asia and North America, it winters in eastern and southern Africa, South America, the Indian Subcontinent. This species was first described by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758, named Hirundo riparia; the specific name means "of the riverbank". The pale martin of northern India and southeastern China is now split as a separate species Riparia diluta, it has a less distinct breast band. It winters in southern India; the 12 cm long sand martin is brown above, white below with a narrow brown band on the breast. The young have rufous tips to the margins to the secondaries, its brown back, white throat, small size and quick jerky flight separate it at once from similar swallows, such as the common house martin, the American cliff swallow or other species of Riparia.

Only the banded martin of sub-Saharan Africa is similar, but the sand martin only occurs there in winter. The sand martin's twittering song is continuous when the birds are on the wing and becomes a conversational undertone after they have settled in the roost; the harsh alarm is heard when a passing falcon, crow or other suspected predator requires combined action to drive it away. Linnaeus remarked on this species' breeding habits: Habitat in Europae collibus arenosis abruptis, foramine serpentino—"it lives in Europe, in winding holes in sheer sandy hills", it has been observed. Sand martins are found near larger bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes or the ocean, throughout the year; the sand martin appears on its breeding grounds as the first of its family, starting towards the end of March, just in advance of the barn swallow. In northern Ohio, they arrive in numbers by mid-April, about 10 days earlier than they did 100 years ago. At first, they flit over the larger bodies of water alone, in search of early flies.

Parties accompany other swallow species, but for a time, varying according to weather, the birds remain at these large waters and do not visit their nesting haunts. The sand martin departs early, at any rate from its more northerly haunts. In August, the gatherings at the nightly roost increase enormously, though the advent and departure of passage birds causes great irregularity in numbers, they are gone from their breeding range by the end of September. The food consists of small insects gnats and other flies whose early stages are aquatic; the sand martin is sociable in its nesting habits. The nests are at the end of tunnels of from a few inches to three or four feet in length, bored in sand or gravel; the actual nest is a litter of straw and feathers in a chamber at the end of the burrow. Four or five white eggs are laid about mid-late May, a second brood is usual in all but the most northernly breeding sites; this is not a rare bird, it is classified as a species of Least Concern by the IUCN.

It does have some local protections, as certain populations have declined or face threats from habitat loss and fragmentation. They are considered threatened in California, where populations exist in the Sacramento Valley and at two coastal sites, Año Nuevo State Park and Fort Funston. Heneberg, P.. "Soil particle composition affects the physical characteristics of Sand Martin Riparia riparia holes". Ibis. 145: 392–399. Doi:10.1046/j.1474-919X.2003.00176.x. Heneberg, P.. "Size of sand grains as a significant factor affecting the nesting of bank swallows. Soil particle composition affects the physical characteristics of Sand Martin Riparia riparia holes". Biologia. 56: 205–210. Archived from the original on 2007-08-14. Retrieved 2005-12-29. Heneberg, Petr. "Overview of sand martin localities in the Czech Republic". Linzer Biologische Beiträge. 38: 1413–1447. Sand Martin - Species text in The Atlas of Southern African Birds Ageing and sexing by Javier Blasco-Zumeta & Gerd-Michael Heinze Feathers of Sand martin Bank swallow Species Account – Cornell Lab of Ornithology Bank Swallow at Environment Canada BirdLife species factsheet for Riparia riparia Interactive range map of Riparia riparia at IUCN Red List maps Audio recordings of Sand martin on Xeno-canto

Niafunk├ę (album)

Niafunké is an album by Ali Farka Touré, released in 1999. The title reflects the name of the village in Mali, it is a traditional album concerning Mali. Within the CD pamphlet Touré discusses his motivation for creating the album and how the music might relate to its audience; this record is more authentic. It was recorded in the place - deep Mali. We were in the middle of the landscape which inspired the music and that in turn inspired myself and the musicians. My music is about where I come from and our way of life and it is full of important messages for Africans. In the West this music is just entertainment and I don't expect people to understand, but I hope some might take the time to learn. Niafunké marks the first of a series of albums he recorded towards the end of his career in his home town; the album was released around the same time. Sampling the Sounds of Mali Without Leaving Home Short album description and sample of Tulumba

Jamie Murray (footballer)

James Gerald Murray is a Scottish retired professional football left back who played in the Football League for Cambridge United and Sunderland. He was described by Cambridge News as "one of the greatest left backs to have featured" for Cambridge United. A full back, Murray joined Fourth Division club Cambridge United from non-league club Rivet Sports in September 1976, he became an important player in the club's rise from the Fourth to the Second Division and made 147 consecutive appearances between 1980 and his departure in 1984. As of November 2014, Murray is 11th on Cambridge United's record-appearances list. In March 1984, Murray joined First Division club Sunderland on loan with a view to a permanent move, he made just one appearance, in a 1–1 draw with Tottenham Hotspur on 7 April, before returning to the Abbey Stadium. Murray joined Third Division club Brentford for a £30,000 fee in July 1984 He was an ever-present during the 1984–85 season and missed just one match in 1985–86, he continued his virtual ever-present status through the 1986–87 season, before departing Griffin Park in September 1987.

Murray scored four goals in just over three years with Brentford. In September 1987, Murray returned to Cambridge United for a £5,000 fee. Now playing in the Fourth Division, he left at the end of the 1987 -- 88 season. Murray closed out his career with a spell at Eastern Counties League club Soham Town Rangers. Murray served as assistant to Steve Fallon at Histon during the 2000s. Murray's son Antonio is semi-professional footballer

Eleanor Caulkins

Eleanor Caulkins is a patron of the arts known as the First Lady of Opera in Denver, Colorado. Caulkins is the namesake of the Ellie Caulkins Opera House in the Denver Performing Arts Complex, the second largest performing arts center in the world. In 2011, Opera America awarded her their National Opera Trustee Award. Caulkins graduated from the Beard School in Orange, New Jersey in 1954. After marrying her husband, George Caulkins, she moved to Colorado. Caulkins earned her bachelor's degree at the University of Colorado Denver in 1977 after graduating Phi Beta Kappa. During her studies, she took a course titled Opera as Literature taught by English professor Dick Dillon, which sparked her long-term interest in opera. In 2010, the university awarded her their Alumni Recognition Award; the next year, the University of Colorado awarded her an honorary doctorate of humane letters. In 1980, Caulkins and Dillon co-founded Friends of Opera as a volunteer group. Friends of Opera worked to bring more performances of opera to the Denver metropolitan area.

Two years after its founding, Friends of Opera's efforts merged into Opera Colorado, an opera company that facilitates performances and promotes education and outreach. Caulkins served as the chair of Opera Colorado's Board of Directors over multiple terms; the organization named her as an honorary lifetime chair. In 2006, Denver Mayor John Hickenlooper awarded Caulkins a Culture Legacy Award for her service to the city. Caulkins has served on the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Opera Association in New York City; the association runs the Metropolitan Opera House at the Lincoln Center for Performing Arts. She has served as the president of Metropolitan Opera's National Council, chaired Metropolitan Opera's National Patron Program; the Council operates the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions, an annual competition in singing


The Ackerstraße is a street in Berlin which runs northwest from near the Liesenstraße – Scheringstraße traffic circle in Gesundbrunnen to Invalidenstraße, where it turns south, terminating at the Linienstraße in Mitte. On 22 September 1751, Lieutenant General Hans Christoph Friedrich Graf von Hacke, commandant of the city of Berlin, received orders from King Frederick II of Prussia to build houses outside the city Customs Wall between the Hamburg Gate and the Rosenthal Gate. 30 houses were to be built, to house 60 families selected from applicants. The objective was to have the craftsmen stay year-round in Berlin rather than leaving each winter; the new residents were from Vogtland. The streets were designated numerically; the district was divided into identical land parcels with 10.5 metres frontages and to save money and time, the original houses were standardised. Gardens were laid out between them, but the population increase led to extension of the buildings as the area became more urban.

The area changed name to Rosenthaler Vorstadt, the local residents petitioned the police for street names to be assigned. On 18 February 1801 the "third row" was renamed Ackerstraße because the development was in the farming area outside the city, the Feldmark. On 6 April 1833, the continuation of the same street, from Invalidenstraße to Liesenstraße, was named Neue Ackerstraße; the southern extension to Koppenplatz was added in 1877. The residents there preferred the name Virchowstraße; the St. Elisabeth Cemetery near the midpoint of the street was dedicated in 1844 and is still in operation. In the 1870s and 1880s, the character of the street was changed with the building of tenements; the Ackerhöfe at numbers 14–15, unusual in occupying two of the original land parcels, are a restored complex of tenements built in four phases between 1867 and 1911, the last phase representing an attempt at housing reform. The most notorious tenement in Berlin, Meyers Hof, was at number 132. One of the original covered markets of Berlin, now known as the Ackerhalle, was built on the corner with Invalidenstraße in 1886–88 and is still in use.

From 1961 to 1989, the Berlin Wall divided the city. It ran along Bernauer Straße, required closing a section of Ackerstraße at the corner with that street, which fell within the "death strip". In commemoration of the Wall and those who died attempting to cross it, a portion of the main and inner walls and the "death strip" are preserved on Bernauer Straße at the corner of Ackerstraße as part of the Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer; the novel Das Mädchen aus der Ackerstraße is set in the area in the 19th century, when it was an impoverished neighbourhood. It was filmed in 1919–20 in three parts directed by Reinhold Schünzel and Werner Funck with cinematography by Kurt Kurant; the protagonists of Klaus Kordon's Trilogie der Wendepunkte, a trilogy of novels for teenagers in which a family lives through the end of both World Wars, Die roten Matrosen, Mit dem Rücken zur Wand, Der erste Frühling, live in the Ackerstraße. "Ackerstraße — dazumal in der Sahara". In: Laurenz Demps. Historisches Berlin-Lexikon: 75 Folgen aus der seit 1982 veröffentlichten Serie der "BZ am Abend".

Berlin: Berliner Verlag, 1987. ISBN 9783860200063 Harald Bodenschatz. Platz frei für das neue Berlin!: Geschichte der Stadterneuerung in der "grössten Mietskasernenstadt der Welt" seit 1871. Studien zur neueren Planungsgeschichte 1. Berlin: Transit, 1987. ISBN 978-3-88747-038-8 Sybille Schulze. Erinnerungen an die Ackerstraße. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2011. ISBN 978-3-8448-0663-2 Gerrit Wegener. Die Versöhnungskapelle in Berlin-Mitte. On demand. Munich: GRIN, 2007. ISBN 9783638845946 Sensing the Street, 2007–08 exhibition by the Berlin University of the Arts on Ackerstraße, Adalbertstraße and Karl-Marx-Straße