Acanthopterygii is a superorder of bony fishes in the class Actinopterygii. Members of this superorder are sometimes called ray-finned fishes for the characteristic sharp, bony rays in their fins. Order Mugiliformes, the mullets Order Atheriniformes, including silversides and rainbowfishes Order Beloniformes, including the flyingfishes Order Cetomimiformes, the whalefishes Order Cyprinodontiformes, including livebearers, killifishes Order Stephanoberyciformes, including the ridgeheads Order Beryciformes, including the fangtooths and pineconefishes Order Zeiformes, including the dories Order Gobiesociformes, the clingfishes Order Gasterosteiformes including the sticklebacks Order Syngnathiformes, including the seahorses and pipefishes Order Synbranchiformes, including the swamp eels Order Tetraodontiformes, including the filefishes and pufferfishes Order Pleuronectiformes, the flatfishes Order Scorpaeniformes, including the scorpionfishes Order Perciformes 40% of all fishes including anabantids, cichlids, gouramis, perches, whitings, wrasses The cladogram is based on Near et al. 2012 and Betancur-Rodriguez et al.
2016. Acanthopterygii at thefreedictionary.com Tree of Life: Acanthopterygii
The spotfin lionfish or broadbarred firefish is a fish found in the tropical Indian and Western Pacific Oceans. Its typical habitat is in lagoons and reefs, where it hides during the day and hunts shrimp and crab at night. Media related to Pterois antennata at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Pterois antennata at Wikispecies
The poachers are a family of small, bottom-dwelling, cold-water marine fish. They are known as alligatorfishes, starsnouts and rockheads. Poachers are notable for having elongated bodies covered by scales modified into bony plates, for using their large pectoral fins to move in short bursts; the family includes about 47 species in some 20 genera. The pelvic fins are nearly vestigial consisting of one small spine and a few rays; the swim bladder is not present. At 42 centimetres in length, the dragon poacher Percis japonica is the largest member of the family, while Bothragonus occidentalis is 7 cm long as an adult. Poachers feed on small crustaceans and marine worms found on the bottom; some species camouflage themselves with sponges, or seaweed. They live at 1,280 m deep, with only a few species preferring coastal waters. All but one species are restricted to the Northern Hemisphere
Little velvetfishes or velvetfishes are a family, the Aploactinidae, of scorpaeniform fishes. As the name implies, they are small fish, they are flattened in shape, with small pelvic fins, a fleshy pad under the head, which, in at least one species, forms a sucker for attaching the fish to the sea floor. Some have venomous spines, they live on the sea bottom close to the shore, at depths of up to 100 metres. There are about forty known species of velvetfish, since they are seen, it is that there are many more remaining to be discovered; the species are grouped into 17 genera. A recent study placed the waspfishes into an expanded stonefish clade because all of these fish have a lachrymal saber that can project a switch-blade-like mechanism out from underneath their eye
A flathead is one of a number of small to medium fish species with notably flat heads, distributed in membership across various genera of the family Platycephalidae. Many species are found in the Indo-Pacific most parts of Australia where they are popular sport and table fish, they inhabit the open ocean. The Flathead are a popular table fish. Flathead are notable for their unusual body shape. Flathead are dorsally compressed, meaning their body is wide but flattened and low in height. Both eyes are on the top of the flattened head, giving excellent binocular vision to attack overhead prey; the effect is somewhat similar to flounders. In contrast to flounder, flathead are much more elongated, the tail remains vertical, the mouth is large and symmetrical. Flathead use this body structure to hide in sand, with only their eyes visible, explode upwards and outwards to engulf small fish and prawns as they drift over, using a combination of ram and suction feeding thereby improving their chances to catch prey.
Flathead have two short spikes on either side of their heads and on top of their heads that contain venom. The venom, while not fatal, can cause infection for no more than about 2 days; some anglers believe the pain of the sting of the flathead fish can be reduced by rubbing the slime of the belly of the same fish that caused the sting on the inflicted wound, due to a particular gland in its belly. Dusky Flatheads are found in estuaries and coastal bays from Cairns in Queensland to the Gippsland Lakes in Victoria, they occur over sand, mud and seagrass and can inhabit estuarine waters up to the tidal limit. Oceanic flathead species are, as named located more offshore than the dusky flathead, frequenting the sandy zones around and between coastal reefs. Fishermen catch flathead on a variety of baits and artificial lures all year round, but they are more caught during summer. Only a handful of the many flathead species are caught by fishermen. Flathead species found in higher latitude areas are more welcome at the table.
The Australian state of New South Wales has a substantial commercial flathead catch. Platycephalidae Platycephalus Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. Species of Platycephalidae in FishBase. January 2007 version. Photos of several species of Crocodilefishes
Fins are the most distinctive anatomical features of a fish. They are composed of bony spines or rays protruding from the body with skin covering them and joining them together, either in a webbed fashion, as seen in most bony fish, or similar to a flipper, as seen in sharks. Apart from the tail or caudal fin, fish fins have no direct connection with the spine and are supported only by muscles, their principal function is to help. Fins located in different places on the fish serve different purposes such as moving forward, keeping an upright position or stopping. Most fish use fins when swimming, flying fish use pectoral fins for gliding, frogfish use them for crawling. Fins can be used for other purposes. For every type of fin, there are a number of fish species in which this particular fin has been lost during evolution. Bony fishes form, they have skeletons made of bone, can be contrasted with cartilaginous fishes which have skeletons made of cartilage. Bony fishes are divided into lobe-finned fish.
Most fish are ray-finned, an diverse and abundant group consisting of over 30,000 species. It is the largest class of vertebrates in existence today. In the distant past, lobe-finned fish were abundant. Nowadays they are extinct, with only eight living species. Bony fish have fin rays called lepidotrichia, they have swim bladders, which allows the fish to create a neutral balance between sinking and floating without having to use its fins. However, swim bladders are absent in many fish, most notably in Lungfishes, which are the only fish to have retained the primitive lung present in the common ancestor of bony fish from which swim bladders evolved. Bony fishes have an operculum, which helps them breathe without having to use fins to swim. Lobe-finned fishes are a class of bony fishes called Sarcopterygii, they have fleshy, paired fins, which are joined to the body by a single bone. The fins of lobe-finned fish differ from those of all other fish in that each is borne on a fleshy, scaly stalk extending from the body.
Pectoral and pelvic fins have articulations resembling those of tetrapod limbs. These fins evolved into legs of the first tetrapod land vertebrates, amphibians, they possess two dorsal fins with separate bases, as opposed to the single dorsal fin of ray-finned fish. The coelacanth is a lobe-finned fish, still extant, it is thought to have evolved into its current form about 408 million years ago, during the early Devonian. Locomotion of the coelacanths is unique to their kind. To move around, coelacanths most take advantage of up or downwellings of the current and drift, they use their paired fins to stabilize their movement through the water. While on the ocean floor their paired fins are not used for any kind of movement. Coelacanths can create thrust for quick starts by using their caudal fins. Due to the high number of fins they possess, coelacanths have high maneuverability and can orient their bodies in any direction in the water, they have been seen swimming belly up. It is thought that their rostral organ helps give the coelacanth electroperception, which aids in their movement around obstacles.
Ray-finned fishes are a class of bony fishes called Actinopterygii. Their fins contain rays. A fin may contain only soft rays, or a combination of both. If both are present, the spiny rays are always anterior. Spines are stiff and sharp. Rays are soft, flexible and may be branched; this segmentation of rays is the main difference. Spines have a variety of uses. In catfish, they are used as a form of defense. Triggerfish use spines to lock themselves in crevices to prevent them being pulled out. Lepidotrichia are bony, bilaterally paired, segmented fin rays found in bony fishes, they develop around actinotrichia as part of the dermal exoskeleton. Lepidotrichia are composed of bone, but in early osteichthyans such as Cheirolepis, there was dentine and enamel, they appear as a series of disks stacked one on top of another. The genetic basis for the formation of the fin rays is thought to be genes coded for the production of certain proteins, it has been suggested that the evolution of the tetrapod limb from lobe-finned fishes is related to the loss of these proteins.
Cartilaginous fishes are a class of fishes called Chondrichthyes. They have skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone; the class includes sharks and chimaeras. Shark fin skeletons are elongated and supported with soft and unsegmented rays named ceratotrichia, filaments of elastic protein resembling the horny keratin in hair and feathers; the pectoral and pelvic girdles, which do not contain any dermal elements, did not connect. In forms, each pair of fins became ventrally connected in the middle when scapulocoracoid and pubioischiadic bars evolved. In rays, the pectoral fins have connected to the head and are flexible. One of the primary characteristics present in most sharks is the heterocercal tail, which aids in locomotion. Most sharks have eight fins. Sharks can only drift away from objects directly in front of them because
The black scorpionfish is a venomous scorpionfish, common in marine subtropical waters. It is widespread in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean from the British Isles to the Azores and Canary Islands, near the coasts of Morocco, in the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea; the black scorpionfish has a maximum length of about 37 cm but a more normal adult length is around 15 cm. The head is upwardly angled mouth. There is a short tentacle just above the eye and various other shorter tentacles and flaps of skin decorating the head; the dorsal fin has twelve spines and nine soft rays and the anal fin has two spines and six soft rays. The pectoral fins have sixteen to eighteen rays; the colour of this fish is brownish and there is a dark pigmented spot between the eighth and ninth dorsal spines. The fins are mottled with brown and the caudal fin has three vertical brown stripes; the black scorpionfish is native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Its range extends southwards from the southern half of the British Isles to the Azores, the Canary Islands and the northwestern coast of Africa.
It is found throughout the Black Sea down to depths of about 800 m. The black scorpionfish is a benthic species and is found resting among seaweed and on rocks, it is solitary, it feeds on small fishes such as blennies and gobies and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. Little is known about its reproduction