The emergency department is usually found in a hospital or other primary care center. In some countries, emergency departments have become important entry points for those without means of access to medical care. The emergency departments of most hospitals operate 24 hours a day, griswold equipped police and fire vehicles with medical supplies and trained officers to give emergency care while en route to the hospital. Today, a hospital has its emergency department in its own section of the ground floor of the grounds. As patients can present at any time and with any complaint, triage is normally the first stage the patient passes through, and consists of a brief assessment, including a set of vital signs, and the assignment of a chief complaint. Most emergency departments have an area for this process to take place. Most patients will be assessed at triage and passed to another area of the department, or another area of the hospital. Conversely, patients with serious conditions, such as cardiac arrest, will bypass triage altogether.
The resuscitation area, commonly referred to as Trauma or Resus, is a key area in most departments, the most seriously ill or injured patients will be dealt with in this area, as it contains the equipment and staff required for dealing with immediately life-threatening illnesses and injuries. Typical resuscitation staffing involves at least one attending physician, and at least one and these personnel may be assigned to the resuscitation area for the entirety of the shift, or may be on call for resuscitation coverage. Examples of majors include chest pain, difficulty breathing, abdominal pain, Advanced diagnostic testing may be conducted at this stage, including laboratory testing of blood and/or urine, ultrasonography, CT or MRI scanning. Medications appropriate to manage the condition will be given. Depending on underlying causes of the chief complaint, he or she may be discharged home from this area or admitted to the hospital for further treatment. Patients whose condition is not immediately life-threatening will be sent to an area suitable to deal with them, such patients may still have been found to have significant problems, including fractures and lacerations requiring suturing.
Children can present particular challenges in treatment, many hospitals have a separate area for evaluation of psychiatric problems. These are often staffed by psychiatrists and mental health nurses and social workers, there is typically at least one room for people who are actively a risk to themselves or others. Fast decisions on life-and-death cases are critical in emergency rooms. As a result, doctors face great pressures to overtest and overtreat, other common variations include emergency ward, emergency centre or emergency unit
A paramedic is a healthcare professional, predominantly in the pre-hospital and out-of-hospital environment, and working mainly as part of emergency medical services, such as on an ambulance. The scope of practice of a paramedic will vary between countries, but generally includes autonomous decision making around the care of patients. In some countries Paramedic is a title and accountable to a professional regulatory body. The scope of the role varies widely across the world, having developed as a paraprofession in the United States during the 1970s. There are different models of care for EMS providers which significantly influence the scope of practice of paramedics in an area, in the Franco-German model paramedics directly support a doctor in the field, in a role more akin to a hospital nurse, rather than operating with clinical autonomy. The development of the profession has been a move from simply transporting patients to hospital. Throughout the evolution of care, there has been an ongoing association with military conflict.
Such individuals, although not physicians, were probably among the worlds earliest surgeons by default, being required to suture wounds, in time, these arrangements began to formalize and become permanent. During the American Civil War, Jonathan Letterman devised a system of field hospitals employing the first uses of the principles of triage. In most cases these ambulances were operated by drivers and attendants with little or no medical training, an early example was the members of the Toronto Police Ambulance Service receiving a mandatory five days of training from St. John as early as 1889. Prior to World War I motorized ambulances started to be developed, in terms of advanced skills, once again the military led the way. The Korean War marked the first widespread use of helicopters to evacuate the wounded from forward positions to medical units and these innovations would not find their way into the civilian sphere for nearly twenty more years. By the early 1960s experiments in improving care had begun in some civilian centres, one early experiment involved the provision of pre-hospital cardiac care by physicians in Belfast, Northern Ireland, in 1966.
In 1966, a report called Accidental Death and Disability, The Neglected Disease of Modern Society—commonly known as The White Paper—was published in the United States. As a result of the The White Paper the US government moved to develop standards for ambulance attendant training, ambulance equipment. The White Paper prompted the inception of a number of medical service pilot units across the US including paramedic programs. The success of these led to a rapid transition to make them fully operational. In 1969, the Haywood County Volunteer Rescue Squad developed a program under the medical direction of Ralph Fleicher
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, and third largest in the United Kingdom. Historically part of Lanarkshire, it is now one of the 32 council areas of Scotland and it is situated on the River Clyde in the countrys West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as Glaswegians, Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Britain. From the 18th century the city grew as one of Great Britains main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America. Glasgow was the Second City of the British Empire for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Glasgow grew in population, reaching a peak of 1,128,473 in 1939. The entire region surrounding the conurbation covers about 2.3 million people, at the 2011 census, Glasgow had a population density of 8, 790/sq mi, the highest of any Scottish city. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and is well known in the sporting world for the football rivalry of the Old Firm between Celtic and Rangers.
Glasgow is known for Glasgow patter, a dialect that is noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow is the form of the ancient Cumbric name Glas Cau. Possibly referring to the area of Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, the Gaelic name Baile Glas Chu, town of the grey dog, is purely a folk-etymology. The present site of Glasgow has been settled since prehistoric times, it is for settlement, being the furthest downstream fording point of the River Clyde, the origins of Glasgow as an established city derive ultimately from its medieval position as Scotlands second largest bishopric. Glasgow increased in importance during the 10th and 11th centuries as the site of this bishopric, reorganised by King David I of Scotland and John, there had been an earlier religious site established by Saint Mungo in the 6th century. The bishopric became one of the largest and wealthiest in the Kingdom of Scotland, bringing wealth, sometime between 1189 and 1195 this status was supplemented by an annual fair, which survives as the Glasgow Fair.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries, the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the towns religious and educational status and landed wealth. Its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe, Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. The citys Tobacco Lords created a water port at Port Glasgow on the Firth of Clyde. By the late 18th century more than half of the British tobacco trade was concentrated on Glasgows River Clyde, at the time, Glasgow held a commercial importance as the city participated in the trade of sugar and cotton
National Health Service
The National Health Service is the name of the public health services of England and Wales, and is commonly used to refer to those of Northern Ireland. They were established together as one of the social reforms following the Second World War on the founding principles of being comprehensive, universal. Today, each provides a range of health services, the vast majority of which are free for people ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom. Taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015-16 employed around 1.6 million people with a budget of £136.7 billion. For non-residents, the NHS is free at the time of use, for general practitioner, the NHS began on the Appointed Day of 5 July 1948. This put into practice Westminster legislation for England and Wales from 1946 and Scotland from 1947, when Clement Attlees Labour Party won the 1945 election he appointed Aneurin Bevan as Health Minister. Bevan embarked upon what the historian of the NHS, Charles Webster. Three years after the founding of the NHS, Bevan resigned from the Labour government in opposition to the introduction of charges for the provision of dentures and glasses, the following year, Winston Churchills Conservative government introduced prescription charges.
These charges were the first of many controversies over reforms to the NHS throughout its history, each of the UKs four nations have their own separate NHS, each with its own history. From its earliest days, the history of the NHS has shown its place in British society reflected and debated in film, TV, cartoons. However, some functions might be performed by one health service on behalf of another. There have been issues about cross-border payments, taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015-16 employed around 1.6 million people with a combined budget of £136.7 billion. In 2014 the total health sector workforce across the UK was 2,165,043 and this broke down into 1,789,586 in England,198,368 in Scotland,110,292 in Wales and 66,797 in Northern Ireland. The NHS is free at the time of use, for general practitioner and emergency treatment not including admission to hospital, people with the right to medical care in European Economic Area nations are entitled to free treatment by using the European Health Insurance Card.
Those from other countries with which the UK has reciprocal arrangements qualify for free treatment, people not ordinarily resident in the UK are in general not entitled to free hospital treatment, with some exceptions such as refugees. People not ordinarily resident may be subject to an interview to establish their eligibility, patients who do not qualify for free treatment are asked to pay in advance, or to sign a written undertaking to pay, except for emergency treatment. The provision of treatment to non-UK-residents, formerly interpreted liberally, has been increasingly restricted. As of 2016 the surcharge was £200 per year, with exemptions and reductions in some cases, the systems are 98. 8% funded from general taxation and National Insurance contributions, plus small amounts from patient charges for some services
Chemical, biological and nuclear defense is protective measures taken in situations in which chemical, radiological or nuclear warfare hazards may be present. CBRN defense consists of CBRN passive protection, contamination avoidance and CBRN mitigation, a CBRN incident differs from a hazardous material incident in both scope and intent. CBRN incidents are responded to under the assumption that they are intentional and malicious, evidence preservation, a 2011 forecast concluded that worldwide government spending on CBRN defence products and services would reach US$8. 38bn that year. In English the term CBRN is a replacement for the cold war term NBC, the addition of the R is a consequence of the new threat of a radiological weapon. In the new millennium, the term CBRNe was introduced as an extension of CBRN - the e in this term representing the enhanced explosives threat, in Spanish the term NRBQ has replaced NBQ. The Argentine Armed Forces has several CRBN response teams, the Batallón de Ingenieros QBN601 of the Argentine Army, was the first CRBN response team created, in the 1990s, as a part of the countrys Rapid Deployment Force.
Civil defense, and firemen from Policía Federal Argentina teams have CRBN training, Brazilian firefighters are trained for NBC situations. Due to the 2016 Summer Olympics, police forces, like the GATE from Minas Gerais, the Federal Police, in the military area, there is CBRN equipment and personnel by all the Armed Forces. The Brazilian Presidential Guard and Army Police have CBRN units, the Air Force is making special teams for transporting victims from CBRN attacks/accidents. The term CBRN is in use in disaster and emergency services organizations across the country. Since July 2005, the Canadian Armed Forces started using the term CBRN Defence, instead of NBC Defence, CBRNE is a new term that is being used in both civilian and military organisations. All members of the Canadian Armed Forces are trained in CBRN defense, at the provincial level, cities are provided opportunities for their emergency services with CBRN training. In Ontario, emergency services in Windsor, Toronto, in mid-July 2016, the European Parliament negotiated a new draft counterterrorism directive aimed at protecting Europes people from biological and other attacks.
Hong Kong has had CBRN response capabilities since the early 1990s, the Standing CBRN Planning Group plans for all CBRN incidents in Hong Kong. The SRPG was set up with the support of the Secretary for Security by the Senior Bomb Disposal Officer in Hong Kong and it consists of representatives from 9 government departments who plan the response to CBRN threats. RIAG consists of five experts who assist with the response to the incident by providing real time advice. The Hong Kong capability is well rehearsed, with regular departmental exercises conducted, the Indian Army ordered 16 CBRN monitoring vehicles, of which the first 8 were inducted in December 2010. It was developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation and manufactured by Ordnance Factories Board, indonesia army has a CBRN Defense unit, Kompi Zeni Nubika Ditzi TNI-AD
Air medical services
Air medical services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transportation, airplane or helicopter, to move patients to and from healthcare facilities and accident scenes. The use of air transport of patients dates to World War I, helicopters are used to transport patients between hospitals and from trauma scenes, fixed-wing aircraft are used for long-distance transport. The advantages of medical transport by helicopter may include providing a level of care at the scene of trauma. Helicopter-based emergency medical service provides critical care capabilities during interfacility transport from community hospitals to trauma centers, effective use of helicopter services for trauma depends on the ground responders ability to determine whether the patients condition warrants air medical transport. Protocols and training must be developed to ensure appropriate triage criteria are applied and patient safety is the single most important factor to be considered when deciding whether to transport a patient by helicopter.
Weather, air traffic patterns, and distances must be considered, another reason for cancelling a flight is based on Flight Crew comfort with the flight. The general rule of safety is upon the crew, when there is one pilot, if one Flight Member is not comfortable with the flight for whatever reason, the flight is cancelled. Some have questioned the safety of air medical services While the number of crashes may be increasing, factors associated with fatal crashes of medical transport helicopters include flying at night and during bad weather, and postcrash fires. Fixed wing aircraft are more often used to move patients over long distances. These and related operations are called aeromedical, in some circumstances, the same aircraft may be used to search for missing or wanted people. Like ground ambulances, air ambulances are equipped with medical equipment vital to monitoring and treating injured or ill patients, common equipment for air ambulances includes medications, ventilators, ECGs and monitoring units, CPR equipment, and stretchers.
A medically staffed and equipped air ambulance provides medical care in flight—while a non-medically equipped and staffed aircraft simply transports patients without care in flight, Military organizations and NATO refer to the former as medical evacuation and to the latter as casualty evacuation. Air Traffic Control grants special treatment to air operations, much like a ground ambulance using lights. When this happens, air ambulance aircraft take the call sign MEDEVAC and receive priority handling in the air, as with many Emergency Medical Service innovations, treating patients in flight originated in the military. The concept of using aircraft as ambulances is almost as old as powered flight itself, although balloons were not used to evacuate wounded soldiers at the Siege of Paris in 1870, air evacuation was experimented with during the First World War. The first true Air Ambulance flight was made when a Serbian officer was flown from the battlefield to hospital by a plane of the French Air Service.
French records at the time indicated that the mortality rate of the injured was reduced from 60% to just under 10% if they were evacuated by air. The first recorded British ambulance flight took place in 1917 in Turkey when a soldier in the Camel Corps who had shot in the ankle was flown to hospital in a de Havilland DH9 in 45 minutes
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status. The NHS commissions most emergency services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other services, the public normally access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which gradually merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary contract for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England. The service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Northern Ireland Ambulance Service was established in 1995 by parliamentary order, and serves the whole of Northern Ireland.
The Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Trust was established on 1 April 1998, there is a large market for private and voluntary ambulance services, with the sector being worth £800m to the UK economy in 2012. This places the voluntary providers in direct competition with private services, expenditure on private ambulances in England increased from £37m in 2011−12 to £67. 5m in 2013/4, rising in London from £796,000 to more than £8. 8m. In 2014−15, these 10 ambulance services spent £57.6 million on 333,329 callouts of private or voluntary services - an increase of 156% since 2010−11, in 2013, the CQC found 97% of private ambulance services to be providing good care. These private, registered services are represented by the Independent Ambulance Association, there are a number of unregistered services operating, who do not provide ambulance transport, but only provide response on an event site. These firms are not regulated, and are not subject to the checks as the registered providers, although they may operate similar vehicles.
There are a number of ambulance providers, sometimes known as Voluntary Aid Services or Voluntary Aid Societies, with the main ones being the British Red Cross. The history of the ambulance services pre-dates any government organised service. As they are in competition for work with the private ambulance providers. Voluntary organisations have provided cover for the public when unionised NHS ambulance trust staff have taken industrial action, there are a number of smaller voluntary ambulance organisations, fulfilling specific purposes, such as Hatzola who provide emergency medical services to the orthodox Jewish community in some cities. These have however run into difficulties due to use of vehicles not legally recognised as ambulances, all emergency medical services in the UK are subject to a range of legal and regulatory requirements, and in many cases are monitored for performance. This framework is largely statutory in nature, being mandated by government through a range of primary and secondary legislation and this requires all providers to register, to meet certain standards of quality, and to submit to inspection of those standards
The Highlands are a historic region of Scotland. Culturally, the Highlands and the Lowlands diverged from the Middle Ages into the modern period, the term is used for the area north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, although the exact boundaries are not clearly defined, particularly to the east. The Great Glen divides the Grampian Mountains to the southeast from the Northwest Highlands, the Scottish Gaelic name of A Ghàidhealtachd literally means the place of the Gaels and traditionally, from a Gaelic-speaking point of view, includes both the Western Isles and the Highlands. The area is sparsely populated, with many mountain ranges dominating the region. At 9.1 per km2 in 2012, the density in the Highlands and Islands is less than one seventh of Scotlands as a whole, comparable with that of Bolivia, Chad. The Highland Council is the body for much of the Highlands. However, the Highlands includes parts of the areas of Aberdeenshire, Angus and Bute, North Ayrshire, Perth & Kinross, Stirling.
The Scottish highlands is the area in the British Isles to have the Taiga biome as it features concentrated populations of Scots pine forest. Between the 15th century and the 20th century, the area differed from most of the Lowlands in terms of language. In Scottish Gaelic, the region is known as the Gàidhealtachd, because it was traditionally the Gaelic-speaking part of Scotland, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably but have different meanings in their respective languages. Scottish English is the predominant language of the area today, though Highland English has been influenced by Gaelic speech to a significant extent, the Highland line distinguished the two Scottish cultures. Most of this legislation was repealed by the end of the 18th century as the Jacobite threat subsided, there was soon a rehabilitation of Highland culture. Tartan was adopted for Highland regiments in the British Army, which poor Highlanders joined in large numbers in the era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars.
Tartan had largely abandoned by the ordinary people of the region, but in the 1820s, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland. The international craze for tartan, and for idealising a romanticised Highlands, was set off by the Ossian cycle, individual clan tartans were largely designated in this period and they became a major symbol of Scottish identity. The period of the Napoleonic wars brought prosperity, the economy grew thanks to wages paid in industries such as kelping and weaving, as well as large-scale infrastructure spending such as the Caledonian Canal project. On the East Coast, farmlands were improved, and high prices for cattle brought money to the area, Service in the Army was attractive to young men from the Highlands, who sent pay home and retired there with their army pensions. This prosperity ended after 1815, and long-term negative factors began to undermine the position of the poor tenant farmers, who typically rented a few acres
NHS Scotland, sometimes styled NHSScotland is the publicly funded healthcare system in Scotland. Health and social policy and funding are the responsibility of the Health. Scotlands NHS was established in 1948, the current Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport is Shona Robison and the head of staff is the Director-General Health and Social Care and Chief Executive of NHS Scotland, Paul Gray. NHS Scotland had an budget of £12.2 billion in 2015–16. Health and social care are devolved issues in the United Kingdom, the NHS in Scotland was created as an administratively separate organisation in 1948 under the ministerial oversight of the Scottish Office, before being politically devolved in 1999. This separation of powers and financing is not always apparent to the public due to the co-ordination and co-operation where cross-border emergency care is involved. Descriptions of staff numbers can be expressed as headcount and by Whole-Time Equivalent which is an estimate that helps to account of full.
Dentists around 4,000 pharmacists, mostly working in community pharmacy positions, opticians allied health professionals administrators and domestic staff. The NHS in Scotland was formed on 5 July 1948, the service was founded by the National Health Service Act 1947. Prior to the creation of Scotlands NHS in 1948, the state was involved with the provision of healthcare, though it was not universal. Half of Scotland’s landmass was covered by the Highlands and Islands Medical Service, a state-funded health system run directly from Edinburgh. In addition, there had been a substantial state-funded hospital building programme during the war years, current provision of healthcare is the responsibility of 14 geographically based local NHS Boards and 7 National Special Health Boards. Proposals for the establishment of 15 NHS Boards were announced by the Scottish Executive Health Department in December 2000, further details about the role and function of the unified NHS health boards were provided in May 2001.
In April 2004, Scotlands health care became an integrated service under the management of NHS Boards. Local authority nominees were added to Board membership to improve co-ordination of health, the remaining 16 Trusts were dissolved from 1 April 2004. Hospitals are now managed by the division of the NHS Board. By April 2014, there were new joint working arrangements in place between the NHS boards and Local Authorities came into effect that included responsibility for social care. There new organisations, which took over from CHPs are called Health, in January 2008, the Scottish Government announced plans for legislation to bring in direct elections as a way to select people for non-executive positions on Health Boards
A minibus, microbus, or minicoach is a passenger carrying motor vehicle that is designed to carry more people than a multi-purpose vehicle or minivan, but fewer people than a full-size bus. In the United Kingdom, the minibus is used to describe any full-sized passenger carrying van. Minibuses have a capacity of between 8 and 30 seats. Larger minibuses may be called midibuses, minibuses are typically front-engined step-entrance vehicles, although low floor minibuses do exist. Minibuses are used for a variety of reasons, in a public transport role, they can be used as fixed route transit buses, airport buses, flexible demand responsive transport vehicles, share taxis or large taxicabs. Accessible minibuses can be used for paratransit services, by local authorities, transit operators. Private uses of minibuses can include corporate transport, charter buses, sports clubs, community groups and charities may use minibuses for private transport. Individual owners may use reduced seating minibuses as cheap recreational vehicles, by size, microbuses are minibuses smaller than 8 metres long.
Midibuses are minibuses bigger than microbuses but smaller than plenibuses, there are many different types and configurations of minibuses, due to historical and local differences, and usage. Minibus designs can be classified in three groups, with a general increase in seating capacity with each type, Van conversions. Simple, optional extras Body builds Purpose built The most basic source of minibus is the van conversion, Van conversions involve adding windows to the bodywork, and seating to the cargo area. Van conversion minibuses outwardly look the same shape as the parent van, access to the former cargo area for passengers is through the standard van side sliding door, or the rear doors. These may be fitted with equipment to make boarding easier. Optional extras to van converted minibuses can include the addition of a rollsign for transit work, for public transport use, this door may be an automatic concertina type. For other uses, this may be a simple plug style coach door, depending on the relevant legislation, conversions may involve wheelchair lifts and tachograph equipment. A van conversion with an area in the front and a storage area in the back.
These allow a higher seating capacity than a simple van conversion, the second stage manufacturer is a bus manufacturer. In a body-on-chassis minibus, a body is installed on a van or light truck chassis encompassing the drivers area
Four-wheel drive, 4×4, and 4WD, is a form of drivetrain capable of providing power to all wheel ends of a two-axled vehicle simultaneously. It may be full-time, or on-demand, and is linked via a transfer case which provides an additional output drive-shaft. When a four-wheeled vehicle has power supplied to axles, this is described as all-wheel drive. However, four-wheel drive typically refers to a set of components and functions, and/or intended offroad application. 4×4/4WD/AWD systems were developed in different markets and used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures, the terms used by various manufactures often reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems. Four-by-four refers to the class of vehicles. The first figure represents the total wheels, and the second, syntactically, 4×2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine power to only two axle-ends, the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive.
Alternatively, a 6×4 vehicle has three axles, two of which power to two wheel ends each. Four wheel drive refers to vehicles with two axles providing power to four wheel ends, in the North American market the term generally refers to a system that is optimized for off-road driving conditions. The term 4WD is typically designated for vehicles equipped with a transfercase which switches between 2WD and 4WD operating modes, either manually or automatically. All wheel drive historically was synonymous with four-wheel drive on four-wheeled vehicles, and six-wheel drive on 6×6s, today in North America the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles. Typical AWD systems work well on all surfaces, but are not intended for more extreme off-road use, some all wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles. An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, individual-wheel drive was coined to identify those electric vehicles whereby each wheel is driven by its own individual electric motor.
This system essentially has inherent characteristics that would be attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available power to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and this can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels, for example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD. Two wheels fixed to the same turn at the same speed as a vehicle goes around curves
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. The 2011 census of Scotland showed that a total of 57,375 people in Scotland could speak Gaelic at that time, the census results indicate a decline of 1,275 Gaelic speakers from 2001. A total of 87,056 people in 2011 reported having some facility with Gaelic compared to 93,282 people in 2001, only about half of speakers were fully literate in the language. Nevertheless, revival efforts exist and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 has increased, Scottish Gaelic is neither an official language of the European Union nor the United Kingdom. Outside Scotland, a group of dialects collectively known as Canadian Gaelic are spoken in parts of Atlantic Canada, mainly Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the 2011 census, there were 7,195 total speakers of Gaelic languages in Canada, with 1,365 in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island where the responses mainly refer to Scottish Gaelic.
About 2,320 Canadians in 2011 claimed Gaelic languages as their mother tongue, with over 300 in Nova Scotia, aside from Scottish Gaelic, the language may be referred to simply as Gaelic. In Scotland, the word Gaelic in reference to Scottish Gaelic specifically is pronounced, outside Ireland and Great Britain, Gaelic may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic should not be confused with Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, from the late 15th century, however, it became increasingly common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a language from Irish. Gaelic in Scotland was mostly confined to Dál Riata until the 8th century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth, by 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct, completely replaced by Gaelic.
An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, however, though the Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of Gaelicisation was clearly underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, by the 10th century, Gaelic had become the dominant language throughout northern and western Scotland, the Gaelo-Pictic Kingdom of Alba. Its spread to southern Scotland, was even and totalizing. Place name analysis suggests dense usage of Gaelic in Galloway and adjoining areas to the north and west as well as in West Lothian, less dense usage is suggested for north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was ever widely spoken, the area shifted from Cumbric to Old English during its long incorporation into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria