Celtic settlement of Southeast Europe
From their new bases in northern Illyria and Pannonia, the Gallic invasions climaxed in the early 3rd century BC, with the invasion of Greece. The 279 BC invasion of Greece proper was preceded by a series of other military campaigns waged in the southern Balkans and against the kingdom of Macedonia, favoured by the state of confusion ensuing from the disputed succession after Alexander the Great's death. A part of the invasion crossed over to Anatolia and settled in the area that came to be named after them, Galatia. From the 4th century BC, Celtic groups pushed into the Carpathian region and the Danube basin, coinciding with their movement into Italy; the Boii and Volcae were two large Celtic confederacies who cooperated in their campaigns. Splinter groups moved south via two major routes: one following the Danube river, another eastward from Italy. According to legend, 300,000 Celts moved into Illyria. By the 3rd century, the native inhabitants of Pannonia were completely Celticized. La Tène remains are found in Pannonia, but finds westward beyond the Tisza river and south beyond the Sava are rather sparse.
These finds are deemed to have been locally produced Norican-Pannonian variation of Celtic culture. Features are encountered that suggest ongoing contacts with distant provinces such as Iberia; the fertile lands around the Pannonian rivers enabled the Celts to establish themselves developing their agriculture and pottery, at the same time exploiting the rich mines of modern Poland. Thus, it appears that the Celts had created a new homeland for themselves in the southern part of Central Europe; the political situation in the northern Balkans was in constant flux with various tribes dominant over their neighbours at any one time. Within tribes, military expeditions were conducted by "an enterprising and mobile warrior class able from time to time to conquer large areas and to exploit their population"; the political situation in the Balkans during the 4th century BC played to the Celts' advantage. The Illyrians had been waging war against the Greeks. While Alexander ruled Greece, the Celts dared not to push south near Greece.
Therefore, early Celtic expeditions were concentrated against Illyrian tribes. The first Balkan tribe to be defeated by the Celts was the Illyric Autariatae, during the 4th century BC, had enjoyed a hegemony over much of the central Balkans, centred on the Morava valley. An account of Celtic tactics is revealed in their attacks on the Ardiaei. In 335 BC, the Celts sent representatives to pay homage to Alexander the Great, while Macedon was engaged in wars against Thracians on its northern border; some historians suggest that this'diplomatic' act was an evaluation of Macedonian military might. After the death of Alexander the Great, Celtic armies began to bear down on the southern regions, threatening the Greek kingdom of Macedonia and the rest of Greece. In 310 BC, the Celtic general Molistomos attacked deep into Illyrian territory, subduing the Dardanians and Triballi; the new Macedonian king Cassander felt compelled to take his old Illyrian enemies under his protection. In 298 BC, the Celts attempted a penetrating attack into Thrace and Macedon, where they suffered a heavy defeat near Haemus Mons at the hands of Cassander.
However, another body of Celts led by the general Cambaules marched on Thrace, capturing large areas. The Celtic tribe of the Serdi founded the city of Serdica, present day Sofia; the Celtic military pressure toward Greece in the southern Balkans reached its turning point in 281 BC. The collapse of Lysimachus' successor kingdom in Thrace opened the way for the migration; the cause for this is explained by Pausanias as greed for loot, by Justin as a result of overpopulation, by Memnon as the result of famine. According to Pausanias, an initial probing raid led by Cambaules withdrew when they realized they were too few in numbers. In 280 BC, a great army comprising about 85,000 warriors left Pannonia, split into three divisions, marched south in a great expedition to Macedon and central Greece. Under the leadership of Cerethrius, 20,000 men moved against the Triballi. Another division, led by Brennus and Acichorius moved against the Paionians, while the third division, headed by Bolgios, aimed for the Macedonians and Illyrians.
Bolgios inflicted heavy losses on the Macedonians, whose young king, Ptolemy Keraunos, was captured and decapitated. However, Bolgios' contingent was repulsed by the Macedonian nobleman Sosthenes, satisfied with the loot they had won, Bolgios' contingents turned back. Sosthenes, in turn, was attacked and defeated by Brennus and his division, who were free to ravage the country. After these expeditions returned home, Brennus urged and persuaded them to mount a third united expedition against central Greece, led by himself and Acichorius; the reported strength of the army of 152,000 infantry and 24,400 cavalry is impossibly large. The actual number of horsemen has to be intended half as big: Pausanias describes how they used a tactic called trimarcisia, where each cavalryman was supported by two mounted servants, who could supply him with a spare horse should he have to be dismounted, or take his place in the battle, should he be killed or wounded. A Greek coalition made up of Aetolians, Athenians and other Greeks north of Corinth took up quarters at the narrow pass of Thermopylae, on the east coast of central Greece.
During the initial assault, Brennus' forces suffered heavy losses. Hence he decided to send a large force under Acichorius against Aetolia; the Aetolian detachment, as Brennus hoped, left Thermopylae to defend their homes. The Aetolians joined the defence
The Roman Empire was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization. Ruled by emperors, it had large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus. From the constitutional reforms of Augustus to the military anarchy of the third century, the Empire was a principate ruled from the city of Rome; the Roman Empire was ruled by multiple emperors and divided in a Western Roman Empire, based in Milan and Ravenna, an Eastern Roman Empire, based in Nicomedia and Constantinople. Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until 476 AD, when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustus after capturing Ravenna and the Roman Senate sent the imperial regalia to Constantinople; the fall of the Western Roman Empire to barbarian kings, along with the hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire, is conventionally used to mark the end of Ancient Rome and the beginning of the Middle Ages. The previous Republic, which had replaced Rome's monarchy in the 6th century BC, became destabilized in a series of civil wars and political conflict.
In the mid-1st century BC Julius Caesar was appointed as perpetual dictator and assassinated in 44 BC. Civil wars and proscriptions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesar's adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC; the following year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with the conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon in the 4th century BC. Octavian's power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power and the new title Augustus making him the first emperor; the first two centuries of the Empire were a period of unprecedented stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana. It reached its greatest territorial expanse during the reign of Trajan. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus. In the 3rd century, the Empire underwent a crisis that threatened its existence, but was reunified under Aurelian. In an effort to stabilize the Empire, Diocletian set up two different imperial courts in the Greek East and Latin West.
Christians rose to power in the 4th century following the Edict of Milan in 313 and the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. Shortly after, the Migration Period involving large invasions by Germanic peoples and the Huns of Attila led to the decline of the Western Roman Empire. With the fall of Ravenna to the Germanic Herulians and the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476 AD by Odoacer, the Western Roman Empire collapsed and it was formally abolished by emperor Zeno in 480 AD; the Eastern Roman Empire, known in the post-Roman West as the Byzantine Empire, collapsed when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks of Mehmed II in 1453. Due to the Roman Empire's vast extent and long endurance, the institutions and culture of Rome had a profound and lasting influence on the development of language, architecture, philosophy and forms of government in the territory it governed Europe; the Latin language of the Romans evolved into the Romance languages of the medieval and modern world, while Medieval Greek became the language of the Eastern Roman Empire.
Its adoption of Christianity led to the formation of Christendom during the Middle Ages. Greek and Roman art had a profound impact on the late medieval Italian Renaissance, while Rome's republican institutions influenced the political development of republics such as the United States and France; the corpus of Roman law has its descendants in many legal systems of the world today, such as the Napoleonic Code. Rome's architectural tradition served as the basis for Neoclassical architecture. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC, it was an "empire" long before it had an emperor. The Roman Republic was not a nation-state in the modern sense, but a network of towns left to rule themselves and provinces administered by military commanders, it was ruled, not by annually elected magistrates in conjunction with the senate. For various reasons, the 1st century BC was a time of political and military upheaval, which led to rule by emperors.
The consuls' military power rested in the Roman legal concept of imperium, which means "command". Successful consuls were given the honorary title imperator, this is the origin of the word emperor since this title was always bestowed to the early emperors upon their accession. Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while extending its power beyond Italy; this was the period of the Crisis of the Roman Republic. Towards the end of this era, in 44 BC, Julius Caesar was perpetual dictator before being assassinated; the faction of his assassins was driven from Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian. Antony and Octavian's division of the Roman world between themselves did not last and Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, ending the Final War of the Roman Republic. In 27 BC the Senate and People of Rome made Octavian princeps ("first citi
Bellona was an ancient Roman goddess of war. Her main attribute is the military helmet worn on her head, her iconography was extended further by sculptors following the Renaissance. Named Duellona in the Italic languages, the cult figure who became Bellona was an ancient Sabine goddess of war and identified with Nerio, the consort of the war god Mars - and with her Greek equivalent Enyo, her first temple in Rome was dedicated in 296 BCE. Her priests were known as Bellonarii and used to wound their own arms or legs as a blood sacrifice to her; these rites took place on 24th March, called the day of blood, after the ceremony. In consequence of this practice, which approximated to the rites dedicated to Cybele in Asia Minor, both Enyo and Bellona became identified with her Cappadocian aspect, Ma; the Roman Campus Martius area, in which Bellona’s temple was sited, had extraterritorial status. Ambassadors from foreign states, who were not allowed to enter the city proper, stayed in this complex; the area around the temple of Bellona was considered to symbolise foreign soil, there the Senate met with ambassadors and received victorious generals prior to their Triumphs.
It was here too. Beside the temple was the war column. To declare war on a distant state, a javelin was thrown over the column by one of the priests concerned with diplomacy, from Roman territory toward the direction of the enemy land and this symbolical attack was considered the opening of war. In the military cult of Bellona, she was associated with the personification of valour, she travelled outside Rome with the imperial legions and her temples have been recorded in France, Germany and North Africa. In poetry the name Bellona is used as a synonym for war, although in the Thebaid of Statius the goddess appears as a character, representing the destructive and belligerent aspect of war. There she is described as carrying a spear and a flaming torch or riding in a chariot and waving a blood-stained sword. While she does not figure as a character in Shakespeare's plays, she receives several mentions. In Henry IV, Part I, Hotspur describes her as "the fire-eyed maid of smoky war". In The Two Noble Kinsmen, set in pre-Roman Athens, the sister of Hippolyta will solicit her divine aid for Theseus against Thebes.
At the start of the play named after him, Macbeth is introduced as a violent and brave warrior when the Thane of Ross calls him "Bellona's bridegroom", to say, the equivalent of Mars. In more modern times, Adam Lindsay Gordon dedicated an energetic Swinburnean evocation of the "false goddess" who leads men astray in his poem "Bellona", published in Australia in 1867, she figures in Edgell Rickword's World War I poem "The Traveller". There the poet describes himself as marching toward the front line in the company of Art, the god Pan, the works of Walter Pater. Meeting Bellona as they approach the fighting, one by one the pleasurable companions are forced to flee before the violence of war, until the goddess rejoices in having him to herself. Bellona appears in the prologue of Rameau's opera, Les Indes Galantes, in which the call of love triumphs over that of war. In a Bach dramma per musica performed two years before, Tönet, ihr Pauken! Erschallet, Trompeten! BWV 214, the goddess quitted her usual ferocity in order to congratulate Maria Josepha of Austria, Princess Elector of Saxony and Queen of Poland, on her birthday on 8 December 1733.
She retains her harsh aspect in "Prometheus Absolved" by Giovanni Ambrogio Migliavacca, however. In this cantata celebrating the birth of the Archduchess Isabella in 1762, the deities sit in judgement on Prometheus, some arguing for clemency, while Bellona and others demand rigour, she plays her proper part in the'heroic cantata' created by the composer Francesco Bianchi and the librettist Lorenzo da Ponte, entitled "The Wedding of the Thames and Bellona". This was performed in London to mark the British naval victory over the Spanish at the Battle of Cape St. Vincent. Bellona is portrayed wearing a plumed helmet and dressed in armour, or at least a breastplate with a skirt beneath. In her hand she carries a spear, shield, or other weapons, she sounds a trumpet for the attack. Anciently she was associated with the winged Victory holding a laurel crown in her hand, a statue of whom she sometimes carries. Examples of such an armoured figure appear in the 1633 painting attributed to Rembrandt in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, statues by Johann Baptist Straub and Johann Wilhelm Beyer.
In the latter she appears with the god Janus, since both were associated with the Roman ceremonies of declaring war. In the case of Janus, the doors to his temple were left open during the whole period of hostilities. Straub's statue has a gorgon head on her shield to instil terror in her enemies, as does the Rembrandt painting, although this was added probably as a response to other examples of this new iconographical departure. In the bust by Bertram Mackennal she wears a gorgon mounted on her helmet, while in other depictions it is on the breastplate. Another common innovation was Bellona’s association with cannons, as in the drawing by Hans Krieg and the 1700 ceiling fresco at Hammerschloss Schmidmühlen by Hans Georg Asam. An early Dutch engravin
The Drava or Drave is a river in southern Central Europe. With a length of 710 kilometres, 724 kilometres including the Sextner Bach source, it is the fifth or sixth longest tributary of the Danube, after the Tisza, Prut, Mureș and Siret, its source is near the market town of Innichen, in the Puster Valley of South Tyrol, Italy. The river flows eastwards through East Tirol and Carinthia in Austria into the Styria region of Slovenia, it turns southeast, passing through Croatia and, after merging with its main tributary Mur, forms most of the border between Croatia and Hungary, before it joins the Danube near Osijek. In ancient times the river was known as Latin: Dravus, cf. Sanskrit: द्रवति, dravati, "flow"; the name is most of Celtic or Illyrian origin. The river gives its name to the dravite species of tourmaline; the Drava and the Spöl are the only two rivers originating in Italy that belong to the Danube drainage basin. Its main left tributaries are the Isel, the Möll, the Lieser, the Gurk and the Lavant in Austria, the Mur near Legrad at the Croatian–Hungarian border.
Its main right tributaries are the Gail in Austria, the Meža and Dravinja in Slovenia, the Bednja in Croatia. Mean discharge is for the last station in the country mentioned in the source; the Drava sources are located at the drainage divide between the market town of Innichen and neighbouring Toblach in the west, where the Rienz River rises, a tributary of the Adige. At Innichen itself the 16+ km Sextner Bach, originating near the Sextener Rotwand, joins the ~2 km long source creek; the river than flows eastwards and after 8 kilometres crosses into East Tyrol in Austria. At Lienz it flows into the Isel, sourced from the glaciers of the Glockner Groups; the Isel is three times larger than the Drava where they meet and, starting from the source of its tributary Schwarzach under the Rötspitze, the Isel is longer than the combined Drava and Sextner Bach to that point. The river flows east into Carinthia at Oberdrauburg; the river separates the Kreuzeck range of the High Tauern in the north and the Gailtal Alps in the south, passes the Sachsenburg narrows and the site of the ancient city of Teurnia, before it reaches the town of Spittal an der Drau.
Downstream of Villach, it runs along the northern slopes of the Karawanks to Lavamünd. The Drava passes into Slovenia at Gorče near Dravograd, from where it runs for 142 kilometres via Vuzenica, Muta, Ruše, Maribor to Ptuj and the border with Croatia at Ormož; the river passes Varaždin, Belišće and Osijek in Croatia, Barcs in Hungary. It is navigable for about 90 kilometres from Čađavica in Croatia to its mouth; the hydrological parameters of Drava are monitored in Croatia at Botovo, Terezino Polje, Donji Miholjac and Osijek. There are 22 hydroelectric power plants on the Drava; the power plants are listed beginning at the headwaters: The Drava River is one of the most exploited rivers in the world in terms of hydropower, with 100% of its water potential energy being exploited. As the region of the river is a place of exceptional biodiversity, this raises several ecological concerns, together with other forms of exploitation such as use of river deposits
Zemun is a municipality of the city of Belgrade. Zemun was a separate town, absorbed into Belgrade in 1934; the development of New Belgrade in the late 20th century affected the expansion of the continuous urban area of Belgrade. According to the 2011 census results, the municipality of Zemun has a population of 168,170 inhabitants. In ancient times, the Celtic and Roman settlement was known as Taurunum; the Frankish chroniclers of the Crusades mentioned it as a toponym from the 9th century. This was a period when the Slavic name Zemln was recorded for the first time. Believed to be derived from the word zemlja, meaning soil, it was a basis for all other future names of the city: modern Serbian Земун or Zemun, Hungarian Zimony and German Semlin; the area of Zemun has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. Baden culture graves and ceramics like bowls and anthropomorphic urns were found in the town. Bosut culture graves were found in nearby Asfaltna Baza; the first Celtic settlements in Taurunum area originate from the 3rd century BC when the Scordisci occupied several Thracian and Dacian areas of the Danube.
The Scordisci founded both Singidunum across the Sava, predecessor of modern Belgrade. The Romans came in the 1st century BC, Taurunum became part of the Roman province of Pannonia around 15 AD, it served as a harbour for the Pannonian fleet of Singidunum. The pen of Roman poet Publius Ovidius Naso was said to be found in Taurunum. After the Great Migrations the area was under the authority of various peoples and states, including the Byzantine Empire, the Kingdom of the Gepids and the Bulgarian Empire; the town was conquered by the Kingdom of Hungary in the 12th century and in the 15th century it was given as a personal possession to the Serbian despot Đurađ Branković. After the nearby Serbian Despotate fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1459, Zemun became an important military outpost. In 1521, the forces of the Kingdom of Hungary, 500 šajkaši led by Croatian Marko Skoblić, Serbs fought against the invading Ottoman army of Suleyman the Magnificent. Despite hard resistance, Zemun fell on July Belgrade soon afterwards.
In 1541, Zemun was integrated into the Syrmia sanjak of the Budin pashaluk. Zemun and the southeastern Syrmia were conquered by the Austrian Habsburgs in 1717, after the Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Peterwardein and through the Treaty of Požarevac became a property of the Schönborn family. In 1736, Zemun was the site of a peasant revolt, its strategic location near the confluence of the Sava and the Danube placed it in the center of the continued border wars between the Habsburg and the Ottoman empires. The Treaty of Belgrade of 1739 fixed the border, the Military Frontier was organized in the region in 1746, the town of Zemun was granted the rights of a military commune in 1749. In 1754, the population of Zemun included 1,900 Orthodox Christians, 600 Catholics, 76 Jews, about 100 Romani. In 1777, the population of Zemun numbered 1,130 houses with 6,800 residents, half of which were ethnic Serbs, while another half of population was composed of Catholics, Jews and Muslims. Among Catholic population, the largest ethnic group were Germans.
From this period originates the increased settlement of Germans and Hungarians in the Zemun. Zemun prospered as a border city; the town was a major fishing center. It is recorded. In 1816 it was expanded by mass resettlement of Germans and Serbs in the new town suburbs of Franzenstal and Gornja Varoš, respectively. In the 19th century, Zemun reached 1,310 houses. Zemun became important in Serbian history as the refuge for Karađorđe in 1813 as well as many other people from the nearby Belgrade and the rest of Karađorđe's Serbia which fell to the Ottoman rule. During the Revolution of 1848-1849, Zemun was one of the de facto capitals of Serbian Vojvodina, a Serbian autonomous region within Habsburg Empire, but in 1849, it was returned under the administration of the Military Frontier. With the abolishment of the Military Frontier in 1882, Zemun and the rest of Srem was included into Syrmia County of Croatia-Slavonia, an autonomous part of the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria-Hungary; the first railway line that connected it to the west was built in 1883, the first railway bridge over the Sava followed shortly thereafter in 1884.
During World War I, Zemun changed hands between Serbia and Austria-Hungary ending up in Serbia on November 5, 1918. The town became part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes; the inter-war period was marked by political struggle between the city gentry and the more socialist parties supported by the ethnic Germans. In 1934 two intra-city bus lines were introduced connecting Zemun with the parts of Belgrade, the general shift of attention towards this issue was supported by the growing Serbian population of Zemun; the Zemun airbases built in 1927 were an important geostrategic objective in the Axis invasion of April 1941. Following the surrender of Yugoslavia that same month, along with the rest of Syrmia, was given to the Independent State of Croatia; the city was taken from Axis control in 1944, since it is part of Serbian region known as Central Serbia. The city is now home of the Air force command building, a monumental edifice, situated at 12 Аvijatičarski Square in Zemun, Belgrade; the Municipality ha
Stobi was an ancient town of Paeonia conquered by Macedon, turned into the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia Salutaris. It is located on the main road that leads from the Danube to the Aegean Sea and is considered by many to be the most famous archaeological site in North Macedonia. Stobi was built where the Erigón River joins the Axiós River, making it strategically important as a center for both trade and warfare. Stobi developed from a Paeonian settlement established in the Archaic period. Located on the northern side of a terrace, the early town covered an area of about 25,000 m2, its proximity to the junction of the Erigón and Axiós Rivers as well as its position in the fertile central Vardar valley allowed it to develop a flourishing economy and to establish trade. Nearby Mount Klepa was a lucrative source of marble; the initial Paeonian population was supplemented by other immigrant groups. It is believed that in 217 BCE, Philip V annexed Paionia during his campaign against the Dardani who had entered Bylazora, the largest Paeonian town.
The city was first mentioned in writing by the historian Livy, in connection with a victory of Philip V of Macedon over the Dardani in 197 BC. In 168 BC, the Romans defeated Perseus and Macedonia was divided into four nominally independent republics. In 148 BC, the four areas of Macedonia were brought together in a unified Roman province. In the reign of Augustus the city grew in population; the city grew further in 69 BC once it became a municipium, at which time it began to produce coins printed with Municipium Stobensium. The citizens of Stobi were citizens of Rome. Most belonged to the Roman tribes Tromentina. During Roman times Stobi was the capital of the Roman province Macedonia Salutaris. Emperor Theodosius I stayed in Stobi in 388. Late in the 5th century the city underwent a terrible turn of events. In 479, it was robbed by an Ostrogothic king; the citizens reconstructed the city. Avaro-Slavic invasions in the 6th century destroyed the city's infrastructure; the name Stobi is a Paeonian word meaning "post, pillar" and is akin to Old Prussian stabis "rock," Old Church Slavonic stoboru "pillar," English staff, Old English stapol "post," archaic Greek stobos "scolding, bad language," Macedonian stolb meaning "post, pillar," Greek stephein "to tie around, encircle," staphyle "grapevine, grape bunch," and Middle Irish sab "shaft."
Such a name suggests that it was the site of a large local cultic pillar, though there is no evidence of this. The Museum of Belgrade was the first and only institution to investigate the city from 1924 to 1936. Yugoslavian archaeologists first discovered public and private buildings in the city and the city's theater, built in the 3rd century, religious artifacts from the central and western part of the city. Research into the city ended in 1940. During World War II late Hellenistic graves were found in the Palace of Peristerius, many of, covered by buildings. In 1970, between the North and Central Basilica and in the western necropolis 55 graves were discovered. In 1955 in the southern part of the North Basilica 23 Slavic graves dating from the 9th to 12th centuries were discovered. Bronze statues from the archaic and classical periods as well as ceramic objects from the Neolithic era were discovered in the two parts of the civil basilica. An older part of the second synagogue was discovered in the Central Basilica, as well as architectonic structures and 23 Slavic graves in the North Basilica.
The most significant finds were uncovered between 1970 and 1980 by Yugoslav and American archaeologists. In this period more buildings were discovered and new expeditions in the western necropolis, the Casa Romana and in the aqueduct network of Stobi revealed more mosaics. From 1981 to 1988 the Episcopal Basilica was unearthed; these investigations confirmed predictions concerning the religion and daily life of its population. A well-preserved marble head of Augustus was unearthed at Stobi in April 2009; the Grand Palace near the eastern wall of the city was built during the Roman period and contains beautiful frescoes. The Temple of Nemesis in the theater, religious items related to Hygeia and Telesphorus, Artemis Locheia, Apollo Clarious, Jupiter and Hera were common during this time. In the early Christian period Stobi was an episcopal see by 325, when the bishop Budius took part in the First Council of Nicaea. Stobi is one of a small number of cities from the late antique and early Christian period that kept a large number of mosaics.
From the 4th to 5th century, several big churches were built and were known for their interior decoration of mosaics and frescoes. Decorative mosaics can be found in private luxury buildings from late Antiquity, such as the Villas of Theodosius and Peristerius. New archaeological research has shown that all Christian basilicas in the city discovered thus far were built over ancient buildings. An ancient synagogue dating from the 3rd or 4th century AD attests to a Jewish presence in the city; the Northern Basilica has three main parts: a narthex, an exonarthex separated by colonnades and an atrium constructed of marble. In the northern part there in the southern part are Slavic graves; the church, built at the beginning of the 5th century, can be entered from the street Via Principalis Inferior. The Civil Basilica is south of the north basilica and was discovered in 1937. In 1956 archaeologists found. Between the North and Civil Basilicas are the ancient Th
Philip V of Macedon
Philip V was king of the ancient Kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC. Philip's reign was principally marked by an unsuccessful struggle with the emerging power of the Roman Republic, he would lead Macedon against Rome in the First and Second Macedonian Wars, losing both but allying with Rome in the Roman-Seleucid War towards the end of his reign. Philip was charismatic as a young man. A dashing and courageous warrior, he was compared to Alexander the Great and was nicknamed beloved of the Hellenes because he became, as Polybius put it, "...the beloved of the Hellenes for his charitable inclination". The son of Demetrius II and Chryseis, Philip was nine years old at his father's death in 229 BC, he had an elder paternal half sister called Apame. His cousin, Antigonus Doson, administered the kingdom as regent until his death in 221 BC when Philip was seventeen years old. On his ascent to the throne, Philip showed that while he was young, this did not mean that Macedon was weak. In the first year of his rule, he pushed back the Dardani and other tribes in the north of the kingdom.
In the Social War, the Hellenic League of Greek states was assembled at Philip V’s instigation in Corinth. He led the Hellenic League in battles against Aetolia and Elis. In this way he was able to increase his own authority amongst his own ministers, his leadership during the Social War made him well-known and respected both within his own kingdom and abroad. After the Peace of Naupactus in 217 BC, Philip V tried to replace Roman influence along the eastern shore of the Adriatic, forming alliances or lending patronage to certain island and coastal provinces such as Lato on Crete, he first with limited success. His first expedition in 216 BC had to be aborted, while he suffered the loss of his whole fleet in a second expedition in 214 BC. A expedition by land met with greater success when he captured Lissus in 212 BC. In 215 BC, he entered into a treaty with Hannibal, the Carthaginian general in the middle of an invasion of Roman Italy, their treaty defined spheres of operation and interest, but achieved little of substance or value for either side.
Philip became involved in assisting and protecting his allies from attacks from the Spartans, the Romans and their allies. Rome's alliance with the Aetolian League in 211 BC neutralised Philip's advantage on land; the intervention of Attalus I of Pergamum on the Roman side further exposed Philip's position in Macedonia. Philip was able to take advantage of the withdrawal of Attalus from the Greek mainland in 207 BC, along with Roman inactivity and the increasing role of Philopoemen, the strategos of the Achaean League. Philip and his troops sacked the religious and political centre of Aetolia, his troops destroyed 2,000 statues and hauled away vast sums of treasure which included some fifteen thousand shields and suits of arms the Aetolians had decorated their stoas with. These shields were the armor taken from the enemies of the Aetolians during their previous military victories and included the shields of the Gauls who had raided Greece in the 3rd century BC. Philip V took immense sums of gold and treasures and burned down temples and public buildings of the Aetolians.
Philip was able to force the Aetolians to accept his terms in 206 BC. The following year he was able to conclude the Peace of Phoenice with its allies. Following an agreement with the Seleucid king Antiochus III to capture Egyptian held territory from the boy king Ptolemy V, Philip was able to gain control of Egyptian territory in the Aegean Sea and in Anatolia; this expansion of Macedonian influence created alarm in a number of neighbouring states, including Pergamum and Rhodes. Their navies clashed with Philip’s off Chios and Lade in 201 BC. At around the same time, the Romans were the victors over Carthage. In 200 BC, with Carthage no longer a threat, the Romans declared war on Macedon, arguing that they were intervening to protect the freedom of the Greeks. After campaigns in Macedonia in 199 BC and Thessaly in 198 BC, Philip and his Macedonian forces were decisively defeated at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC; the war proved the superiority of the Roman legion over the Greek phalanx formation.
The resulting peace treaty between Philip V and the Romans confined Philip to Macedonia and required him to pay 1000 talents indemnity, surrender most of his fleet and provide a number of hostages, including his younger son Demetrius. After this, Philip cooperated with the Romans and sent help to them in their fight against the Spartans under King Nabis in 195 BC. Philip supported the Romans against Antiochus III. In return for his help when Roman forces under Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus and his brother Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus moved through Macedon and Thrace in 190 BC, the Romans forgave the remaining indemnity that he had to pay and his son Demetrius was freed. Philip focused on consolidating power within Macedon, he reorganised the country's internal affairs and finances, mines were reopened, a new currency was issued. However, Rome continued to be suspicious of Philip's intentions. Accusations by Macedon's neighboring states Pergamon, led to constant interference from Rome.
Feeling the threat growing that Rome would invade Macedon and remove him as king, he tried to extend his influence in the Balkans by force and diplomacy. However, his efforts were undermined by the pro-Roman policy of his younger son Demetrius, encouraged by Rome to consider the possibility of succession ahead of his older brother, Perseus; this led to a quarrel between Perseus and Demetrius which