City of London Police
The City of London Police is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement within the City of London, including the Middle and Inner Temples. The force responsible for law enforcement within the remainder of Greater London, outside of the City, is the Metropolitan Police Service, the City of London area has a resident population of around 9000. There is an influx of approximately 400,000 commuters into the City. The Commissioner since January 2016 is Ian Dyson, QPM, who was formerly the forces Assistant Commissioner, Policing in the City of London has existed since Roman times. Wood Street police station, headquarters of the City Police, is built on part of the site of a Roman fortress, which may have housed some of the first police in the City. Prior to 1839, the responsibility for policing in the City was divided, from the medieval period, responsibilities were shared with the Aldermans officers the Ward Beadles who are now purely ceremonial. It was these officers responsibility for ensuring the Night Watch was maintained, Policing during the day eventually came under the City Patrol, which evolved into the City Day Police, which was modelled on the Metropolitan Police.
In 1838, the Day Police and Night Watch were merged into a single organisation, the passing of the City of London Police Act 1839 gave statutory approval to the force as an independent police body, heading off attempts made to merge it with the Metropolitan Police. During 1842, the City Police moved its headquarters from Corporations Guildhall to 26 Old Jewry, a main challenge of policing in London prior to the 18th century was both gathering and transferring accurate information. Records were brought to court and often transferred between authorities, with one example being from the Guildhall bookhouse to Bridewell, the records were closely screened and had to otherwise remain in buildings like Guildhall bookhouse, to ensure the accuracy of the information being held. Aside from these records, information traveled between officials through word of mouth. Constables were an important part of police knowledge, within courtrooms, constables provided valuable information on specific criminals or neighborhoods.
Even so, many cases counted on the reliability of individuals with knowledge in London, development of sophisticated investigative techniques would come later. The Agas map can be used to display connections between early London buildings such as Guildhall bookhouse and Bridewell, tracking the total number of Londoners fell under pre-Victorian London policing duties. Beadles kept the names and surnames of householders in an effort to track this total and this allowed police to understand more about which areas of London were growing, the number of aliens in particular areas, and other valuable demographic information. In the twentieth century, after the Jack the Ripper murders in London, in 1902, Henry Jackson was the first British person to be convicted using fingerprinting techniques, a large change from knowledge gathering methods used centuries earlier. However, it was not until 1905 that fingerprinting began to hold as a procurement method. The Metropolitan Police has taken policing knowledge in London much further in modern times, when looking at formal policies on policing according to the Metropolitan Police, transference of knowledge, while easier, has become stricter
Indian people are citizens of India, the second most populous nation containing 17. 50% of the worlds population. Indian refers to nationality, but not ethnicity or language, the Indian nationality consists of many regional ethno-linguistic groups, reflecting the rich and complex history of India. India hosts all major ethnic groups found in the Indian Subcontinent, population estimates vary from a conservative 12 million to 20 million diaspora. The name Bhārata has been used as a name by people of the Indian subcontinent. The designation Bhārata appears in the official Sanskrit name of the country, the name is derived from the ancient Vedic and Puranas, which refer to the land that comprises India as Bhārata varṣam and uses this term to distinguish it from other varṣas or continents. The Bhāratas were a tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, notably participating in the Battle of the Ten Kings. India is named after legendary Emperor Bharata who was a descendant of the Bhāratas tribe, in early Vedic literature, the term Āryāvarta was in popular use before Bhārata.
The Manusmṛti gives the name Āryāvarta to the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern to the Western Sea, while the word Indian and India is derived from Greek Ἰνδία, via Latin India. The name is derived ultimately from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the river Indus, the next great ancient Empire of the Indian people was the Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or Golden Age of India, the ancient Indian mathematicians Aryabhata, Bhāskara I and Brahmagupta invented the concept of zero and the Hindu decimal system during this period. During this period Indian cultural influence spread over parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianized kingdoms in Southeast Asia. During the early period the great Rashtrakuta dynasty dominated the major part of the Indian subcontinent. From the 8th to 10th century and the Indian Emperor Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty was described by the Arab traveller Sulaiman as one of the four kings of the world.
The greatest maritime Empire of the medieval Indians was the Chola dynasty, under the great Indian Emperors Rajaraja Chola I and his successor Rajendra Chola I the Chola dynasty became a military and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia. The Mughal Empire unified much of Indian sub-continent under one realm, under the Mughals India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. This marked a huge influence in the Indian society, the Mughal Empire balanced and pacified local societies through new administrative practices and had diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. The Marathas and Sikhs emerged in the 17th century and established the Maratha Empire, the Maratha Empire is credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India. The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu in the south, to Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the north and Bengal, India is one of the worlds oldest civilisations
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
Metropolitan Police Service
As of March 2016, the Met employed 48,661 full-time personnel. This included 32,125 sworn police officers,9,521 police staff and this number excludes the 3,271 Special Constables, who work part-time and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, the post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. The post is occupied by the now-outgoing Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe. The Commissioners deputy, the Deputy Commissioner, is currently Craig Mackey, a number of informal names and abbreviations exists for the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London, it is referred to as the Old Bill. The Met is referred to by the metonym Scotland Yard after the location of its headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall. The Mets current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, in Victoria, the Metropolitan Police Service, whose officers became affectionately known as bobbies, was founded in 1829 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829.
In 1839, the Marine Police Force, which had formed in 1798, was amalgamated into the Metropolitan Police. In 1837, it incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol that had organised in 1805. Since January 2012, the Mayor of London is responsible for the governance of the Metropolitan Police through the Mayors Office for Policing, the mayor is able to appoint someone to act on his behalf, the current office-holder is Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime, Sophie Linden. The work of MOPAC is scrutinised by the Police and Crime Committee of the London Assembly, the area policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District. In terms of policing, the Met is divided into a number of Borough Operational Command Units. The City of London is a police area and is the responsibility of the separate City of London Police. The British Transport Police are responsible for policing of the network in the United Kingdom. Within London, they are responsible for the policing of the London Underground, The Emirates Air Line.
There is a park police force, the Kew Constabulary, responsible for the Royal Botanic Gardens. Officers have limited powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland, within the MPD, the Met will take over the investigation of any serious crime from the British Transport Police and Ministry of Defence Police, if it is deemed appropriate
The Whitehall Mystery is an unsolved murder that took place in London in 1888. The dismembered remains of a woman were discovered at three different sites in the centre of the city, including the site of Scotland Yard. The incident belongs to the so called Thames Torso Murders of 1887–89, the female torso was discovered in a three-month-old vault that made up part of the cellar. It was placed there at some point after 29 September when Richard Lawrence, the body had been wrapped in cloth, possibly a black petticoat, and tied with string. The torso was matched by police surgeon Thomas Bond to a right arm, the Times newspaper had initially suspected that the arm was placed in the water as a medical students prank. Newspapers suggested a tie to Jack the Rippers killings of prostitutes that were occurring simultaneously, an inquest was opened by Westminsters coroner, John Troutbeck, on 8 October. It determined that the woman had been of large stature and well-nourished, the uterus had been removed from the body.
The right arm had been severed by someone with knowledge of anatomy, had been tourniqueted to stem blood flow. It was revealed that the victim had been wearing a satin dress at the time of death. The dress had been manufactured in Bradford, from a pattern estimated as three years old, pieces of newspaper found with the remains were from the Echo of 24 August and an issue of the Chronicle of unknown date. She had been dead for six weeks to two months and had fair skin, dark hair, and was not someone who was used to manual labour. Later, a used a Spitsbergen dog, with the permission of the police. The head and remaining limbs were never found, and the identity of the remains unknown. It has become a point of trivia and irony that Scotland Yard, the mystery is referenced in the third episode of the third series of Whitechapel and in Chapter 8 of Anthony Horowitz Sunday Times Bestseller Moriarty
Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, support for the monarchy remains high.
Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved.
During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majestys Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. The MoD states that its objectives are to defend the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its interests and to strengthen international peace. The MoD manages day-to-day running of the forces, contingency planning. As rearmament became a concern during the 1930s, Stanley Baldwin created the position of Minister for Coordination of Defence. Winston Churchill, on forming his government in 1940, created the office of Minister of Defence to exercise control over the Chiefs of Staff Committee. The post was held by the Prime Minister of the day until Clement Attlees government introduced the Ministry of Defence Act of 1946, the new ministry was headed by a Minister of Defence who possessed a seat in the Cabinet. These departments merged in 1964, the functions of the Ministry of Aviation Supply merged into the Ministry of Defence in 1971.
The Ministers in the Ministry of Defence are as follows, The Ministers and Chiefs of the Defence Staff are supported by a number of civilian, the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence is the senior civil servant at the MoD. His or her role is to ensure the MoD operates effectively as a department of the government, Permanent Under-Secretary of State, Stephen Lovegrove—commencing April 2016 Defence Equipment & Support CEO - Tony Douglas — commencing 2016 Chief Scientific Adviser, Professor Vernon C. He is supported by the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff, vice-Chief of the Defence Staff, General Sir Gordon Messenger, Royal Marines. First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff, Admiral Sir Philip Jones, Royal Navy Chief of the General Staff, General Sir Nick Carter, the Surgeon General, represents the Defence Medical Services on the Defence Staff, and is the clinical head of that service. These forces must be capable of representing Britain as lead nation in any coalition operations, the ability, at longer notice, to deploy forces in a large-scale operation while running a concurrent small-scale operation.
The MoD has since been regarded as a leader in elaborating the post-Cold War organising concept of defence diplomacy, the UK is establishing air and naval bases in the Persian Gulf, located in the UAE and Bahrain. A presence in Oman is being considered, the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 included £178 billion investment in new equipment and capabilities. The review set a policy with four primary missions for the Armed Forces and contribute to the security and resilience of the UK. Contribute to improved understanding of the world through strategic intelligence and the defence network. Reinforce international security and the capacity of our allies, partners. Conduct operations to restore peace and stability, conduct major combat operations if required, including under NATO Article 5
Great Scotland Yard
Great Scotland Yard is a street in the St. Jamess district of Westminster, connecting Northumberland Avenue and Whitehall. It is best known as the location of the entrance to the original headquarters of the Metropolitan Police Service of London. By the 17th century the street housed government buildings and residences for civil servants, the architects Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren lived there as did the poet John Milton from 1649–51, during the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwells rule. By the late-18th century the district was associated with prominence and prestige, for example in the 1790s in his satirical A Tale of a Tub, Jonathan Swift ironically claimed the regard of. According to the Metropolitan Police Service, the original Metropolitan Police Commissioners office at 4 Whitehall Place, had an entrance on Great Scotland Yard. An 1862 map of Westminster shows the location, over time, Scotland Yard was used generally as a metonym for the police headquarters. Richard Horwoods 1799 map of London shows Great Scotland Yard on the eastern side Whitehall, below it are two streets that are culs-de-sac, Middle Scotland Yard, where Whitehall Place is today, and Lower Scotland Yard, entered from Middle Scotland Yard.
The Clarence public house, named after the Duke of Clarence and it was attached to the opposite corner of Great Scotland Yard by an archway. The archway was removed the 1908 redevelopment of Great Scotland Yard, since 1953 The Civil Service Club has been based in the Old Fire House at numbers 13–15, and is a social club for current and former members of the UK civil service. A World War II scene in the 2007 movie Atonement with Keira Knightley and James McAvoy was produced in this road as was a scene from Harry Potter, the road was used as part of the car chase scene from James Bonds Skyfall. Media related to Great Scotland Yard at Wikimedia Commons
British Transport Police
The British Transport Police is a special police force that polices railways and light-rail systems in England and Wales, for which it has entered into an agreement to provide such services. 95% of the Forces funding comes from Britains privatised train companies, in 2015/16 BTP recorded 48,718 crimes, a reduction from 79,278 crimes in 2005/06. However, in 2015/16 crime has risen on the railways by 4% for the first time since 2006/07, there are more than 1 billion passenger journeys annually on the mainline alone. In addition, British Transport Police in conjunction with the French National Police - Police aux Frontières - police the international services operated by Eurostar, a BTP constable can act as a police constable outside of their normal railway jurisdiction as described in the Powers and status of officers section. As of 2016, BTP has 2,968 police officers,283 Special Constables,362 Police Community Support Officers, and 1,584 civilian police staff throughout Great Britain. In terms of officer numbers this means BTP is the 19th largest police force in England & Wales.
Since March 2014, the Chief Constable has been Paul Crowther OBE, BTP has appeared on UK television in Railcops. This division retains overall control of the divisions and houses central functions including forensics, CCTV. As of 2015,393 police officers,10 Special Constables and 946 civilian staff are based at FHQ, divisional Commander, Chief Superintendent Martin Fry. This division covers London and the South East and southern areas of England and this division is further divided into the following sub-divisions, East - Sub-divisional Commander, Superintendent Richard Moffatt. Transport for London - Sub-divisional Commander, Superintendent Matt Wratten, South - Sub-divisional Commander, Superintendent Jason Bunyard. As of 2015, B Division houses the largest number of personnel of any BTP division,1444 police officers,101 Special Constables,191 PCSOs and 361 civilian staff, divisional Commander, Chief Superintendent Allan Gregory. This division covers the North East, North West, the Midlands, South West areas of England and this division is further divided into the following sub-divisions, Pennine - Sub-divisional Commander, Superintendent Eddie Wylie.
Midland - Sub-divisional Commander, Superintendent Sandra England, Wales - Sub-divisional Commander, Superintendent Andy Morgan. As of 2015, C Division houses the second largest number of personnel within BTP,921 police officers,127 Special Constables,132 PCSOs and 180 civilian staff, divisional Commander, Chief Superintendent John McBride. There are no sub-divisions within D Division, as of 2015, D Division is the smallest in terms of personnel housing 214 police officers,24 Special Constables and 46 civilian staff. The first railway employees described as police can be traced back to 30 June 1826, a regulation of the Stockton and Darlington Railway refers to the police establishment of One Superintendent, four officers and numerous gate-keepers. This is the first mention of Railway Police anywhere and was three years before the Metropolitan Police Act was passed and they were not, described as constables and the description may refer to men controlling the trains not enforcing the law
The name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are the intellectual property of the Secretary of State for Transport. The National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, and was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, the NR title is sometimes described as a brand. As it was used by British Rail, the operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail, the two networks are generally coincident where passenger services are run. Most major Network Rail lines carry traffic and some lines are freight only. About twenty privately owned operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government. The Rail Delivery Group is the association representing the TOCs and provides core services. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, and Rail Staff Travel and it does not compile the national timetable, which is the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail.
Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain, the look and feel of signage and marketing material is largely the preserve of the individual TOCs. However, National Rail continues to use BRs famous double-arrow symbol and it has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity. The trademark rights to the arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow was already prescribed for indicating a railway station, the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. It is a misconception that Rail Alphabet was used for printed material. The British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, TOCs may use what they like, examples include Futura, Frutiger, and a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail, LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former East London line of London Underground as the East London Railway of LO.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations, northern Ireland Railways were never part of British Rail, which was always confined to Great Britain, and therefore are not part of the National Rail network. National Rail services have a common ticketing structure inherited from British Rail, through tickets are available between any pair of stations on the network, and can be bought from any station ticket office
St. James's Park tube station
St. Jamess Park is a London Underground station near St. Jamess Park in the City of Westminster, central London. It is served by the District and Circle lines and is between Victoria and Westminster stations and it is in Travelcard Zone 1. The station building is incorporated into 55 Broadway, the headquarters of London Underground Ltd and has entrances from Broadway, Petty France, the station is close to New Scotland Yard and several government offices. The station is not wheelchair accessible, the station was opened on 24 December 1868 by the District Railway when the company opened the first section of its line between South Kensington and Westminster stations. On 1 February 1872, the DR opened a branch from its station at Earls Court to connect to the West London Extension Joint Railway which it connected to at Addison Road. From that date the Outer Circle service began running over the DRs tracks, from 1 August 1872, the Middle Circle service began operations through St. The service was operated jointly by the H&CR and the DR, on 30 June 1900, the Middle Circle service was withdrawn between Earls Court and Mansion House.
On 31 December 1908 the Outer Circle service was withdrawn, the station has been reconstructed twice. In 1949, the Metropolitan line operated Inner Circle route was given its own identity on the map as the Circle line. The separate Palmer Street entrance and booking hall were rebuilt as part of a redevelopment in the 1960s. Together with 55 Broadway, the station is a Grade I listed building, over time, the station name has been spelt differently, illustrating changing practice in punctuation. Tube maps up to the early 1930s show the name as St. James Park, from Harry Becks first map in 1933 until the early 1950s the name was shown as St. James Park. Since 1951 it has had the current name, originally installed in the late 1920s when the first version of the name was in use, the station name displayed in the platform roundels exhibit modification to account for this change. One of the roundels on the platform still reads St. James Park. London Buses routes 11,24,148,211 and 507 and night routes N2, N11, N44, N52 and N136 serve the station