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Scooby-Doo is an American animated franchise comprising many animated television series produced from 1969 to the present, as well as its derivative media. Writers Joe Ruby and Ken Spears created the original series Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! for Hanna-Barbera Productions in 1969. This Saturday-morning cartoon series featured teenagers Fred Jones, Daphne Blake, Velma Dinkley, Norville "Shaggy" Rogers and their talking brown Great Dane named Scooby-Doo who solve mysteries involving supernatural creatures through a series of antics and mis-steps. Following the success of the original series, Hanna-Barbera and its successor Warner Bros. Animation have produced numerous follow-up and spin-off animated series and several related works, including television specials and made-for-TV movies, a line of direct-to-video films, two Warner Bros.–produced theatrical feature films. Some versions of Scooby-Doo feature variations on the show's supernatural theme and include characters such as Scooby's cousin Scooby-Dum and nephew Scrappy-Doo in addition to some of the original characters.

Scooby-Doo was broadcast on CBS from 1969 to 1976, when it moved to ABC. ABC aired variations of the show until canceling it in 1985, presented a spin-off featuring the characters as children called A Pup Named Scooby-Doo from 1988 until 1991. Two Scooby-Doo reboots aired as part of Kids' WB on The WB and its successor The CW from 2002 until 2008. Further reboots were produced for Cartoon Network beginning in 2010 and continuing through 2018. Repeats of the various Scooby-Doo series are broadcast on Cartoon Network's sister channel Boomerang in the United States as well as other countries; the newest series Scooby-Doo and Guess Who? Premiered on June 27, 2019 on Boomerang. In 2013, TV Guide ranked Scooby-Doo the fifth greatest TV cartoon. In 1968, parent-run organizations Action for Children's Television, began protesting what they perceived as excessive violence in Saturday-morning cartoons. Most of these shows were Hanna-Barbera action cartoons such as Space Ghost, The Herculoids, Birdman and the Galaxy Trio, all of them were canceled by 1969 because of pressure from the parent groups.

Members of these watchgroups served as advisers to Hanna-Barbera and other animation studios to ensure that new programs would be safe for children. Fred Silverman, executive for daytime programming at CBS, was looking for a show that would both revitalize his Saturday-morning line and please the watch groups; the result was The Archie Show, based on Bob Montana's teenage humor comic book Archie. Successful were the musical numbers The Archies performed during each program. Eager to build upon this success, Silverman contacted producers William Hanna and Joseph Barbera about creating another show based on a teenage rock group, this time featuring teens who solved mysteries between gigs. Silverman envisioned the show as a cross between the popular I Love a Mystery radio serials of the 1940s and either the Archie characters or the popular early 1960s television series The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. After attempting to develop his own version of the show, called House of Mystery, who developed and sold Hanna-Barbera shows while Hanna produced them, passed the task along to storywriters Joe Ruby and Ken Spears, as well as artist/character designer Iwao Takamoto.

Their treatment, based in part on The Archie Show, was titled Mysteries Five and featured five teenagers: Geoff, Kelly and Linda's brother W. W. along with their bongo-playing dog, Too Much, who collectively formed the band Mysteries Five. When The Mysteries Five were not performing at gigs, they were out solving spooky mysteries involving ghosts and other supernatural creatures. Ruby and Spears were unable to decide whether Too Much would be a large cowardly dog or a small feisty one; when the former was chosen and Spears wrote Too Much as a Great Dane but revised the dog character to a large sheepdog just before their presentation to Silverman, as Ruby feared the character would be too similar to the comic strip character Marmaduke. Silverman rejected their initial pitch, after consulting with Barbera on next steps, got Barbera's permission to go ahead with Too Much being a Great Dane instead of a sheepdog. During the design phase, lead character designer Takamoto consulted a studio colleague, a breeder of Great Danes.

After learning the characteristics of a prize-winning Great Dane from her, Takamoto proceeded to break most of the rules and designed Too Much with overly bowed legs, a double chin, a sloped back, among other abnormalities. Ruby and Spears' second pass at the show used Dobie Gillis as the template for the teenagers rather than Archie; the treatment retained the dog Too Much, while reducing the number of teenagers to four, removing the Mike character and retaining Geoff, Linda, W. W; as their personalities were modified, so were the characters' names: Geoff became "Ronnie" – renamed "Fred", Kelly became "Daphne", Linda "Velma", W. W. "Shaggy". The teens were now based on four teenage characters from The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis: Dobie Gillis, Thalia Menninger, Zelda Gilroy and Maynard G. Krebs, respectively; the revised show was re-pitched to Silverman, who liked the material but, disliking the title Mysteries Five, decided to call the show Who's S-S-Scared? Silverman presented Who's S-S-Scared? to the CBS executives as the centerpiece for the upcoming 1969–70 season's Saturday morning cartoon block.

CBS president Frank Stanton felt that the presentation artwork was too scary for young viewers and, thinking the show would be the same, decided to pass

Desires (film)

Desires is a 1952 German drama film directed by Rolf Hansen. It was entered into the 1952 Cannes Film Festival. Heidemarie Hatheyer as Anna Falkner O. W. Fischer as Hans Falkner Sybil Werden as Bozena Boroszi René Deltgen as Dr. med. Steininger Carl Wery as Sanitätsrat Dr. Falkner Hilde Körber as Fanny Liesl Karlstadt Harald Paulsen as Brendel Iván Petrovich as Direktor Wallberg Bobby Todd Peter Czejke as Thomas Falkner Heini Göbel as Verdächtiger Herr Desires on IMDb

ANRORC mechanism

The ANRORC mechanism in organic chemistry describes a special type of substitution reaction. ANRORC stands for Addition of the Nucleophile, Ring Opening, Ring Closure in nucleophilic attack on ring systems and it helps to explain product formation and distribution in some nucleophilic substitutions in heterocyclic compounds, it is used in the medicinal chemistry. This reaction mechanism has been extensively studied in reactions of metal amide nucleophiles and substituted pyrimidines in ammonia at low temperatures; the main reaction product is 4-phenyl-6-aminopyrimidine 2 with the bromine substituent replaced by an amine. This rules out the formation of an aryne intermediate A which would give the 5-substituted isomer; the exclusion of a second intermediate in this reaction, the Meisenheimer complex B in favor of the ring-opened ANRORC intermediate is based on several pieces of evidence. With other amines such as piperidine the ring-opened compound after loss of hydrogen bromide to the nitrile is the isolated reaction product: More evidence is gained by isotope labeling with deuterium at C5: The deuterium atom is no longer present in the reaction product and this is again explained by the ANRORC mechanism where the ring-opened intermediate 4 is a tautomeric pair enabling fast H-D exchange: The final piece of evidence is provided by an isotope scrambling experiment with both nitrogen atoms in the pyrimidine core replaced by the 14N isotope to a degree of 3% each: In the final product 4 half the isotope content is lost demonstrating that one internal nitrogen atom has been displaced to an external nitrogen atom.

The Zincke reaction is a named reaction involving an ANRORC mechanism

Authorities (V franchise)

This is a list of Authorities from the V science fiction franchise. Known members of the police and military forces on Earth defending or aiding against the Visitor horde are detailed below. William Morrow was the President of the United States and a former Air Force pilot who served in the Vietnam War. During the First Invasion, Morrow was kidnapped by the Visitors and was held prisoner on the New York Mothership for most of the war. During his captivity, the Visitors subjected him to the conversion process. However, agents of the Fifth Column helped him escape before his brainwashing was completed and he aided the New York "White Christmas" group when attacking the Visitor's ground headquarters, helped rebuild the government after the Visitors were driven from the Earth by the Red Dust. One year after Liberation Day and the rest of the government went underground to prevent being captured by the Visitors and now directs what is left of the U. S. Military to aid the Resistance. Farley Mason is the Secretary of Defense and an old friend of President Morrow using his old nickname of "Wild Bill" and Morrow addressed him by his nickname of "Moose".

Though he sometimes appears lax and doesn't take his job he takes his job to heart and knows when to be serious. When the First Invasion began and Mason were abducted by the Visitors and Mason was converted. However, when the New York Mothership was captured by the Fifth Column and its population freed, Mason was freed from the effects of his brainwashing; when the Second Invasion began, he along with the rest of the government went underground to prevent being captured and converted again. Mason now commands what's left of the U. S. Military and is directing them to help the Resistance. Curtis Morgan is a high-ranking general in the U. S. Military and air defensive forces; when the Second Invasion began, Morgan was hoping to use the Red Dust on them, but Nathan Bates revealed the dangers of using it. Morgan and Bates agreed to formulate a doomsday weapon of massive amounts of Red Dust linked to explosives, that would destroy all life on Earth, along with all the Visitor armies, should the war end in their favour and was named "Code: Delta".

Morgan leads the military forces against the Visitors, but waits for the day when "Code: Delta" can be initiated. Loman was a general in the U. S. Military and loyally serves as Defense Secretary Mason's right-hand man during the First Invasion. Unlike Mason, converted, Loman retained his freedom and continued the fight against the Visitors until the Red Dust was deployed, he again joined the fight when the Second Invasion began one year after Liberation Day and now helps to lead what's left of the U. S. military against the Visitors. Barnabas was a federal agent in the U. S. government. Just after the end of the First Invasion and two other federal agents attempted to free Diana under orders from "individuals" within the government who hoped to use her to learn about Visitor technology, but was stopped and arrested. Stover was a federal agent in the U. S. government. Just after the end of the First Invasion and two other federal agents attempted to free Diana under orders from "individuals" within the government who hoped to use her to learn about Visitor technology, but was stopped and arrested.

Kent Fletcher leads a complement of 300 men. Though he helped fight the Visitors, he sought to gain more power by taking advantage of the growing power vacuum following the Visitors fleeing the Earth, he led a coup against the local governor with help from Lieutenant Dennis W. Simon and planned to use it to take control of the entire U. S. government, but was taken into custody by the Military Police. Garret was a member of Kent Fletcher's senior staff. Garret supported Fletcher's coup over the local government, but the coup was stopped by the Resistance and Garret was taken into custody by the Military Police. Casey was a member of Kent Fletcher's senior staff. Casey supported Fletcher's coup over the local government, but the coup was stopped by the Resistance and Casey was taken into custody by the Military Police. Dennis W. Simon was a lieutenant in the National Guard under Colonel Kent Fletcher's command. Despite his low rank, Simon was powerful and usurped the local governor and placed the entire state into martial law, as a stepping stone for Fletcher to take control of the country.

However, the coup failed because of the Resistance and Simon was taken into custody by the Military Police. Wallace was a lieutenant in the National Guard under Colonel Kent Fletcher's command. Wallace supported Fletcher's coup over the local government, but the coup was stopped by the Resistance and Casey was taken into custody by the Military Police. Broadbent was a captain in the National Guard under Colonel Kent Fletcher's command. Unlike most of his comrades, Broadbent was hesitant to use such extreme force on the Resistance and didn't think Fletcher's coup was a good idea, he followed his orders as any other loyal soldier would, but the coup failed and Broadbent was taken into custody by the Military Police. Tom was a corporal in the National Guard under Colonel Kent Fletcher's command. Unlike most of his comrades, Tom was hesitant to use such extreme force on the Resistance and didn't think Fletcher's coup was a good idea, he followed his orders as any other loyal soldier would, but the coup failed and Tom was taken

The Bicycle Thief (Modern Family)

"The Bicycle Thief" is the second episode of the ABC series Modern Family. It premiered on American Broadcasting Company in the United States on September 30, 2009; the episode was directed by Jason Winer. In the episode, Jay tries to show his stepson. "The Bicycle Thief" received positive reviews from critics towards Ty Burrell's performance as Phil Dunphy. The episode was viewed by more than 9 million viewers and dropped 4 tenths from last week's episode, "Pilot" in the 18-49 demographic tying with the Criminal Minds in the timeslot according to Nielsen Media Research; the question of the episode in the teaser concerns being a good dad. Phil and Claire go on a bike-ride with Luke, riding his sister's bike because he is not responsible enough to own a bike. While the Dunphys are riding, they come across Desiree, a newly single mother who has a child at Luke's school. Phil flirts to Claire's disgust. Phil decides to buy Luke a brand new green bike after Jay ridicules Luke for riding a girl's bike and tells him that he is responsible for it.

When Phil comes across a bike, similar to Luke's new bike, he assumes Luke left the bike unlocked. Phil jumps on the bike to take it home, feeling that Claire will be upset with him for not listening to her. On his way home, he comes across Desiree and sets the bike down in order to help her get into her home - she had locked herself out; when returning to leave, the bike has disappeared. Phil visits the bike store to buy a replacement but when he gets home and confronts Luke, he learns that Luke never left the bike; when trying to take the replacement bike to the store, he is confronted by Claire who says he should not be sneaky and she forgives him - only to have Desiree show up with the second bike, saying her neighbor had placed it in her garage while Phil was in her bedroom. Phil places one of the replacement bikes back in the spot from where he had stolen the second bike and he is confronted by a pair of kids who claim the bike; the second plot line begins at the Delgado-Pritchett residence where Jay helps Manny to set up a fan they bought.

Jay refuses to listen to Manny while he reads them and gets shocked twice. Manny and Jay have an argument after one of the blades falls off the fan causing Manny to shout that he wished Jay had never married Gloria; as Jay is getting ready for his trip to the wine country with Gloria, he gets a call from Manny's father. Manny's father says that he is winning at craps and does not want to leave the table and take Manny to Disneyland as promised, something that disgusts Jay. Going outside to tell Manny, he makes up an excuse saying that his father will not be able to make it due to flight delays, he tells Manny that the limousine was sent by his father to take all three of them to Disneyland though it was for Jay and Gloria's trip. In third plot line of the episode and Mitchell go to the playschool with Lily; when they find out that all the other kids are much more advanced than Lily they decide to steal some blocks that another child has stacked and claim that Lily did it. When the employee informs them of the CCTV cameras and that they can have a copy of Lily stacking the blocks, they leave.

Jay presents the final moments of the episode, answering the opening question by saying that the biggest part of being a good dad, is being there. In its original American broadcast, "The Bicycle Thief" was viewed by an estimated by 9.993 million households and got a 3.8 rating/10% share in the 18-49 demographic tying for first in its timeslot with Criminal Minds going down 4 tenths from the pilot episode according to the Nielsen Media Research. "The Bicycle Thief" received positive reviews. Robert Canning of IGN gave the episode a 7.2 saying it was "Decent" and "Though the tone was still fun, Wednesday night's outing felt a bit too comfortable, as if we were watching an episode from season three."James Poniewozik of Time said "whether the characters are one-joke specials or if they have more dimensions to them. So far, with its second episode, Modern Family is meeting that test just fine."Jason Hughes of TV Squad gave the episode a positive review saying "Its brilliance in its simplicity, brilliantly executed.

Not only did we get so many funny moments throughout, but if we paid close attention, we learned several lessons about life and parenthood between the laughs."Donna Bowman of The A. V. Club gave the episode an A- saying "This episode is better than the pilot, it deepens the neuroses that drive the characters, it solidifies the style, it differentiates itself nicely -- in the kinds of stories it tells and the tone and method of the telling -- from Arrested Development, the touchstone for most of the descriptions of the pilot."TV Fanatic gave the episode a good review and remarked "On last night's Modern Family, each of the fathers of the family were asked what it means to be a great dad and it led to three great stories."Michael Slezak of Entertainment Weekly said "The good news about Modern Family‘s hilarious second episode is that it proved the show isn’t going to just be a one-hit wonder."Many of the critics have praised Ty Burrell's performance of Phil Dunphy. Michael Slezak said "MVP for this episode, which might as well have been titled “The Sins of the Father,” was Ty Burrell’s Phil, who got himself into all kinds of bizarre

Villanueva, La Guajira

Villanueva is a town and municipality located in the northern Department of La Guajira, Colombia. Villanueva is known in Colombia for being the cradle of many vallenato composers; the economy of the town relies on agriculture and farming. The municipality of Villanueva is located in the southern region of the Department of La Guajira within the valley of the Cesar River, between the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountains and the Serranía del Perijá which Villanueva borders; the municipality is crossed by the Villanueva River. The municipality seat is located by the Cerro Pintao which covers the municipalities of San Juan del Cesar, El Molino and Urumita and in the Department of Cesar the municipalities of Manaure, La Paz, San Diego and Codazzi covering an area of 25,000 ha and with an altitude ranging from 1600 to 3,688 m giving birth to some 13 rivers. Villanueva limits to the north with the municipalities of El Molilno, with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela to the east. More than half of the total area of the municipality is part of the Serranía del Perijá while the rest is flat, within the valley.

Climate in the municipality of Villanueva is determined by precipitation. The municipality has an average temperature of 28°C throughout the year with two rainy seasons and two dry seasons. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish explorers in the early 16th Century the area of what is present-day Villanueva was inhabited by a Chimila tribe; the village was founded by Don Roque de Alba in 1662. Massacred occurred on December 8, 1998 in the neighborhood known as El Cafetal and some 11 people were assassinated by members of the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia by orders of Carlos Castaño. Alias "Jorge 40", commander of the Northern Bloc of the AUC, part of the paramilitary structure admitted to participating in the massacre by order of Castaño, in which the operation was commanded by alias "Daniel" and a unit of some 80 paramilitaries. Victims were dragged out of their homes while a paramilitary commander called out their names on a list. Alias "Jorge 40" confessed that the massacre had taken place because there had been reports that the neighborhood was an enclave of the Luciano Ariza Front of the National Liberation Army guerrilla.

He confessed the motives of selecting December 8 as the date of the massacre, a traditional local Roman Catholic celebration known as the "Dia de las Velitas", in which people use fireworks to celebrate. Fireworks would conceal the sound of the shots; the economy of Villanueva is based on agriculture and commercial trade between the other Southern Guajira municipalities and the city of Valledupar in the Department of Cesar. of the 26,500 Ha, 7,300 Ha are used for plantations, 8,000 for cattle raising, 10,146 Ha were unused and 454 covered urban areas. In the lower part of the Serranía del Perijá there are limestone deposits which are exploited in artisan manner. Villanueva celebrates in the month of September the Cradle of Accordions Festival, a vallenato musical contest as well as a religious celebration in honor of Saint Thomas. Villanueva official website Research on Villanueva