Virginia Department of Transportation
The Virginia Department of Transportation is the agency of the state government responsible for transportation in the state of Virginia in the United States. VDOT is headquartered at the Virginia Department of Highways Building in downtown Richmond. VDOT is responsible for building and operating the roads and tunnels in the commonwealth, it is overseen by the Commonwealth Transportation Board, which has the power to fund airports, seaports and public transportation. VDOT's revised annual budget for fiscal year 2019 is $5.4 billion. VDOT has a workforce of about 7,500 full-time employees. VDOT operates and maintains: Roads: VDOT's largest responsibility is the maintenance of roads. Filling potholes, storm drain cleaning, water drainage, guard rail replacement, bridge work, tree removal, trash removal, as well as the maintenance of signs and traffic lights. More than 21,000 bridges and structures Snow removal: VDOT is responsible for removing snow along the major roads of Virginia. Forty-one safety rest areas and ten welcome centers along major highways More than 100 commuter parking lots Four underwater crossings in the Hampton Roads area: The mid-town Elizabeth River tunnel The downtown Elizabeth River tunnel The Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel on Interstate 64 The Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel on Interstate 664 Two mountain tunnels on Interstate 77 in southwest Virginia:East River Mountain Tunnel Big Walker Mountain Tunnel Two toll roads:Fairfax County's Dulles Toll Road The Powhite Parkway Extension near Richmond One toll bridge: The George P. Coleman Memorial Bridge Three ferry services:Jamestown Ferry Sunny Bank Merry Point Highway maintenance and operations represent 41% of the total budget, followed by 32% for highway systems construction.
Smaller portions of the budget are directed to address the needs and requirements of debt service, support to other agencies and earmarks and special financing. Virginia is divided into nine districts: Bristol District Counties: Bland, Dickenson, Lee, Scott, Tazewell, Washington and Wythe Cities: Bristol, Norton Salem District Counties: Bedford, Carroll, Floyd, Giles, Montgomery, Patrick and Roanoke Cities: Bedford, Martinsville, Radford and Salem Lynchburg District Counties: Amherst, Buckingham, Charlotte, Halifax, Nelson and Prince Edward Cities: Danville and Lynchburg Richmond District Counties: Amelia, Charles City, Dinwiddie, Hanover, Lunenburg, New Kent, Nottoway and Prince George Cities: Colonial Heights, Hopewell and Richmond Hampton Roads DistrictCounties: Accomack, Isle of Wight, James City, Southampton, Sussex and Greensville Cities: Chesapeake, Franklin, Newport News, Poquoson, Suffolk, Virginia Beach, Williamsburg Fredericksburg District Counties: Caroline, Gloucester and Queen, King George, King William, Mathews, Northumberland, Spotsylvania and Westmoreland Cities: Fredericksburg Culpeper District Counties: Albemarle, Fauquier, Greene, Madison and Rappahannock Cities: Charlottesville Staunton District Counties: Alleghany, Bath, Frederick, Page, Rockingham and Warren Cities: Buena Vista, Harrisonburg, Staunton and Winchester Northern Virginia District Counties: Arlington, Fairfax and Prince William Cities: Alexandria, Falls Church and Manassas Park Many US states, as well as several US local governments and Canadian provinces, provide 511 systems.
VDOT provides the Virginia 511 service, which may be accessed by the 511 telephone number, the www.511va.org website, Twitter. In May 2012, VDOT introduced the Virginia 511 smartphone apps for Android devices; the Virginia 511 system provides traffic cameras, real-time road and traffic conditions, trip planning, weather information, alternatives to traveling by car. In July 2009, VDOT closed 19 of its rest areas around the state, leaving some stretches of highway, such as the traveled and congested I-95 northbound between Washington, D. C. and Richmond, a distance of 106 miles, without a rest stop. Drivers complained. VDOT countered that the I-95 corridor is developed, many businesses have restrooms, that closing the rest stops would save VDOT 9 million dollars toward its 2.6 billion dollar budget deficit. In January 2010, governor Bob McDonnell announced that he would reopen all of the closed rest areas as part of his campaign promises; the state is using an "adopt a rest stop" program, pulling 3 million dollars from the reserve maintenance fund, employing non-violent inmates to help reopen the rest stops.
They all reopened on April 17, 2010. Spontaneous roadside memorials in the form of white crosses, Stars of David, bouquets of flowers, photos of the dead, have been placed along roads at the scenes of fatal accidents; as of July 1, 2003, Virginia law has banned these memorials. Transportation officials have deemed them a threat to the safety of motorists. Virginia law §33.2-216 prohibits any person from installing a memorial on any highway controlled by the VDOT without a permit. VDOT will install a roadside memorial sign for a period of two years; the sign may not deviate from the standard roadside memorial sign specifications. The cost must by paid by the person requesting the sign. Not everyone agreed with the n
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Discovery (1602 ship)
Discovery or Discoverie was a small 20-ton, 38-foot long "fly-boat" of the British East India Company, launched before 1602. It was one of the three ships on the 1606–07 voyage to the New World for the English Virginia Company of London; the journey resulted in the founding of Jamestown in the new Colony of Virginia. In 1602, George Weymouth became the first European to explore what would be called Hudson Strait when he sailed Discovery 300 nautical miles into the strait. Weymouth's expedition to find the Northwest Passage was funded jointly by the East India Company and the Muscovy Company. Discovery, captained by John Ratcliffe, was the smallest of three ships that were led by Captain Christopher Newport on the voyage that resulted in the founding of Jamestown in the new Colony of Virginia in 1607. According to a 17th-century source, a total of 21 passengers were aboard during its initial expedition; when Captain Newport returned to London, England, he left Discovery behind for the use of the colonists.
In the summer of 1608, in the months between the first and second supply missions, Captain John Smith left Jamestown on the ship to explore the Chesapeake Bay region and search for badly needed food, covering an estimated 3,000 miles, producing a map, of great value to explorers for more than a century. These explorations were commemorated in the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail, established in 2006. In 1610, Admiral Sir George Somers, proposed a trip to Bermuda aboard Patience accompanied by Captain Samuel Argall on Discovery with the intention of gathering more local supplies for Jamestown. Blown north towards Newfoundland, the ships became separated in fog. Argall attempted fishing before turning back, she took part in six expeditions in search of the Northwest Passage. During the 1610–1611 expedition in the Canadian Arctic, the crew of Discovery mutinied, set their captain Henry Hudson adrift in a small boat. Replicas of Discovery and her sister ships, the larger Susan Constant and Godspeed, are docked in the James River at Jamestown Settlement, adjacent to the Jamestown National Historic Site.
A new Discovery, built in Boothbay Harbor, was launched in September 2006. The previous replica, built in 1984 in Jamestown, was shipped to the United Kingdom for a tour of the UK as part of the celebrations of the 400th anniversary of Virginia's founding. After its tour, which finished in September 2007, the ship was laid up in Ipswich Marina awaiting a move to a more permanent home. On 19 December 2008, 402 years to the day she left London Docks bound for Virginia, she was handed to Westenhanger Castle by the Jamestown UK Foundation, who had brought the replica vessel to the UK; the ship is on permanent display at the castle. In May 2007, the United States Postal Service issued the first 41 cent denomination first class stamp; the stamp had an image of Susan Constant and Discovery. Discovery was depicted on Virginia's coin of the 50 State Quarters, in celebration of the quadricentennial of Jamestown. Ship replica Discovery replica at Museum in Docklands, London Jamestown settlement ships
The Jamestown Ferry is a free automobile and bus ferry service across a navigable portion of the James River in Virginia. It carries State Route 31, connecting Jamestown in James City County with Scotland Wharf in Surry County; the service provides the only vehicle crossing of the river between the James River Bridge downstream at Newport News and the Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge upriver near Hopewell. It is toll-free and operated 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by the Virginia Department of Transportation. Operations are based at the Scotland Wharf in Surry County; the Jamestown Ferry service was established in 1925. The Commonwealth of Virginia acquired it and the Department of Transportation assumed operations in 1945, it runs it as a state service. The ferryboat Captain John Smith made the first automobile-ferry crossing of the James River on February 26, 1925; the owned business was founded by Captain Albert F. Jester. After the Captain John Smith was retired in the early 1950s, the deckhouse was put into adaptive use.
For another 50 years, it was used as a private waterside cottage, perched on pilings in the Elizabeth River near Portsmouth. In 2003, the deckhouse was donated to a preservation group in Surry County; the Eastern Virginia Bridge Company considered building a bridge at the ferry location in 1928. Replacing the ferry with a bridge is an issue, revisited by politicians, transportation officials, the communities. Given the costs of such construction, plans for a bridge have not gained broad support. Opponents are concerned with adverse effects of potential increases in population that a permanent crossing may cause on the southern shore of the James River. In addition, the need to provide deepwater access for shipping would require either a high bridge or drawbridge, adding to the potential cost. Tolls would not be sufficient to cover the cost of construction. Other critics cite the negative effect of a bridge on views of Jamestown Island, the Colonial Parkway, the surrounding area, they are concerned about traffic increasing too much on the two-lane roads on either side.
Periodically a ferry vessel will be out of service for repairs and inspection, motorists experience delays. Existing alternate routes include the Interstate 664 Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel, the Benjamin Harrison Bridge on Route 106 or the James River Bridge on Route 17; the ferry operates 24 hours a day with a minimum of a single vessel in service at all times. The Virginia Department of Transportation owns and operates four vessels for the service—Powhatan, Pocahontas and Williamsburg. Powhatan can carry up to 70 vehicles and 499 passengers, was built by VT Halter Marine in 2018 to replace the 1936-built Virginia. Pocahontas has a capacity of 70 vehicles and 444 passengers, sister ships Surry and Williamsburg can each carry up to 50 vehicles and 360 people. To mitigate rush-hour traffic and delays due to security measures, in October 2007, Williamsburg Area Transit Authority began a Park and Ride transit bus service from three stops in Surry County to limited stops at several major points in James City County and Williamsburg.
These terminate at the Williamsburg Transportation Center in the downtown area adjacent to the historic area of Colonial Williamsburg. As of October 2016, the route terminates at the Jamestown Settlement, where passengers may transfer to WATA's Jamestown Route to connect to the Williamsburg Transportation Center. At the Williamsburg Transportation Center, connections are available with: Eight other WAT routes covering portions of the city, areas in upper and lower James City County, the Bruton District of York County, the western tip of Newport News at Lee Hall. Surry County stops include Surry Government Center, Surry Community Center, the Surry branch of the Blackwater Regional Library and the VDOT Park and Ride lot near Scotland Wharf; the bus makes three round trips each morning and three each afternoon during peak commuter periods, Monday through Saturday. The daily fare is $3.00 as of October 2016, which includes the cost of any transfers to other WATA routes. "Scotland in Surry County" is only a short distance from the Town of Surry and State Route 10, which runs between Richmond and Suffolk.
Highway 10 parallels the south bank of the James River, serving Smithfield. Highway 10 provides access to many historical sites, including City Point, Flowerdew Hundred Plantation, Upper Brandon Plantation, Lower Brandon Plantation, Chippokes Plantation State Park, Bacon's Castle, Smith's Fort Plantation, the Isle of Wight County Museum in Smithfield. Tourists heading for Virginia's Historic Triangle of colonial attractions and the Colonial Parkway approach the area from the south by water with a ride aboard one of the Jamestown Ferries. During the busy tourist season, traffic at the ferry backs up at night, causing people to have to wait several ferry cycles to get to the other side; this causes frustration for commuters. The Ferry served as the title and subject for Tanya Tucker's 1972 top-ten country single "The Jamestown Ferry", composed by Curly Putman. VDOT Jamestown Ferry website Williamsburg Area Transport Bus Service Virginia Places website Jamestown Ferry photographs
Pleasant Point (Scotland, Virginia)
Pleasant Point known as Crouches Creek Plantation, is a historic home located near Scotland, Surry County, Virginia. It was built about 1724, is a 1 1/2-story, double pile frame dwelling with brick ends, it has a gable roof and had a hall-parlor plan modified to a central-hall plan. The interior woodwork was replaced in the 1950s, although it retains some original doors and original bowfat in the dining room. On the property are a contributing dairy, laundry and a four-step terrace leading down to the bluffs overlooking the James River, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Point Pleasant, Surry County Courthouse vicinity, Surry County, VA: 2 photos and 1 measured drawing at Historic American Buildings Survey
Surry County, Virginia
Surry County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 7,058, its county seat is Surry. In 1652, Surry County was formed from the portion of James City County south of the James River. For more than 350 years, Surry County has depended on an agricultural economy, it has guarded its heritage, including many small towns and 19 sites listed on the National Register including a landmark occupied in 1676 known as Bacon's Castle and Chippokes Plantation. The Jamestown Ferry provides easy access to Virginia's Historic Triangle, featuring Jamestown and Yorktown, linked by the National Park Service's Colonial Parkway; the county is known for farming, curing Virginia Hams, harvesting lumber, notably Virginia Pine. During the Virginia Colony, Surry County was formed in 1652 from a portion of James City County south of the James River, it was named for the English county of Surrey. Surry County consisted of two parishes of the Church of England: Lawne's Creek and Southwark.
Nearby, in 1665, Arthur Allen built a Jacobean brick house. A decade it became known as Bacon's Castle because it was occupied as a fort or "castle" during Bacon's Rebellion against the Royal Governor, Sir William Berkeley.. The first town of Cobham was established in 1691 at the mouth of Gray's Creek, where it flows into the James River. Neighboring Sussex County was formed from the southwestern end of Surry County in 1754. After the American Revolutionary War, during which Tarleton's raiders looted the county, Surry County became part of the new Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the first 13 United States. During the American Civil War, the Confederate Army included the Surry Light Artillery and the Surry Cavalry. In 1873, a New Jersey timberman, David Steele, with financing from Baltimore interests, began a lumber business in Surry county, but went bankrupt a decade later. Baltimore investors and Company, incorporated the Surry Lumber Company in 1885. In 1886 it incorporated the Surry and Southampton Railway, which delivered lumber to Scotland wharf on the James River.
The company and SS&S railroad grew, reaching their heyday around 1920. However, the company did not replant after it cut the old growth pine, found further logging in the area difficult after 1925. In 1927 it closed its mills in Dendron, causing considerable economic distress in the county; the railway went bankrupt in 1930. Gray Lumber Company of Waverly, which replanted its timber cuts, bought 15,000 acres from the Surry Lumber Company in 1941, other companies soon bought the rest of the company's acreage; as part of Virginia's "Massive Resistance" to integration following the landmark U. S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education, Surry County closed its white public schools so no Black students would be able to attend. Of course, various provisions were made to provide public support for private segregated education for the white students affected; the two-unit Surry Nuclear Power Plant was commissioned in 1972 and 1973, expected to remain active until 2053. US 460 SR 10 SR 31 SR 40State Route 31 and State Route 40 bisect the county.
Its major artery is the historic path along the south bank of the James River now known as State Route 10 between Prince George County and Isle of Wight County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 310 square miles, of which 279 square miles is land and 31 square miles is water. Charles City County Isle of Wight County James City County Prince George County Southampton County Sussex County As of the census of 2010, there were 7,058 people, 2,619 households, 1,917 families residing in the county; the population density was 24 people per square mile. There were 3,294 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 51.3% White, 46.1% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. 1.2 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 2,619 households out of which 30.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.50% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families.
23.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the age distribution of the population shows 25.20% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 25.70% from 45 to 64, 14.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 93.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,558, the median income for a family was $41,234. Males had a median income of $31,123 versus $21,143 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,682. About 9.70% of families and 10.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.40% of those under age 18 and 14.80% of those age 65 or over. Blackwater Regional Library is the regional library system that provides services to the citizens of Surry. Claremont Dendron Surry Scotland Bacon's Castle Cabin Point Carsley Elberon Spring Grove Bacon's Cast
Swann's Point Plantation Site
The Swann's Point Plantation Site is an archaeological site near the James River in Surry County, Virginia. The Swann's Point area, located west of the mouth of Gray Creek, has a rich historic of precolonial Native American occupation, as well as significant early colonial settlements, it was first granted to Richard Pace, whose warning famously saved the Jamestown Colony during the Indian Massacre of 1622. The Paces abandoned their settlement in 1624. In 1628, the tip of Swann's Point was a site at which the colonists of Jamestown traded with the local natives; the Swann family association with the area began in 1635, when William Swann acquired a land patent for 1200 acres at Swann's Point. The plantation increased to 1650 acres by patents to Col. Thomas Swann in 1638 and 1655 After Bacon's Rebellion the King's Commissioners sent to Virginia in investigate the "troubles" held their proceedings at Swann's Point, it was here that petitions were heard complaining of the conduct of William Hartwell, captain of Governor Berkeley's guard, in the suppression of the rebellion.
Swann's Point was sold by the son of Col. Thomas Swann in 1706 to John Joseph Jackman, the plantation was purchased in turn from Jackman in 1709 by Major George Marable who three months sold the plantation to his brother-in-law, John Hartwell. Upon his death in 1714, Swann's Point passed to John Hartwell's daughter, Elizabeth a minor; when she married Richard Cocke of Henrico County they made their residence at Swann's Point. It remained in the Cocke family for several generations and was the birthplace of General John Hartwell Cocke who became associated with Bremo in Fluvanna County. In the mid-1900s, the plantation was purchased by state Sen. Garland Gray, who used it as a summer home until the manor house was destroyed by fire. Gray, one of the wealthiest men in Virginia and owned tens of thousands of acres of land bet the Swann's Point property on game of cards and lost. True to his word he transferred the property to the winner; the site which contains 17th century graves was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
A portion of the Swann's Point area was donated by the owners to the National Park Service in 1974 to forestall the construction of a bridge across the James River to the area. National Register of Historic Places listings in Surry County, Virginia