Perth is a city in central Scotland, on the banks of the River Tay. It is the administrative centre of Perth and Kinross council area and the historic county town of Perthshire, it has a population of about 47,180. Perth has been known as The Fair City since the publication of the story Fair Maid of Perth by Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott in 1828. During the medieval period the city was called St John's Toun or Saint Johnstoun by its inhabitants in reference to the main church dedicated to St John the Baptist; this name is preserved by the city's football teams, St Johnstone F. C. There has been a settlement at Perth since prehistoric times, on a natural mound raised above the flood plain of the Tay, where the river could be crossed at low tide; the area surrounding the modern city is known to have been occupied since Mesolithic hunter-gatherers arrived more than 8,000 years ago. Nearby Neolithic standing stones and circles exist, dating from about 4000 BC, following the introduction of farming in the area.
The presence of Scone Abbey, home of the Stone of Scone where the King of Scots was crowned, enhanced the early importance of the city. Perth became known as a ` capital' of Scotland. Royal Burgh status was soon given to the city by King William the Lion in the early 12th century; the city became one of the richest burghs in the country, doing trade with France, the Low Countries and Baltic Countries for goods such as Spanish silk and French wine. The Scottish Reformation played a big role in the city with the sacking of the Houses of the Greyfriars and Blackfriars, after a sermon given by John Knox in St John's Kirk in 1559; the Act of Settlement brought about Jacobite uprisings. The city was occupied by Jacobite supporters on three occasions; the founding of Perth Academy in 1760 helped to bring major industries, such as linen, leather and whisky, to the city. Given its location, Perth was placed to become a key transport centre with the coming of the railways, its first station was built in 1848.
Today, Perth serves as a retail centre for the surrounding area. Following the decline of the whisky industry locally, the city's economy has now diversified to include insurance and banking. Due to its location, the city is referred to as the "Gateway to the Highlands". Perth in Australia and Perth in Canada are both named after Perth in Scotland. Perth is twinned with Aschaffenburg in the German state of Bavaria; the name Perth derives from a Pictish word for copse. During much of the medieval period it was known colloquially by its Scots-speaking inhabitants as "St John's Toun" or "Saint Johnstoun" because the church at the centre of the parish was dedicated to St John the Baptist. Perth was referred to as "St Johns ton" up until the mid-1600s with the name "Perthia" being reserved for the wider area. At this time, "Perthia" became. Perth's Pictish name, some archaeological evidence, indicate that there must have been a settlement here from earlier times at a point where a river crossing or crossings coincided with a raised natural mound on the west bank of the Tay, thus giving some protection for settlement from the frequent flooding.
Finds in and around Perth show that it was occupied by the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who arrived in the area more than 8,000 years ago. Nearby Neolithic standing stones and circles followed the introduction of farming from about 4000 BC, a remarkably well preserved Bronze age log boat dated to around 1000 BC was found in the mudflats of the River Tay at Carpow to the east of Perth; the presence of Scone two miles northeast, the main royal centre of the Kingdom of Alba from at least the reign of Kenneth I mac Ailpín the site of the major Augustinian abbey of the same name founded by Alexander I, enhanced Perth's early importance. Perth was considered the effective'capital' of Scotland, due to the frequent residence of the royal court. Royal Burgh status was soon awarded to the city from King William the Lion in the early 12th century. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Perth was one of the richest trading burghs in the kingdom, residence of numerous craftsmen, organised into guilds. Perth carried out an extensive trade with France, The Low Countries and the Baltic Countries with luxury goods being brought back in return, such as Spanish silk and French pottery and wine.
The royal castle, was destroyed by a flood of the Tay in 1209, one of many that have afflicted Perth over the centuries. It was never rebuilt and Perth was protected at this time only by partial walls and an inventive water system consisting of a Mill lade from the River Almond which divided and flowed to the North on one side and the West and South on the other joining the Tay. King Edward I brought his armies to Perth in 1296 and with only a ditch for defence and little fortification, the city fell quickly. Stronger fortifications were implemented by the English, plans to wall the city took shape in 1304, they remained standing until Robert the Bruce's recapture of Perth in 1312. As part of a plan to make Perth a permanent English base within Scotland, Edward III forced six monasteries in Perthshire and Fife to pay for the construction of stone defensive walls and fortified gates around the city in 1336; these defences were the strongest of any city in Scotland in
The Davidian Revolution is a term given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I. These included his foundation of burghs, implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform, foundation of monasteries, Normanization of the Scottish government, the introduction of feudalism through immigrant Norman and Anglo-Norman knights. King David I is still regarded as one of the most significant rulers in Scotland's history; the reason is what Barrow and Lynch both call the "Davidian Revolution". David's "revolution" is held to underpin the development of medieval Scotland, whereby the changes that he inaugurated grew into most of the central non-native institutions of the medieval kingdom. Barrow summarizes the many and varied goals of David I, all of which began and ended with his determination "to surround his fortified royal residence and its mercantile and ecclesiastical satellites with a ring of close friends and supporters, bound to him and his heirs by feudal obligation and capable of rendering him military service of the most up-to-date kind and filling administrative offices at the highest level".
Since Robert Bartlett's The Making of Europe: Conquest and Cultural Change, 950–1350, reinforced by Moore's The First European Revolution, c.970–1215, it has become apparent that better understanding of David's "revolution" can be achieved by placing it in the context of a wider European "revolution". The central idea is that from the late 10th century onwards the culture and institutions of the old Carolingian heartlands in northern France and western Germany spread to outlying areas, creating a more recognizable "Europe". In this model, the old Carolingian Empire formed a "core" and the outlying areas a "periphery"; the Norman conquest of England in the years after 1066 is considered to have made England more like if not part of this "core". In applying this model to Scotland, it would be considered that, as as the reign of David's father Máel Coluim III, "peripheral" Scotland had lacked – in relation to the "core" cultural regions of northern France, western Germany and England – respectable Catholic religion, a centralized royal government, conventional written documents of any sort, native coins, a single merchant town, as well as the essential castle-building cavalry elite.
After David's reign, it had gained all of these. During the reign of king David I comparatively straightforward evidence of "Europeanization" was produced in Scotland – that adoption of the homogenized political, economic and cultural modes of medieval civilization, suitably modified for the distinctive Scottish milieu, which in tandem with similar adoptions elsewhere led to the creation of "Europe" as an identifiable entity for the first time; this is not to say that the Gaelic matrix into which these additions were disseminated was somehow destroyed or swept away. Yet, David's life as a "reformer" has a context in the Gaelic-speaking world; this is true in understanding David's enthusiasm for the Gregorian Reform. The latter was a revolutionary movement within the western church pioneered in the papacy of Pope Gregory VII which sought renewed spiritual rigour, ecclesiastical discipline and doctrinal obedience to the papacy and its sponsored theologians; the Normans who came to England adopted this ideology, soon began attacking the Scottish and Irish Gaelic world as spiritually backward – a mindset which underlay the hagiography of David's mother Margaret, written by her confessor Thurgot at the instigation of the English royal court.
Yet up until this period, Gaelic monks from Ireland and Scotland had been pioneering their own kind of ascetic reform both in Great Britain and in continental Europe, where they founded many of their own monastic houses. Since the end of the 11th century various Gaelic princes had themselves been attempting to accommodate Gregorian reform, examples being Muirchertach Ua Briain, Toirdelbach Ua Conchobair, Edgar and Alexander I of Scotland. Benjamin Hudson stresses the cultural unity of Scotland and Ireland in this period, uses the example of cooperation between David I, the Scottish reformer, his Irish counterpart St Malachy, to show at least that David's actions can be understood in the Gaelic context as much as the Anglo-Norman one. Indeed, the Gaelic world had never been closed off from its neighbours in England or continental Europe. Gaelic warriors and holymen had been travelling through England and the continent for centuries. David's predecessor Mac Bethad mac Findlaích had employed Norman mercenaries before the conquest of England, English exiles after the conquest fled to the courts of both Máel Coluim III, King of Scotland, Toirdelbach Ua Briain, High King of Ireland.
The widespread infeftment of foreign knights and the processes by which land ownership was converted from a matter of customary tenure into a matter of feudal or otherwise legally-defined relationships revolutionized the way the Kingdom of Scotland was governed, as did the dispersal and installation of royal agents in the new mottes that were proliferating throughout the realm to staff newly created sheriffdoms and judiciaries for the twin purposes of law-enforcement and taxation, bringing Scotland further into the "European" model. During this period, Scotland experienced innovations in governmental practices and the importation of foreign French, knights, it is to David's reign that the beginnings of feudalism are assigned. Geoffrey Barrow wr
Scotland during the Roman Empire
Scotland during the Roman Empire refers to the protohistorical period during which the Roman Empire interacted with the area, now Scotland, known to them as "Caledonia". Roman legions arrived around AD 71, having conquered the Celtic tribes of "Britain" over the preceding three decades. Aiming to annex all of the island of "Albion", Romans under Q. Petilius Cerialis and Gn. Julius Agricola invaded the Caledonians in the 80s. An account by Agricola's son-in-law Tacitus mentions a Roman victory at "Mons Graupius" which became the namesake of the Grampians but has been questioned by modern scholarship; the Romans seem to have repeated an earlier Greek circumnavigation of the island and received submission from local tribes, establishing their border of actual control first along the Gask Ridge before withdrawing to a line south of the Solway Firth. This line was fortified as Hadrian's Wall. Several Roman commanders attempted to conquer lands north of this line, including a brief expansion, fortified as the Antonine Wall.
Despite grandiose claims made by an 18th-century forged manuscript, however, it is now believed that the Romans at no point controlled half of present-day Scotland and that Roman legions ceased to affect the area after around 211. The history of the period is not well-documented; the province of Valentia, for instance, may have been the lands between the two Roman walls, or the territory around and south of Hadrian's Wall, or Roman Wales. Romans held most of their Caledonian territory only a little over 40 years; some Scottish historians such as Alistair Moffat maintain Roman influence was inconsequential."Scots" and "Scotland" proper would not emerge as unified ideas until centuries later. In fact, the Roman Empire influenced every part of Scotland during the period: by the time of the Roman withdrawal from Britain around 410, the various Iron Age tribes native to the area had united as, or fallen under the control of, the Picts, while the southern half of the country was overrun by tribes of Romanized Britons.
The Scoti who would give Scotland its English name, had begun to settle along the west coast. All three groups may have been involved in the Great Conspiracy that overran Roman Britain in 367; the era saw the emergence of the earliest historical accounts of the natives. The most enduring legacies of Rome, were Christianity and literacy, both of which arrived indirectly via Irish missionaries. Scotland had been inhabited for thousands of years. However, it is only during the Greco-Roman period; the work On the Cosmos by Aristotle or Pseudo-Aristotle mentions two "very large" islands called Albion and Ierne. The Greek explorer and geographer Pytheas visited Britain sometime between 322 and 285 BC and may have circumnavigated the mainland, which he describes as being triangular in shape. In his work On the Ocean, he refers to the most northerly point as Orcas; the earliest written record of a formal connection between Rome and Scotland is the attendance of the "King of Orkney", one of 11 British kings who submitted to the Emperor Claudius at Colchester in AD 43 following the invasion of southern Britain three months earlier.
The long distances and short period of time involved suggest a prior connection between Rome and Orkney, although no evidence of this has been found and the contrast with Caledonian resistance is striking. Originals of On the Ocean do not survive, but copies are known to have existed in the 1st century so at the least a rudimentary knowledge of the geography of north Britain would have been available to Roman military intelligence. Pomponius Mela, the Roman geographer, recorded in his De Chorographia, written around AD 43, that there were 30 Orkney islands and seven Haemodae. There is evidence of an Orcadian connection with Rome prior to AD 60 from pottery found at the Broch of Gurness. By the time of Pliny the Elder, Roman knowledge of the geography of Scotland had extended to the Hebudes, the Caledonian Forest, the Caledonians. Ptolemy drawing on earlier sources of information as well as more contemporary accounts from the Agricolan invasion, identified 18 tribes in Scotland in his Geography, but many of the names are obscure.
His information becomes much less reliable in the north and west, suggesting early Roman knowledge of these area was confined to observations from the sea. Famously, his coördinates place most of Scotland north of Hadrian's Wall bent at a right angle, stretching due eastward from the rest of Britain. Ptolemy's tribes located north of the Forth-Clyde isthmus include the Cornovii in Caithness, the Caereni, Carnonacae, Decantae and Creones north of the Great Glen, the Taexali in the north-east, the Epidii in Argyll, the Venicones in Fife, the Caledonians in the central Highlands and the Vacomagi centred near Strathmore, it is that all of these cultures spoke a form of Celtic language known as Pritennic. The occupants of southern Scotland were the Damnonii in the Clyde valley, the Novantae in Galloway, the Selgovae on the south coast and the Votadini to the east; these peoples may have spoken a form of Brythonic language. Despite the discovery of many hundreds of Iron Age sites in Scotland there is still a great deal that remains to be explained about the nature of the Celtic life in the early Christian era.
Radiocarbon dating for this period is problematic and chronological sequences are poorly understood. For a variety of reasons much of the archaeological work to date in Scotland has concentrated on
The Highland Clearances were the evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands in the period 1750 to 1860. In the first phase, clearance resulted from agricultural improvement, driven by the need for landlords to increase their income; this involved the enclosure of the open fields managed on the shared grazing. In the North and West of the region, these were replaced with large scale pastoral farms stocked with sheep, on which much higher rents were paid, with the displaced tenants getting alternative tenancies in newly created crofting communities, where they were expected to be employed in industries such as fishing, quarrying or the kelp industry; the reduction in status from farmer to crofter was one of the causes of resentment from these changes.:212The second phase involved overcrowded crofting communities from the first phase that had lost the means to support themselves, through famine and/or collapse of industries that they had relied on, as well as continuing population growth.
This is when "assisted passages" were common, when landowners paid the fares for their tenants to emigrate. Tenants who were selected for this had, in practical terms, little choice; the Highland Potato Famine struck towards the end of this period, giving greater urgency to the process. Agriculture in the Highlands had always been marginal, with famine a recurrent risk for pre-clearance communities.:47-48 Nevertheless, population levels increased through the 18th and early 19th century. This increase continued through nearly all of the time of the clearances, peaking in 1851, at around 300,000.:400 Emigration was part of Highland history before and during the clearances, reached its highest level after them.:2 During the first phase of the clearances, emigration could be considered a form of resistance to the loss of status being imposed by a landlord’s social engineering.:9The eviction of tenants went against dùthchas, the principle that clan members had an inalienable right to rent land in the clan territory.
This was never recognised in Scottish law. It was abandoned by clan chiefs as they began to think of themselves as commercial landlords, rather than as patriarchs of their people – a process that arguably started with the Statutes of Iona; the clan members continued to rely on dùthchas. This different viewpoint was an inevitable source of grievance.:35-36, 39, 60, 300 The actions of landlords varied. Some did try to delay or limit evictions to their financial cost; the Countess of Sutherland genuinely believed her plans were advantageous for those resettled in crofting communities and could not understand why tenants complained. A few landlords displayed complete lack of concern for evicted tenants. There is a substantial distance between the understanding of the Highland clearances held by historians and the popular view of these events; the subject was ignored by academic historians until the publication of a book by the journalist John Prebble in 1963.:1-13 However, a substantial body of academic work now exists on the subject, to the extent that there is an argument that the balance of work in Scottish history is excessively tilted toward the Highlands.:9 The definition of "clearance" is debatable.
The term was not in common use during much of the clearances. However, by 1843, "clearance" had become a general word to describe the activities of Highland landlords, its use was ambiguous, as for some it meant only the displacement of large numbers of people from a single place at one time. For others, the eviction of a single tenant at the end of a lease could be termed "clearance". Eric Richards suggests that current usage is broad, meaning "any displacement of occupiers by Highland landlords", he adds that it can apply to both large and small evictions, includes voluntary or forced removal and instances involving either emigration or resettlement nearby.:6-8 T. M. Devine takes the view that "clearance" has a broader meaning now than when it was used in the 19th century.:12 The first phase of the Highland Clearances was part of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution but happened than the same process in the Scottish Lowlands. Scottish agriculture in general modernised much more than in England and, to a large extent, elsewhere in Europe.
The growing cities of the Industrial Revolution presented an increased demand for food. Those working in this system lived in townships or bailtean. Under the run rig system, the open fields were divided into equivalent parts and these were allocated, once a year, to each of the occupiers, who worked their land individually. With no individual leases or ownership of plots of land, there was little incentive to improve it. Nor, with common grazing, could an individual owner improve the quality of his stock.:27 Enclosure of the common lands and the run rig fields was a method of improvement. More there was a greater change in land use: the replacement of mixed farming wi
Renaissance in Scotland
The Renaissance in Scotland was a cultural and artistic movement in Scotland, from the late fifteenth century to the beginning of the seventeenth century. It is associated with the pan-European Renaissance, regarded as beginning in Italy in the late fourteenth century and reaching northern Europe as a Northern Renaissance in the fifteenth century, it involved an attempt to revive the principles of the classical era, including humanism, a spirit of scholarly enquiry and concepts of balance and proportion. Since the twentieth century the uniqueness and unity of the Renaissance has been challenged by historians, but significant changes in Scotland can be seen to have taken place in education, intellectual life, art, architecture and politics; the court was central to the dissemination of Renaissance works and ideas. It was central to the staging of lavish display that portrayed the political and religious role of the monarchy; the Renaissance led to the adoption of ideas of imperial monarchy, encouraging the Scottish crown to join the new monarchies by asserting imperial jurisdiction and distinction.
The growing emphasis on education in the Middle Ages became part of a humanist and Protestant programme to extend and reform learning. It resulted in the expansion of the school system and the foundation of six university colleges by the end of the sixteenth century. Large numbers of Scottish scholars studied on the continent or in England and some, such as Hector Boece, John Mair, Andrew Melville and George Buchanan, returned to Scotland to play a major part in developing Scottish intellectual life. Vernacular works in Scots began to emerge in the fifteenth century, while Latin remained a major literary language. With the patronage of James V and James VI, writers included William Stewart, John Bellenden, David Lyndsay, William Fowler and Alexander Montgomerie. In the sixteenth century, Scottish kings – James V – built palaces in a Renaissance style, beginning at Linlithgow; the trend soon spread to members of the aristocracy. Painting was influenced by Flemish art, with works commissioned from the continent and Flemings serving as court artists.
While church art suffered iconoclasm and a loss of patronage as a result of the Reformation, house decoration and portraiture became significant for the wealthy, with George Jamesone emerging as the first major named artist in the early seventeenth century. Music incorporated wider European influences although the Reformation caused a move from complex polyphonic church music to the simpler singing of metrical psalms. Combined with the Union of Crowns in 1603, the Reformation removed the church and the court as sources of patronage, changing the direction of artistic creation and limiting its scope. In the early seventeenth century the major elements of the Renaissance began to give way to Stoicism and the Baroque. Renaissance is a concept formulated by cultural historian Jacob Burckhardt in the mid-nineteenth century to describe the intellectual and artistic movement that began in Italy in the fourteenth century and saw an attempt to revive the principles of the Greek and Roman classical worlds.
It encompassed a rational and sceptical attitude, a return to ideas of original sources and proportion and balance in art. The major ideas of the Renaissance are considered to have reached Northern Europe much in the late fifteenth century. Scotland has been seen as part of a wider Northern Renaissance, considered to have stretched into the early seventeenth century, when it was replaced by the grander styles of the Baroque. However, the association of Baroque styles with Catholicism in predominantly Protestant Scotland tended to result in this trend being overlooked and the period from about 1620 to the end of the seventeenth century is sometimes characterised as a late Renaissance. In the twentieth century, historians disputed the validity of the concept of a Renaissance as unique, as a reaction against the "dark age" of the Medieval, as a clear break with the past and as a unified movement. Instead they emphasised the many intellectual trends and movements that went before it, such as the twelfth-century Renaissance on which it built.
It was once common for historians to suggest that Scotland had little or no participation in the Renaissance. More the significant changes in intellectual and cultural life in the period have been seen as forming a watershed in Scottish cultural history; this has been perceived as opening the path for the Reformation, for the modernisation of thought and social life in the Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution, to which Scotland would make a significant contribution. The court was central to the dissemination of Renaissance works and ideas, it was central to the staging of lavish display that portrayed the political and religious role of the monarchy. This display was tied up with ideas of chivalry, evolving in this period from a practical military ethos into a more ornamental and honorific cult, it saw its origins in the classical era, with Hector of Troy, Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar depicted as proto-knights. Tournaments provided one focus of display, the most famous being those of the Wild Knight in 1507 and the Black Lady in 1508 under James IV.
They were pursued enthusiastically by James V who, proud of his membership of international orders of knighthood, displayed their insignia on the Gateway at Linlithgow Palace. During her brief personal rule, Queen of Scots brought with her many of the elaborate court activities that she had grown up with at the French court, she introduced balls and celebrations designed to illustrate the resurgence of the monarchy a
Scotland in the modern era
Scotland in the modern era, from the end of the Jacobite risings and beginnings of industrialisation in the 18th century to the present day, has played a major part in the economic and political history of the United Kingdom, British Empire and Europe, while recurring issues over the status of Scotland, its status and identity have dominated political debate. Scotland made a major contribution to the intellectual life of Europe in the Enlightenment, producing major figures including the economist Adam Smith, philosophers Francis Hutcheson and David Hume, scientists William Cullen, Joseph Black and James Hutton. In the 19th century major figures included James Watt, James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin and Sir Walter Scott. Scotland's economic contribution to the Empire and the industrial revolution included its banking system and the development of cotton, coal mining, shipbuilding and an extensive railway network. Industrialisation and changes to agriculture and society led to depopulation and clearances of the rural highlands, migration to the towns and mass immigration, where Scots made a major contribution to the development of countries including the US, Canada and New Zealand.
In the 20th century, Scotland played a major role in the British and allied effort in the two world wars and began to suffer a sharp industrial decline, going through periods of considerable political instability. The decline was acute in the second half of the 20th century, but was compensated for to a degree by the development of an extensive oil industry, technological manufacturing and a growing service sector; this period increasing debates about the place of Scotland within the United Kingdom, the rise of the Scottish National Party and after a referendum in 1999 the establishment of a devolved Scottish Parliament. With the advent of the Union with England and the demise of Jacobitism, thousands of Scots Lowlanders, took up positions of power in politics, civil service, the army and navy, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas across the nascent British Empire. Historian Neil Davidson notes that "after 1746 there was an new level of participation by Scots in political life outside Scotland".
Davidson states that "far from being'peripheral' to the British economy, Scotland – or more the Lowlands – lay at its core". Scottish politics in the late 18th century and throughout the 19th century was dominated by the Whigs and their successors the Liberal Party. From the Scottish Reform Act 1832, until the end of the century they managed to gain a majority of the Westminster Parliamentary seats for Scotland, although these were outnumbered by the much larger number of English and Welsh Conservatives. English-educated Scottish peer Lord Aberdeen led a coalition government from 1852 to 1855, but in general few Scots held office in the government. From the mid-century there were increasing calls for Home Rule for Scotland and when the Conservative Lord Salisbury became prime minister in 1885 he responded to pressure for more attention to be paid to Scottish issues by reviving the post of Secretary of State for Scotland, in abeyance since 1746, he appointed the Duke of Richmond, a wealthy landowner, both Chancellor of Aberdeen University and Lord Lieutenant of Banff.
Towards the end of the century the first Scottish Liberal to become prime minister was the Earl of Rosebery, like Aberdeen before him a product of the English education system. In the 19th century the issue of Irish Home Rule led to a split among the Liberals, with a minority breaking away to form the Liberal Unionists in 1886; the growing importance of the working classes was marked by Keir Hardie's success in the Mid Lanarkshire by-election, 1888, leading to the foundation of the Scottish Labour Party, absorbed into the Independent Labour Party in 1895, with Hardie as its first leader. The main unit of local government was the parish, since it was part of the church, the elders imposed public humiliation for what the locals considered immoral behaviour, including fornication, wife beating and Sabbath breaking; the main focus was on the poor and the landlords and gentry, their servants, were not subject to the parish's discipline. The policing system disappeared in most places by the 1850s.
In the 18th century, the Scottish Enlightenment brought the country to the front of intellectual achievement in Europe. The poorest country in Western Europe in 1707, Scotland reaped the economic benefits of free trade within the British Empire together with the intellectual benefits of a developed university system. Under these twin stimuli, Scottish thinkers began questioning assumptions taken for granted; the first major philosopher of the Scottish Enlightenment was Francis Hutcheson, who held the Chair of Philosophy at the University of Glasgow from 1729 to 1746. A moral philosopher who produced alternatives to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes, one of his major contributions to world thought was the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words, "the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers". Much of what is incorporated in the scientific method and some modern attitudes towards the relatio
Fauna of Scotland
The fauna of Scotland is typical of the northwest European part of the Palearctic ecozone, although several of the country's larger mammals were hunted to extinction in historic times and human activity has led to various species of wildlife being introduced. Scotland's diverse temperate environments support 62 species of wild mammals, including a population of wild cats, important numbers of grey and harbour seals and the most northerly colony of bottlenose dolphins in the world. Many populations of moorland birds, including the black and red grouse live here, the country has internationally significant nesting grounds for seabirds such as the northern gannet; the golden eagle has become a national icon, white-tailed eagles and ospreys have re-colonised the land. The Scottish crossbill is the only endemic vertebrate species in the UK. Scotland's seas are among the most biologically productive in the world; the Darwin Mounds are an important area of deep sea cold water coral reefs discovered in 1998.
Inland, nearly 400 genetically distinct populations of Atlantic salmon live in Scottish rivers. Of the 42 species of fish found in the country's fresh waters, half have arrived by natural colonisation and half by human introduction. Only six amphibians and four land reptiles are native to Scotland, but many species of invertebrates live there that are otherwise rare in the United Kingdom. An estimated 14,000 species of insect, including rare bees and butterflies protected by conservation action plans, inhabit Scotland. Conservation agencies in the UK are concerned that climate change its potential effects on mountain plateaus and marine life, threaten much of the fauna of Scotland. Scotland enjoys a diversity of temperate environments, incorporating deciduous and coniferous woodlands, moorland, estuarine, freshwater and tundra landscapes. About 14% of Scotland is wooded, much of it in forestry plantations, but before humans cleared the land it supported much larger boreal Caledonian and broad-leaved forests.
Although much reduced, significant remnants of the native Scots pine woodlands can be found. Seventeen per cent of Scotland is covered by heather peatland. Caithness and Sutherland have one of the world's largest and most intact areas of blanket bog, which supports a distinctive wildlife community. Seventy-five per cent of Scotland's land is classed as agricultural while urban areas account for around 3%; the coastline is 11,803 kilometres long, the number of islands with terrestrial vegetation is nearly 800, about 600 of them lying off the west coast. Scotland has more than 90% of the volume and 70% of the total surface area of fresh water in the United Kingdom. There are 6,600 river systems. Under the auspices of the European Union's Habitats Directive, 244 sites in Scotland covering more than 8,750 square kilometres had been accepted by European Commission as Special Areas of Conservation. Scotland's seas are among the most biologically productive in the world and contain 40,000 or more species.
Twenty-four of the SACs are marine sites, a further nine are coastal with marine and non-marine elements. These marine elements extend to an area of around 350 square kilometres; the Darwin Mounds, covering about 100 square kilometres, are being considered as the first offshore SAC. Scotland was covered in ice during the Pleistocene glaciations; as the post-glacial weather warmed and the ice retreated, mammals migrated through the landscape. However, the opening of the English Channel prevented further migrations, so mainland Britain has only two-thirds of the species that reached Scandinavia; the Hebridean islands off Scotland's west coast have only half those of Britain. Sixty-two species of mammal live wild in and around Scotland including 13 species found in coastal waters; the populations of a third of the land mammal species are thought to be in decline due to factors including environmental pollution, habitat fragmentation, changes in agricultural practices overgrazing, competition from introduced species.
No mammal species are unique to Scotland, although the St. Kilda field mouse, Apodemus sylvaticus hirtensi, is an endemic subspecies of the wood mouse that reaches twice the size of its mainland cousins, the Orkney vole or cuttick, Microtus arvalis orcadensis found only in the Orkney archipelago, is a sub-species of the common vole, it may have been introduced by early settlers about 4,000 years ago. There are various notable domesticated Scottish mammal breeds including Highland Cattle, the Shetland Pony, Soay Sheep and Scottish Terrier; the representation of the weasel family in Scotland is typical of Britain as a whole save that the polecat is absent and that Scotland is the UK's stronghold of the pine marten, although the purity of the latter breed is threatened by a release of American martens in northern England. Scotland hosts the only populations of the Scottish wildcat in the British Isles with numbers estimated at between 400 and 2,000 animals, of the red fox subspecies Vulpes vulpes vulpes, a larger race than the more common V. v. crucigera and which has two distinct forms.
The wild cat is at risk due to the inadequacy of protective legislation and is now considered at serious risk of extinction. In 2013 it was announced that the island of Càrna is to provide a sanctuary and breeding station in order to protect the species. Exterminations of the population of feral American mink, which were brought to Britain for fur farms in the 1950s, have been undertaken under the auspices of the He