John Knox was a Scottish minister and writer, a leader of the country's Reformation. He was the founder of the Presbyterian Church of Scotland. Born in Giffordgate, Knox is believed to have been educated at the University of St Andrews and worked as a notary-priest. Influenced by early church reformers such as George Wishart, he joined the movement to reform the Scottish church, he was caught up in the ecclesiastical and political events that involved the murder of Cardinal David Beaton in 1546 and the intervention of the regent Mary of Guise. He was taken prisoner by French forces the following year and exiled to England on his release in 1549. While in exile, Knox was licensed to work in the Church of England, where he rose in the ranks to serve King Edward VI of England as a royal chaplain, he exerted a reforming influence on the text of the Book of Common Prayer. In England, he married his first wife, Margery Bowes; when Mary I ascended the throne of England and re-established Roman Catholicism, Knox was forced to resign his position and leave the country.
Knox moved to Geneva and to Frankfurt. In Geneva, he met John Calvin, from whom he gained experience and knowledge of Reformed theology and Presbyterian polity, he created a new order of service, adopted by the reformed church in Scotland. He left Geneva to head the English refugee church in Frankfurt but he was forced to leave over differences concerning the liturgy, thus ending his association with the Church of England. On his return to Scotland, Knox led the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, in partnership with the Scottish Protestant nobility; the movement may be seen as a revolution, since it led to the ousting of Mary of Guise, who governed the country in the name of her young daughter Mary, Queen of Scots. Knox helped write the new confession of faith and the ecclesiastical order for the newly created reformed church, the Kirk, he continued to serve as the religious leader of the Protestants throughout Mary's reign. In several interviews with the Queen, Knox admonished her for supporting Catholic practices.
When she was imprisoned for her alleged role in the murder of her husband Lord Darnley and King James VI was enthroned in her stead, Knox called for her execution. He continued to preach until his final days. John Knox was born sometime between 1505 and 1515 in or near Haddington, the county town of East Lothian, his father, William Knox, was a merchant. All, known of his mother is that her maiden name was Sinclair and that she died when John Knox was a child, their eldest son, carried on his father's business, which helped in Knox's international communications. Knox was educated at the grammar school in Haddington. In this time, the priesthood was the only path for those whose inclinations were academic rather than mercantile or agricultural, he proceeded to further studies at the University of St Andrews or at the University of Glasgow. He studied under one of the greatest scholars of the time. Knox was ordained a catholic priest in Edinburgh on Easter Eve of 1536 by William Chisholm, Bishop of Dunblane.
Knox first appears in public records as a priest and a notary in 1540. He was still serving in these capacities as late as 1543 when he described himself as a "minister of the sacred altar in the diocese of St. Andrews, notary by apostolic authority" in a notarial deed dated 27 March. Rather than taking up parochial duties in a parish, he became tutor to two sons of Hugh Douglas of Longniddry, he taught the son of John Cockburn of Ormiston. Both of these lairds had embraced the new religious ideas of the Reformation. Knox did not record when or how he was converted to the Protestant faith, but the key formative influences on Knox were Patrick Hamilton and George Wishart. Wishart was a reformer, he first moved to England. He was forced to make a public recantation and was burned in effigy at the Church of St Nicholas as a sign of his abjuration, he took refuge in Germany and Switzerland. While on the Continent, he translated the First Helvetic Confession into English, he returned to Scotland in 1544.
In December 1543, James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault, the appointed regent for the infant Mary, Queen of Scots, had decided with the Queen Mother, Mary of Guise, Cardinal David Beaton to persecute the Protestant sect that had taken root in Scotland. Wishart travelled throughout Scotland preaching in favour of the reformation and when he arrived in East Lothian, Knox became one of his closest associates. Knox acted as his bodyguard. In December 1545, Wishart was seized on Beaton's orders by the Earl of Bothwell and taken to the Castle of St Andrews. Knox was present on the night of Wishart's arrest and was prepared to follow him into captivity, but Wishart persuaded him against this course saying, "Nay, return to your bairns and God bless you. One is sufficient for a sacrifice." Wishart was subsequently prosecuted by Beaton's Public Accuser of Archdeacon John Lauder. On 1 March 1546, he was burnt at the stake in the presence of Beaton. Knox had avoided being arrested by Lord Bothwell through Wishart's advice to return to tutoring.
He took shelter with Douglas in Longniddry. Several months he was still in charge of the pupils, the sons of Douglas and Cockburn, who wearied of moving from place to place while being pursued, he toyed with the idea of taking his pupils with him. While Knox remained a fugitive, Beaton was murdered on 29 May 1546, within his residence, the Castle of St Andrews
Abbot of Scone
The Abbot of Scone, before 1163 x 4, Prior of Scone, by the beginning of the 16th century, the Commendator of Scone, was the head of the community of Augustinian canons of Scone Abbey and their lands. The priory was established by King Alaxandair mac Maíl Choluim sometime between 1114 and 1120, was elevated to the status of an abbey in 1163 or 1164; the abbey was turned into a secular lordship for William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie in 1581, but was forfeited when the earl was executed in 1584, given to William Foularton in the same year, but restored to the earl's son, James Ruthven, 2nd Earl of Gowrie. An independent secular lordship was established for David Murray in 1608. Robert, 1114 x 1120-1127 Nicholas, 1127-1140 Dionysius, 1140 - 1142 x 1147 Thomas, 1150-1154 Isaac, 1154-1162 Robert, 1162 Robert, 1163x1164-1186 Robert, 1186-1198 Reimbald, 1198-1206 William, 1206 x 1209-1225 Robert, 1227 Philip, 1230-1242 Robert, 1240-1270 Nicholas, 1270-1273 x William, 1273 x 1284 Hugh, x 1284-1287 Thomas de Balmerino, 1291-1312 Henry Man, 1303-1320 Simon, 1325-1341 Adam de Crail, 1343-1344 William, 1354-1370 x 1391 Alexander, 1370 x 1391-1412 x 1417 Alexander de Balbirnie, 1412 x 1417-x1418 Adam de Crannach, 1418-1432 John de Inverkeithing, 1432 William de Skurry, 1435-1439 James Kennedy, 1439-1447 George Gardiner, 1445-1447 Thomas de Camera, 1447-1458 John Crambe, 1465-1491 David Lermonth, 1492-1496 Henry Abercrombie, 1492 James Abercrombie, 1492-1514 Alexander Stewart de Pitcairne, 1518-1537 Patrick Hepburn, 1538-1571 William Lord Ruthven, 1571 John Ruthven, 1580 William Ruthven, 1st Earl of Gowrie, 1581-1584 William Foularton, 1584 James Ruthven, 2nd Earl of Gowrie, 1587-1588 John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie, 1592-1600 David Murray, 1608 Cowan, Ian B.
& Easson, David E. Medieval Religious Houses: Scotland With an Appendix on the Houses in the Isle of Man, Second Edition, pp. 97–8 Watt, D. E. R. & Shead, N. F; the Heads of Religious Houses in Scotland from the 12th to the 16th Centuries, The Scottish Records Society, New Series, Volume 24, pp. 198–202 Viscount Stormont Stone of Scone
Dirleton Castle is a medieval fortress in the village of Dirleton, East Lothian, Scotland. It lies around 2 miles west of North Berwick, around 19 miles east of Edinburgh; the oldest parts of the castle date to the 13th century, it was abandoned by the end of the 17th century. Begun in around 1240 by John De Vaux, the castle was damaged during the Wars of Scottish Independence, when it was twice taken by the English. In the 14th century, Dirleton was repaired by the Haliburton family, it was acquired by the Ruthvens in 1505; the Ruthvens were involved in several plots against Mary, Queen of Scots, King James VI, forfeited the castle in 1600. Dirleton ceased to be a residence, although Oliver Cromwell was forced to besiege the castle to flush out a band of "mosstroopers", during the Third English Civil War in 1650; the damaged castle was acquired by John Nisbet, Lord Dirleton, who decided to build a new country house on the nearby Archerfield Estate. The Nisbet family of Dirleton continued to maintain the castle's gardens, before handing Dirleton into state care in 1923.
The ruins and gardens are now maintained by Historic Scotland. Dirleton Castle stands on a rocky outcrop, at the heart of the rich agricultural lands of the barony of Dirleton, guards the coastal approach to Edinburgh from England, via the port of North Berwick; the ruins comprise a 13th-century keep, a 16th-century house which the Ruthvens built adjacent. Only the basement levels survive of the 14th- and 15th-century additions built by the Haliburtons, although these comprised a large hall and tower house along the east range. Other buildings within the courtyard have been demolished. Surrounding the castle are gardens, which may have been first laid out in the 16th century, although the present planting is of the 20th century; the garden walls enclose pigeon house. The Norman family of de Vaux originated in Rouen, northern France, settled in England following the Norman Conquest of 1066. Two de Vaux brothers, or cousins, were among a number of Anglo-Norman knights invited to Scotland, granted land, by King David I of Scotland in the 12th century.
Hubert de Vaux was given the barony of Gilsland in Cumbria, at that time part of Scotland, while John de Vaux was granted the barony of Dirleton. John built a castle at Eldbotle to the north-west of modern Dirleton, another, named Tarbet Castle, on the island of Fidra, although neither survives. In 1220, Fidra was gifted to the monks of Dryburgh Abbey by William de Vaux. William's son, another John, had been held hostage in England as surety for the good conduct of King William the Lion in 1213, succeeded to the barony in the 1220s, he began the construction of a replacement for Tarbet at Dirleton, recorded as a "castellum" in 1225, although this may refer to an earlier timber structure. In 1239, de Vaux was appointed seneschal, or steward, to Marie de Coucy, on her marriage to King Alexander II. Marie de Coucy was the daughter of Enguerrand III, Lord of Coucy, builder of the Château de Coucy, in Picardy, which served as a model for Dirleton; the 13th-century stone castle, of which only the donjon, or keep, represented a show of de Vaux's status, would have required peaceful times to permit a prolonged construction project.
Peaceful times ended with the outbreak of the Wars of Scottish Independence. Dirleton, which guarded the route between Edinburgh and the English border, changed hands several times through the invasions of the English under King Edward I. During the campaign of summer 1298, the castle was besieged by English forces under Antony Bek, the Bishop of Durham. Dirleton withstood the assault for several months, until the English victory at Falkirk allowed them to bring up large siege engines, after which the castle was soon reduced. Dirleton was garrisoned by the English, but must have been retaken by the Scots before 1306, when the English commander Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke recaptured Dirleton once more, it was retaken by the Scots some time before 1314, was slighted, or deliberately damaged, to prevent its reuse by the English. The castle and lands of Dirleton passed to the Berwickshire family of Haliburton when John Haliburton married the heiress of the de Vaux family, shortly before 1350.
The castle had been repaired by 1363, when it was seized by William Douglas, 1st Earl of Douglas, during his brief rebellion against King David II, although it was returned to the Haliburtons. In the 1420s, Sir Walter Haliburton acted as a hostage in exchange for the release of King James I, held captive by the English since 1406, he was rewarded in 1439 by being appointed Treasurer of Scotland. Either Walter, or his eldest son John, was ennobled as a Lord of Parliament in the 1440s, with the title Lord Dirletoun; the Haliburtons carried out extensive works at Dirleton, heightening the original towers, constructing a new gatehouse to the south-east. A large hall and tower house were added to the castle in the 15th century. King James IV visited Dirleton in 1505, gave money to the masons engaged on works in the north-east part of the castle; that year, the last Haliburton of Dirleton and his estates were divided among his three daughters, Janet and Mariotta. The eldest daughter, married William Ruthven, 2nd Lord Ruthven in 1515, the castle and lordship of Dirleton passed to the Ruthven family.
The son of William and Janet, Patrick, 3rd Lord Ruthven, was one of the leaders of the group who murdered David Riccio, private secretary to Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1566. Patr
Viscount of Stormont
Viscount of Stormont is a title in the Peerage of Scotland. It was created in 1621 by James VI for his friend and helper Sir David Murray who had saved him from the attack of Earl of Gowrie in 1600. Murray had been created Lord Scone in the Peerage of Scotland in 1605; the peerages were created with remainder to 1) Sir Mungo Murray, fourth son of John Murray, 1st Earl of Tullibardine, failing which to 2) John Murray, created Earl of Annandale in 1625, failing which to 3) Sir Andrew Murray, created Lord Balvaird in 1641. Lord Stormont died childless and was succeeded according to the special remainder by the aforementioned Mungo Murray, the second Viscount, he died without male issue and was succeeded according to the special remainder by James Murray, 2nd Earl of Annandale, who now became the third Viscount Stormont. He was the son of 1st Earl of Annandale, he was childless and on his death in 1658 the earldom became extinct. He was succeeded in the lordship of Scone and the viscountcy of Stormont according to the special remainder by David Murray, 2nd Lord Balvaird, who became the fourth Viscount Stormont.
He was the son of the aforementioned Andrew 1st Lord Balvaird. On his death the titles passed to the fifth Viscount, his second son, James Murray was Member of Parliament for Dumfriesshire from 1711 to 1713, supported the Jacobite rising of 1715. In 1721 he was created Earl of Dunbar, Viscount of Drumcairn and Lord Halldykes in the Jacobite peerage, his third son was the prominent lawyer and judge William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield. In 1793 Lord Stormont's grandson, the seventh Viscount, succeeded his uncle as second Earl of Mansfield according to a special remainder in the letters patent. For further history of the titles, see the Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield. David Murray, 1st Viscount of Stormont Mungo Murray, 2nd Viscount of Stormont James Murray, 2nd Earl of Annandale, 3rd Viscount of Stormont David Murray, 4th Viscount of Stormont David Murray, 5th Viscount of Stormont David Murray, 6th Viscount of Stormont David Murray, 7th Viscount of Stormont For further succession see the Earl of Mansfield and Mansfield Kidd, Charles & Williamson, David.
Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages DNB article on the first Viscount
Saint Fergus was a bishop who worked in Scotland as a missionary. Ten saints of this name are mentioned in the martyrology of Donegal. No one knows for certain where, he was a contemporary of St. Donevaldus; the name is of Pictish origin and he is recorded as Fergus, a Pictish bishop, so it is considered he was from the north east of what is now called Scotland. In the Aberdeen Breviary he is called Fergustian and "he occupied himself in converting the barbarous people." He is thought to have trained in Ireland or the south of Scotland both. Known in the Irish martyrologies as St. Fergus Cruithneach, or the Pict, the Breviary of Aberdeen states that he had been a bishop for many years in Ireland when he went on a mission to Alba with some chosen priests and other clerics, he settled first near Strageath, in Upper Strathearn, in Upper Perth, erected three churches in that district. The churches of Strageath and Dolpatrick are found there dedicated to St. Patrick, he established there the churches of Wick and Halkirk.
The church Fergus built at Glamis would have been in the Celtic "mud and wattle" style, not far from the present kirk. He may have been the Fergustus Pictus who went to Rome in 721, but such a contention relies on the similarity of a common name, he died about 730 and was buried at Glamis, where the restored St Fergus' Well can be visited. The village church at Eassie is dedicated to Saint Fergus. During the time of James IV, the Abbot of Scone removed his head to Scone church and build an expensive shrine for it. Aberdeen was able to obtain an arm of the saint. Saint Fergus is the patron saint of Wick; the Martyrology of Tallaght mentions his festival on 8 September, but in Scotland it was on 18 November. Eassie Stone
Wars of Scottish Independence
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328; the Second War began with the English-supported invasion by Edward Balliol and the'Disinherited' in 1332, ended in 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick. The wars were part of a great crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most defining times in its history. At the end of both wars, Scotland retained its status as an independent state; the wars were important for other reasons, such as the emergence of the longbow as a key weapon in medieval warfare. King Alexander III of Scotland died in 1286, leaving his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, Maid of Norway, as his heir. In 1290, the Guardians of Scotland signed the Treaty of Birgham agreeing to the marriage of the Maid of Norway and Edward of Caernarvon, the son of Edward I.
This marriage would not create a union between Scotland and England because the Scots insisted that the Treaty declare that Scotland was separate and divided from England and that its rights, laws and customs were wholly and inviolably preserved for all time. However, travelling to her new kingdom, died shortly after landing on the Orkney Islands around 26 September 1290. With her death, there were 13 rivals for succession; the two leading competitors for the Scottish crown were Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale and John Balliol, Lord of Galloway. Fearing civil war between the Bruce and Balliol families and supporters, the Guardians of Scotland wrote to Edward I of England, asking him to come north and arbitrate between the claimants in order to avoid civil war. Edward agreed to meet the guardians at Norham in 1291. Before the process got underway Edward insisted; when they refused, he gave the claimants three weeks to agree to his terms, knowing that by his armies would have arrived and the Scots would have no choice.
Edward's ploy worked, the claimants to the crown were forced to acknowledge Edward as their Lord Paramount and accept his arbitration. Their decision was influenced in part by the fact that most of the claimants had large estates in England and, would have lost them if they had defied the English king. However, many involved were churchmen such as Bishop Wishart for whom such mitigation cannot be claimed. On 11 June, acting as the Lord Paramount of Scotland, Edward I ordered that every Scottish royal castle be placed temporarily under his control and every Scottish official resign his office and be re-appointed by him. Two days in Upsettlington, the Guardians of the Realm and the leading Scottish nobles gathered to swear allegiance to King Edward I as Lord Paramount. All Scots were required to pay homage to Edward I, either in person or at one of the designated centres by 27 July 1291. There were thirteen meetings from May to August 1291 at Berwick, where the claimants to the crown pleaded their cases before Edward, in what came to be known as the "Great Cause".
The claims of most of the competitors were rejected, leaving Balliol, Floris V, Count of Holland and John de Hastings of Abergavenny, 2nd Baron Hastings, as the only men who could prove direct descent from David I. On 3 August, Edward asked Balliol and Bruce to choose 40 arbiters each, while he chose 24, to decide the case. On 12 August, he signed a writ that required the collection of all documents that might concern the competitors' rights or his own title to the superiority of Scotland, accordingly executed. Balliol was named king by a majority on 17 November 1292 and on 30 November he was crowned King of Scots at Scone Abbey. On 26 December, at Newcastle upon Tyne, King John swore homage to Edward I for the Kingdom of Scotland. Edward soon made. Balliol, undermined by members of the Bruce faction, struggled to resist, the Scots resented Edward's demands. In 1294, Edward summoned John Balliol to appear before him, ordered that he had until 1 September 1294 to provide Scottish troops and funds for his invasion of France.
On his return to Scotland, John held a meeting with his council and after a few days of heated debate, plans were made to defy the orders of Edward I. A few weeks a Scottish parliament was hastily convened and 12 members of a war council were selected to advise King John. Emissaries were dispatched to inform King Philip IV of France of the intentions of the English, they negotiated a treaty by which the Scots would invade England if the English invaded France, in return the French would support the Scots. The treaty would be sealed by Philip's niece Joan. Another treaty with King Eric II of Norway was hammered out, in which for the sum of 50,000 groats he would supply 100 ships for four months of the year, so long as hostilities between France and England continued. Although Norway never acted, the Franco-Scottish alliance known as the Auld Alliance, was renewed until 1560, it was not until 1295. In early October, he began to strengthen his northern defences against a possible invasion, it was at this point that Robert Bruce, 6th Lord of Annandale was appointed by Edward as the governor of Carlisle Castle.
Edward ordered John Balliol to relinquish control of the castles and burghs of Berwick and Roxburgh
David Murray, 1st Viscount of Stormont
David Murray, 1st Viscount of Stormont was a Scottish courtier, comptroller of Scotland and captain of the king's guard, known as Sir David Murray of Gospertie Lord Scone, afterwards Viscount Stormont. He is known for his zeal in carrying out the ecclesiastical policy of James VI and I, in which he was effective if crude, he was the second son of Sir Andrew Murray of Arngask and Balvaird, brother of Sir William Murray of Tullibardine, by his second wife, Janet Graham, fourth daughter of William Graham, 2nd Earl of Montrose. He was brought up at the court of James VI, who made him his master of the horse. On 12 December 1588 he presented a complaint against the inhabitants of Auchtermuchty, who, when he went to take possession of the lands of Auchtermuchty, attacked him and the gentlemen of his company, wounding him in various parts of the body, cutting off one of the fingers of his right hand. At court he opposed the Octavians by creating trouble between the Scottish kirk. After he had been knighted by James VI he was, on 26 April 1599, admitted on the privy council as comptroller of the royal revenues, replacing George Hume, laird of Wedderburn.
He was made steward of the stewartry of Fife, on 6 December 1599, while holding a court at Falkland, was attacked by neighbouring lairds and their servants. Murray was at Perth at the time of the Gowrie conspiracy, 5 August 1600, was subsequently credited with having been privy to the concoction of a semblance of a plot, aiming the overthrow of John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie, he took a prominent part calming the inhabitants of Perth after Gowrie, their provost, was killed, with others succeeded in bringing the king in safety to Falkland. Murray succeeded Gowrie as provost of Perth, obtained a grant of the barony of Ruthven, of the lands belonging to the abbacy of Scone, of which Gowrie was commendator. In May 1601 he was appointed by the assembly of the kirk one of a commission to discuss how to support the kirk and clergy in all the districts of Scotland. On 10 Nov he obtained from the king the castle land of Falkland, with the office of ranger of the Lomonds and forester of the woods. Murray was one of the retinue who attended King James in 1603 when he went to take possession of the English throne.
On his return to Scotland on 11 August he obtained a commission for raising a guard or police of forty horsemen to be at the service of the privy council. He was one of the Scottish commissioners named by the parliament of Perth in 1604 to treat concerning a union with England, when he was created Viscount Stormont. On 1 April 1605 the barony of Ruthven and the lands belonging to the abbacy of Scone were erected into the temporal lordship of Scone, with a seat and vote in parliament, with which he was invested. In June 1605 Scone, as comptroller and captain of the guards, was appointed to proceed to Kintyre in Argyllshire to receive the obedience of the chiefs of the clans of the southern Hebrides, payment of the king's rents and duties, he was one of the assessors for the trial at Linlithgow in January 1606 of the ministers concerned in the contumacious Aberdeen assembly of 1605. In March 1607 he was appointed one of the commissioners to represent the king in the synods of Perth and Fife, in connection with the scheme for the appointment of perpetual moderators.
The synod of Perth having resisted his proposal for the appointment of Alexander Lindsay as perpetual moderator, he, in the king's name, dissolved the assembly, as the members of the assembly resolved to proceed to the choice of their own moderator, a violent scene ensued. Scone, being asked by the moderator in the name of Christ to desist troubling the meeting, replied,'The devil a Jesus is here.' After attempting by force to prevent the elected moderator taking the chair, Scone sent for the bailies of the town, commanded them to ring the common bell and remove the rebels. On pretence of consulting the council of the city the bailies withdrew, but did not return, avoided interference in the dispute. After the close of the sitting Scone locked the doors, but the assembly met in the open air and proceeded with their business. After Scone's contest with the synod of Perth, the synod of Fife, which should have met at Dysart on 28 April, was on the 23rd prorogued on pretence of the prevalence of the pestilence in the burgh.
When it did meet, on 18 August, it proved contumacious. In November 1607 Scone was censured by the privy council for negligence in his duty as captain of the guard in not securing the arrest of the Earl of Crawford and the laird of Edzell, he was on 2 February 1608, urged to adopt more energetic measures for the arrest of Lord Maxwell; some time before March 1608 he was succeeded in the comptrollership by Sir James Hay of Fingask, but he still continued to hold the office of captain of the guard. As commissioner from the king he took part in the ecclesiastical conference at Falkland on 4 May 1609, in regard to the discipline of the kirk, he was one of the lords of the articles for the parliament which met at Edinburgh in the following June. On 8 March 1609 he was appointed one of a commission for preventing the dilapidation of the bishoprics, on the 23rd he was appointed, along with George Gledstanes, Archbishop of St. Andrews, to examine the charge against John Fairfull, minister of Dunfermline, of having prayed for the restoration of the banished ministers, with the result that Fairfull was found guilty.
Scone was chosen one of the members of the privy council on its reconstruction, 20 January 1610