The Clan Wallace is a Lowland Scottish clan and is recognized as such by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. The most famous member of the clan was the Scottish patriot William Wallace of the late 13th and early 14th centuries; the Wallace family first came to Scotland with a Norman family in the 11th century. David I of Scotland was eager to extend the benefits of Norman influence and gave grants to the nobles of the south. Among them was Walter fitz Alan, who the Scottish king appointed his Steward in 1136. One of Fitzallan's followers was Richard Wallace from Oswestry who came north to try to improve his fortunes. Oswestry is on the Welsh border so it is possible that the name Wallace may be a corruption of Le Waleis meaning the "Welshman". However, while it is possible that the Wallaces were Britons from Wales, who came north with David I of Scotland in the eleventh century, another theory is that they were Britons who had settled in Strathclyde in the tenth century; the Steward received from King David lands in Ayrshire and so it was here that his follower Richard Wallace settled.
Richard Wallace was granted his own estate in Kyle, where it is claimed that his name Richard is still remembered in the placename of the village of Riccarton. Richard Wallace held lands in Kilmarnock and was a vassal of the High Steward of Scotland before 1160, his grandson was Adam Walays who in turn had two sons, the eldest of whom succeeded to the family estates in Ayrshire. Adam's younger son was Malcolm Wallace who received the lands of Auchinbothie and Elderslie in Renfrewshire. Malcolm Wallace appears in the Ragman Rolls of 1296 paying allegiance to Edward I of England, however he was one of the few Scottish nobles who refused to submit to Edward and as a result he and his son, were executed. According to some sources Malcolm was the father of the Scottish patriot William Wallace, however the seal of William Wallace, rediscovered in 1999, identifies him as the son of Alan Wallace of Ayrshire, who appears in the Ragman Roll of 1296 as "crown tenant of Ayrshire". Dr. Fiona Watson in "A Report into Sir William Wallace's connections with Ayrshire", published in March 1999, reassesses the early life of William Wallace and concludes, "Sir William Wallace was a younger son of Alan Wallace, a crown tenant in Ayrshire".
During the Wars of Scottish Independence William Wallace and Andrew de Moray began a successful military guerrilla campaign against the English. In 1297 they won a great and stunning victory over the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge, after which Wallace was knighted as Guardian of Scotland. Wallace was in command at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, but there he was defeated by the superiority of the English numbers. Wallace was captured at Robroyston near Glasgow and delivered to Edward Longshanks of England by a senior Scottish law officer - Sir John Mentieth. Wallace was subjected to a show trial, in which he was found guilty of treason and hanged and quartered at Smithfield, London in 1305; the Wallaces of Cragie from whom the senior branch of the clan is descended obtained their estate during the late 14th century, through the marriage to the heiress of Sir John Lindsay of Cragie. In October 1449, Sir John Wallace of Cragie was a commander at the victory over the English, at the Battle of Sark.
William Wallace of Carnell was killed at the Battle of Flodden in 1513. The Wallaces of Cragie branch descend from the uncle of the patriot, William Wallace, in 1669 Hugh Wallace of Craigie was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia. A contemporary Wallace, James Wallace served as a captain under General Robert Monro when he occupied Huntly Castle of the Clan Gordon in 1640. Another contemporary Wallace, Sir Hugh Wallace, a royalist raised a regiment for King Charles Stuart during the Puritan revolution of Oliver Cromwell. In 1669 Hugh Wallace of Cragie was one of the Scottish nobility, created a Baron of Nova Scotia under Sir William Alexander of Menstrie's scheme to promote that part of Canada as a Scottish colony. In the 17th century, mathematician John Wallis was the first to deal with the concept of infinity mathematically and paved the way for the development of calculus and binomial theorem in his 1657 work Arithmetica Infintorum. In the 19th century, eminent naturalist and author, Alfred Russel Wallace, developed his own theories on evolution, based on his studies of flora and fauna in South America and in the East Indies, independently of Charles Darwin.
Both theories were published in 1858. Thomas Wallace served as the vice-president of the British Board of Trade, who in 1821, cut the duties long imposed on Baltic timber. Sociologist Graham Wallas was an early leader of the Fabian Society, along with George Bernard Shaw, an organization which promoted the peaceful and democratic "permeation of politics with socialist and collectivist ideas." Sir Richard Wallace was a great collector of painting and furniture 18th-century French. He bequeathed his collections to the people of Britain; the current Chief of the Name and Arms of Wallace is Andrew Robert Wallace, son of former chief Ian Francis Wallace of that Ilk, the latter of which died on 14 May 2016 at the age of 89. Andrew Wallace is the 36th Chief of Clan Wallace. Ian, the former Chief, was the 35th Chief of the Clan, he became Chief upon the death of his brother, Lt. Col. Malcolm Robert Wallace, on 9 December 1990. Born 28 September 1926 Ian is the son of Colonel Robert Francis Hunter Wallace of that Ilk and Euphemia Hoskyns.
On February 2, 1963 he married Teresa Hyne Buckingham, daughter of Reverend Christopher Leigh Bu
A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are called service marks. The trademark owner can be business organization, or any legal entity. A trademark may be located on a label, a voucher, or on the product itself. For the sake of corporate identity, trademarks are displayed on company buildings; the first legislative act concerning trademarks was passed in 1266 under the reign of Henry III, requiring all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857; the Trade Marks Act 1938 of the United Kingdom changed the system, permitting registration based on "intent-to-use”, creating an examination based process, creating an application publication system. The 1938 Act, which served as a model for similar legislation elsewhere, contained other novel concepts such as "associated trademarks", a consent to use system, a defensive mark system, non claiming right system.
The symbols ™ and ® can be used to indicate trademarks. A trademark identifies the brand owner of a particular service. Trademarks can be used by others under licensing agreements; the unauthorized usage of trademarks by producing and trading counterfeit consumer goods is known as brand piracy. The owner of a trademark may pursue legal action against trademark infringement. Most countries require formal registration of a trademark as a precondition for pursuing this type of action; the United States and other countries recognize common law trademark rights, which means action can be taken to protect an unregistered trademark if it is in use. Still, common law trademarks offer the holder, in general, less legal protection than registered trademarks. A trademark may be designated by the following symbols: ™ ℠ ® A trademark is a name, phrase, symbol, image, or a combination of these elements. There is a range of non-conventional trademarks comprising marks which do not fall into these standard categories, such as those based on colour, smell, or sound.
Trademarks which are considered offensive are rejected according to a nation's trademark law. The term trademark is used informally to refer to any distinguishing attribute by which an individual is identified, such as the well-known characteristics of celebrities; when a trademark is used in relation to services rather than products, it may sometimes be called a service mark in the United States. The essential function of a trademark is to identify the commercial source or origin of products or services, so a trademark, properly called, indicates source or serves as a badge of origin. In other words, trademarks serve to identify a particular business as the source of goods or services; the use of a trademark in this way is known as trademark use. Certain exclusive rights attach to a registered mark. Trademark rights arise out of the use of, or to maintain exclusive rights over, that sign in relation to certain products or services, assuming there are no other trademark objections. Different goods and services have been classified by the International Classification of Goods and Services into 45 Trademark Classes.
The idea behind this system is to specify and limit the extension of the intellectual property right by determining which goods or services are covered by the mark, to unify classification systems around the world. In trademark treatises it is reported that blacksmiths who made swords in the Roman Empire are thought of as being the first users of trademarks. Other notable trademarks that have been used for a long time include Löwenbräu, which claims use of its lion mark since 1383; the first trademark legislation was passed by the Parliament of England under the reign of King Henry III in 1266, which required all bakers to use a distinctive mark for the bread they sold. The first modern trademark laws emerged in the late 19th century. In France the first comprehensive trademark system in the world was passed into law in 1857 with the "Manufacture and Goods Mark Act". In Britain, the Merchandise Marks Act 1862 made it a criminal offence to imitate another's trade mark'with intent to defraud or to enable another to defraud'.
In 1875, the Trade Marks Registration Act was passed which allowed formal registration of trade marks at the UK Patent Office for the first time. Registration was considered to comprise prima facie evidence of ownership of a trade mark and registration of marks began on 1 January 1876; the 1875 Act defined a registrable trade mark as'a device, or mark, or name of an individual or firm printed in some particular and distinctive manner. In the United States, Congress first atte
Triboluminescence is an optical phenomenon in which light is generated through the breaking of chemical bonds in a material when it is pulled apart, scratched, crushed, or rubbed. The phenomenon is not understood, but appears to be caused by the separation and reunification of electrical charges; the term comes from the Latin lumen. Triboluminescence can be observed when peeling adhesive tapes. Triboluminescence is used as a synonym for fractoluminescence. Triboluminescence differs from piezoluminescence in that a piezoluminescent material emits light when it is deformed, as opposed to broken; these are examples of mechanoluminescence, luminescence resulting from any mechanical action on a solid. The Uncompahgre Ute Indians from Central Colorado are one of the first documented groups of people in the world credited with the application of mechanoluminescence involving the use of quartz crystals to generate light; the Ute constructed special ceremonial rattles made from buffalo rawhide which they filled with clear quartz crystals collected from the mountains of Colorado and Utah.
When the rattles were shaken at night during ceremonies, the friction and mechanical stress of the quartz crystals impacting together produced flashes of light visible through the translucent buffalo hide. The first recorded observation is attributed to English scholar Francis Bacon when he recorded in his 1620 Novum Organum that "It is well known that all sugar, whether candied or plain, if it be hard, will sparkle when broken or scraped in the dark." The scientist Robert Boyle reported on some of his work on triboluminescence in 1663. In the late 1790s, sugar production began to produce more refined sugar crystals; these crystals were formed into a large solid cone for sale. This solid cone of sugar had to be broken into usable chunks using a device known as sugar nips. People began to notice. A important instance of triboluminescence occurred in Paris in 1675. Astronomer Jean-Felix Picard observed, his barometer consisted of a glass tube, filled with mercury. Whenever the mercury slid down the glass tube, the empty space above the mercury would glow.
While investigating this phenomenon, researchers discovered that static electricity could cause low-pressure air to glow. This discovery revealed the possibility of electric lighting. Materials scientists have not yet arrived at a full understanding of the effect, but the current theory of triboluminescence — based upon crystallographic and other experimental evidence — is that upon fracture of asymmetrical materials, charge is separated; when the charges recombine, the electrical discharge ionizes the surrounding air, causing a flash of light. Research further suggests that crystals which display triboluminescence must lack symmetry and be poor conductors. However, there are substances which break this rule, which do not possess asymmetry, yet display triboluminescence anyway, such as hexakisterbium iodide, it is thought. The biological phenomenon of triboluminescence is conditioned by recombination of free radicals during mechanical activation. A diamond may begin to glow; this happens to diamonds while a facet is being ground or the diamond is being sawn during the cutting process.
Diamonds may fluoresce red. Some other minerals, such as quartz, are triboluminescent. Ordinary Pressure-sensitive tape displays a glowing line where the end of the tape is being pulled away from the roll. In 1953, Soviet scientists observed; the mechanism of X-ray generation was studied further in 2008. Similar X-Ray emissions have been observed with metals; when sugar crystals are crushed, tiny electrical fields are created, separating positive and negative charges that create sparks while trying to reunite. Wint-O-Green Life Savers work well for creating such sparks, because wintergreen oil is fluorescent and converts ultraviolet light into blue light. Triboluminescence is a biological phenomenon observed in mechanical deformation and contact electrization of epidermal surface of osseous and soft tissues, at chewing food, at friction in joints of vertebrae, during sexual intercourse, during blood circulation. Fractoluminescence is used as a synonym for triboluminescence, it is the emission of light from the fracture of a crystal, but fracturing occurs with rubbing.
Depending upon the atomic and molecular composition of the crystal, when the crystal fractures a charge separation can occur making one side of the fractured crystal positively charged and the other side negatively charged. Like in triboluminescence, if the charge separation results in a large enough electric potential, a discharge across the gap and through the bath gas between the interfaces can occur; the potential at which this occurs depends upon the dielectric properties of the bath gas. The emission of electromagnetic radiation during plastic deformation and crack propagation in metals and rocks have been studied; the EMR emissions from metals and alloys have been explored and confirmed. Molotskii presented a dislocation mechanism for this type of EMR emissions. Sril
A tape dispenser is an object that holds a roll of tape and has a mechanism at one end to shear the tape. Dispensers vary based on the tape they dispense. Abundant and most common, clear tape dispensers are made of plastic, may be disposable. Other dispensers are stationary and may have sophisticated features to control tape usage and improve ergonomics. Prior to the development of the tape dispenser, 3M's standard clear scotch tape was sold as a roll, had to be peeled from the end and cut with scissors. To make the product more useful, the scotch tape sales manager at 3M, John Borden, designed the first tape dispenser in 1932, which had a built-in cutting mechanism and would hold the cut end of the tape until its next use. A handheld dispenser is a variation of handheld tape dispenser used to apply tape to close boxes, etc; some refer to it as a "tape gun". Some dispensers are small enough so that the dispenser, with the tape in it, can be taken to the point of application for operator ease; the dispenser helps the operator apply the tape.
Tabletop or desk dispensers are used to hold the tape and allow the operator to pull off the desired amount, tear the tape off, take the tape to the job. Tabletop dispensers are available with electrical assists to dispense and cut pressure-sensitive tape to a predetermined length, they are used in an industrial setting to increase productivity along manufacturing or assembly lines. They eliminate the need to manually measure and cut each individual piece of tape on high volumes of product or packaging. By automating this process, automatic tape dispensers reduce material waste caused by human error, they reduce the time needed to cut each piece of tape, therefore reducing labor costs and increasing productivity. Some taping machinery is semi-automatic: the operator takes an object and puts it in or through a machine which automatically applies the tape; this helps save time and controls the consumption of tape. Automatic equipment is available which does not require an operator. All functions can be automated.
High speed packaging machinery is an example of automated equipment. Gummed tape dispensers measure, dispense and cut gummed or water-activated adhesive tape; this tape is composed of a paper backing and adhesive glue, unable to adhere until it is "activated" by contact with water. To perform this step, gummed dispensers employ a water bottle and wetting brush to moisten each piece of tape as it is dispensed. Many gummed dispensers feature a heater, mounted over the feed area to maintain the dispenser’s water temperature; these heaters ensure maximum wetting, are ideal in cold climates. Gummed tape dispensers are used in packaging or shipping departments for closing corrugated boxes. Tape Wrangler
A mascot is any person, animal, or object thought to bring luck, or anything used to represent a group with a common public identity, such as a school, professional sports team, military unit, or brand name. Mascots are used as fictional, representative spokespeople for consumer products, such as the rabbit used in advertising and marketing for the General Mills brand of breakfast cereal, Trix. In the world of sports, mascots are used for merchandising. Team mascots are related to their respective team nicknames; this is true when the team's nickname is something, a living animal and/or can be made to have humanlike characteristics. For more abstract nicknames, the team may opt to have an unrelated character serve as the mascot. For example, the athletic teams of the University of Alabama are nicknamed the Crimson Tide, while their mascot is an elephant named Big Al. Team mascots may take the form of a logo, live animal, inanimate object, or a costumed character, appear at team matches and other related events, sports mascots are used as marketing tools for their teams to children.
Since the mid-20th century, costumed characters have provided teams with an opportunity to choose a fantasy creature as their mascot, as is the case with the Philadelphia Phillies' mascot, the Phillie Phanatic, the Philadelphia Flyers' mascot, Gritty. Costumed mascots are commonplace, are used as goodwill ambassadors in the community for their team, company, or organization such as the U. S. Forest Service's Smokey Bear, it was organisations that first thought of using animals as a form of mascot to bring entertainment and excitement for their spectators. Before mascots were fictional icons or people in suits, animals were used in order to bring a somewhat different feel to the game and to strike fear upon the rivalry teams; as the new era was changing and time went on, mascots evolved from predatory animals, to two-dimensional fantasy mascots, to what we know today, three-dimensional mascots. Stylistic changes in American puppetry in the mid-20th century, including the work of Jim Henson and Sid and Marty Krofft, soon were adapted to sports mascots.
It allowed people to not only have visual enjoyment but interact physically with the mascots. Marketers realized the great potential in three-dimensional mascots and took on board the costumed puppet idea; this change encouraged other companies to start creating their own mascots, resulting in mascots being a necessity amongst not only the sporting industry but for other organisations The word'mascot' originates from the French term'mascotte' which means lucky charm. This was used to describe anything; the word was first recorded in 1867 and popularised by a French composer Edmond Audran who wrote the opera La mascotte, performed in December 1880. The word entered the English language in 1881. However, before this, the terms were familiar to the people of France as a slang word used by gamblers; the term is a derivative of the word'masco' meaning sorceress or witch. Before the 19th century, the word'mascot' was associated with inanimate objects that would be seen such as a lock of hair or a figurehead on a sailing ship.
But from on until the present day, the term was seen to be associated with good luck animals, objects etc. The choice of mascot reflects the desired quality. Mascots may symbolize a local or regional trait, such as the Nebraska Cornhuskers' mascot, Herbie Husker: a stylized version of a farmer, owing to the agricultural traditions of the area in which the university is located. Pittsburg State University uses Gus the Gorilla as its mascot, "gorilla" being an old colloquial term for coal miners in the Southeast Kansas area in which the university was established. In the United States, controversy surrounds some mascot choices those using human likenesses. Mascots based on Native American tribes are contentious, as many argue that they constitute offensive exploitations of an oppressed culture. However, several Indian tribes have come out in support of keeping the names. For example, the Utah Utes and the Central Michigan Chippewas are sanctioned by local tribes, the Florida State Seminoles are supported by the Seminole Tribe of Florida in their use of Osceola and Renegade as symbols.
FSU chooses not to refer to them as mascots because of the offensive connotation. This has not, prevented fans from engaging in "Redface"—dressing up in stereotypical, Plains Indian outfits during games, or creating offensive banners saying "Scalp'em" as was seen at the 2014 Rose Bowl; some sports teams have "unofficial" mascots: individual supporters or fans that have become identified with the team. The New York Yankees have such an individual in fan Freddy Sez. Former Toronto Blue Jays mascot BJ Birdie was a costumed character created by a Blue Jays fan hired by the team to perform at their home games. USC Trojans mascot is Tommy Trojan. See also: Lists of sports mascots: Australian sports, Brazilian football, MLB, NBA, NFL, NHL, Olympics and Paralympics, U. S. colleges See also: Native American mascot controversy, List of sports team names and mascots derived from indigenous peoples Many sports teams in the United States have official mascots, sometimes enacted by costumed humans or live animals.
One of the earliest was a taxidermy mount for the Chicago Cubs, in 1908, a live animal used in 1916 by the same team. They abandoned the concept shortly thereafter and remained with
Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film. It was developed in Germany based on magnetic wire recording. Devices that record and play back audio and video using magnetic tape are tape recorders and video tape recorders respectively. A device that stores computer data on magnetic tape is known as a tape drive. Magnetic tape revolutionized reproduction and broadcasting, it allowed radio, which had always been broadcast live, to be recorded for or repeated airing. It allowed gramophone records to be recorded in multiple parts, which were mixed and edited with tolerable loss in quality, it was a key technology in early computer development, allowing unparalleled amounts of data to be mechanically created, stored for long periods, accessed. In recent decades, other technologies have been developed that can perform the functions of magnetic tape. In many cases, these technologies have replaced tape. Despite this, innovation in the technology continues, Sony and IBM continue to produce new magnetic tape drives.
Over time, magnetic tape made in the 1970s and 1980s can suffer from a type of deterioration called sticky-shed syndrome. It can render the tape unusable; the oxide side of a tape is the surface. This is the side that stores the information, the opposite side is a substrate to give the tape strength and flexibility; the name originates from the fact that the magnetic side of most tapes is made of iron oxide, though chromium is used for some tapes. An adhesive binder between the oxide and the substrate holds the two sides together. In all tape formats, a tape drive uses motors to wind the tape from one reel to another, passing over tape heads to read, write or erase as it moves. Magnetic tape was invented for recording sound by Fritz Pfleumer in 1928 in Germany, based on the invention of magnetic wire recording by Oberlin Smith in 1888 and Valdemar Poulsen in 1898. Pfleumer's invention used a ferric oxide powder coating on a long strip of paper; this invention was further developed by the German electronics company AEG, which manufactured the recording machines and BASF, which manufactured the tape.
In 1933, working for AEG, Eduard Schuller developed the ring-shaped tape head. Previous head designs were tended to shred the tape. Another important discovery made in this period was the technique of AC biasing, which improved the fidelity of the recorded audio signal by increasing the effective linearity of the recording medium. Due to the escalating political tensions, the outbreak of World War II, these developments in Germany were kept secret. Although the Allies knew from their monitoring of Nazi radio broadcasts that the Germans had some new form of recording technology, its nature was not discovered until the Allies acquired captured German recording equipment as they invaded Europe at the end of the war, it was only after the war that Americans Jack Mullin, John Herbert Orr, Richard H. Ranger, were able to bring this technology out of Germany and develop it into commercially viable formats. A wide variety of recorders and formats have been developed since, most reel-to-reel and Compact Cassette.
The practice of recording and editing audio using magnetic tape established itself as an obvious improvement over previous methods. Many saw the potential of making the same improvements in recording the video signals used by television. Video signals use more bandwidth than audio signals. Existing audio tape recorders could not capture a video signal. Many set to work on resolving this problem. Jack Mullin and the BBC both created crude working systems that involved moving the tape across a fixed tape head at high speeds. Neither system saw much use, it was the team at Ampex, led by Charles Ginsburg, that made the breakthrough of using a spinning recording head and normal tape speeds to achieve a high head-to-tape speed that could record and reproduce the high bandwidth signals of video. The Ampex system was called Quadruplex and used 2-inch-wide tape, mounted on reels like audio tape, which wrote the signal in what is now called transverse scan. Improvements by other companies Sony, led to the development of helical scan and the enclosure of the tape reels in an easy-to-handle videocassette cartridge.
Nearly all modern videotape systems use helical cartridges. Videocassette recorders used to be common in homes and television production facilities, but many functions of the VCR have been replaced with more modern technology. Since the advent of digital video and computerized video processing, optical disc media and digital video recorders can now perform the same role as videotape; these devices offer improvements like random access to any scene in the recording and the ability to pause a live program and have replaced videotape in many situations. Magnetic tape was first used to record computer data in 1951 on the Eckert-Mauchly UNIVAC I; the system's UNISERVO I tape drive used a thin strip of one half inch wide metal, consisting of nickel-plated bronze. Recording density was 100 characters per inch on eight tracks. Early IBM 7 track tape drives were floor-standing and used vacuum columns to mechanically buffer long U-shaped loops of tape; the two tape reels visibly fed tape through the columns, intermittently spinning the reels in rapid, unsynchronized bursts, resulting in visually striking action.
Stock shots of such vacuum-column tape drives in motion were used to represent "the computer" in movies and televis
Duct tape called duck tape, is cloth- or scrim-backed pressure-sensitive tape coated with polyethylene. There are a variety of constructions using different backings and adhesives, the term'duct tape' is used to refer to all sorts of different cloth tapes of differing purposes. Duct tape is confused with gaffer tape. Another variation is heat-resistant foil duct tape useful for sealing heating and cooling ducts, produced because standard duct tape fails when used on heating ducts. Duct tape is silvery gray, but available in other colors and printed designs. During World War II, Revolite developed an adhesive tape made from a rubber-based adhesive applied to a durable duck cloth backing; this tape was used as sealing tape on some ammunition cases during that period. The first material called "duck tape" was long strips of plain cotton duck cloth used in making shoes stronger, for decoration on clothing, for wrapping steel cables or electrical conductors to protect them from corrosion or wear. For instance, in 1902, steel cables supporting the Manhattan Bridge were first covered in linseed oil wrapped in duck tape before being laid in place.
In the 1910s, certain boots and shoes used canvas duck fabric for the upper or for the insole, duck tape was sometimes sewn in for reinforcement. In 1936, the US-based Insulated Power Cables Engineers Association specified a wrapping of duck tape as one of many methods used to protect rubber-insulated power cables. In 1942, Gimbel's department store offered venetian blinds that were held together with vertical strips of duck tape. All of these foregoing uses were for plain cotton or linen tape that came without a layer of applied adhesive. Adhesive tapes of various sorts were in use by the 1910s, including rolls of cloth tape with adhesive coating one side. White adhesive tape made of cloth soaked in rubber and zinc oxide was used in hospitals to bind wounds, but other tapes such as friction tape or electrical tape could be substituted in an emergency. In 1930, the magazine Popular Mechanics described how to make adhesive tape at home using plain cloth tape soaked in a heated liquid mixture of rosin and rubber from inner tubes.
In 1923, Richard Gurley Drew working for 3M invented masking tape, a paper-based tape with a mildly sticky adhesive. In 1925 this became the Scotch brand masking tape. In 1930, Drew developed a transparent tape based on cellophane, called Scotch Tape; this tape was used beginning in the Great Depression to repair household items. Author Scott Berkun has written that duct tape is "arguably" a modification of this early success by 3M. However, neither of Drew's inventions was based on cloth tape; the idea for what became duct tape came from Vesta Stoudt, an ordnance-factory worker and mother of two Navy sailors, who worried that problems with ammunition box seals would cost soldiers precious time in battle. She wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1943 with the idea to seal the boxes with a fabric tape, which she had tested at her factory; the letter was forwarded to the War Production Board, who put Johnson on the job. The Revolite division of Johnson & Johnson had made medical adhesive tapes from duck cloth from 1927 and a team headed by Revolite's Johnny Denoye and Johnson & Johnson's Bill Gross developed the new adhesive tape, designed to be ripped by hand, not cut with scissors.
Their new unnamed product was made of thin cotton duck coated in waterproof polyethylene with a layer of rubber-based gray adhesive bonded to one side. It was easy to apply and remove, was soon adapted to repair military equipment including vehicles and weapons; this tape, colored in army-standard matte olive drab, was nicknamed "duck tape" by the soldiers. Various theories have been put forward for the nickname, including the descendant relation to cotton duck fabric, the waterproof characteristics of a duck bird, "Water off a duck's back", the name of the 1942 amphibious military vehicle DUKW, pronounced "duck". According to etymologist Jan Freeman, the story that duct tape was called duck tape is "quack etymology" that has spread "due to the reach of the Internet and the appeal of a good story" but "remains a statement of faith, not fact." She notes that duct tape is not made from duck cloth and there is no known primary-source evidence that it was referred to as duck tape. Her research does not show any use of the phrase "duck tape" in World War II, indicates that the earliest documented name for the adhesive product was "duct tape" in 1960.
The phrase "duck tape" to refer to an adhesive product does not appear until the 1970s and was not popularized until the 1980s, after the Duck brand became successful and after the New York Times referred to and defined the product under the name "duct tape" in 1973. After the war, the duck tape product was sold in hardware stores for household repairs; the Melvin A. Anderson Company of Cleveland, acquired the rights to the tape in 1950, it was used in construction to wrap air ducts. Following this application, the name "duct tape" came into use in the 1950s, along with tape products that were colored silvery gray like tin ductwork. Specialized heat - and cold-resistant tapes were developed for air-conditioning ducts. By 1960 a St. Louis, Missouri, HVAC company, Albert Arno, Inc. trademarked the name "Ductape" for their "flame-resistant" duct tape, capable of holding together at 350–400 °F. In 1971, Jack Kahl renamed it Manco. In 1975, Kahl rebranded the duct tape made by his company; because the used gene