Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art
The Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art is part of the National Galleries of Scotland, which are based in Edinburgh. The National Gallery of Modern Art houses the collection of modern and contemporary art dating from about 1900 to the present in two buildings that face each other, Modern One and Modern Two, on Belford Road to the west of the city centre; the National Gallery has a collection of more than 6000 paintings, installations, video work and drawings and stages major exhibitions. The first Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art opened in the August 1960 in Inverleith House, a Georgian building set in the middle of Edinburgh’s Royal Botanic Garden. In 1984 the National Gallery moved to Belford Road, Inverleith House became a contemporary art gallery, curated by the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh featuring exhibitions of works and specimens from its historic collections. In 1984 the National Gallery moved to the former premises of the John Watson's Institution, a large neo-classical building designed by William Burn in 1825 as a refuge for fatherless children.
Works from the collection are presented here as well as a programme of changing exhibitions. The early part of the collection features European art from the beginning of the twentieth century, including work by André Derain and Pierre Bonnard, cubist paintings and holdings of expressionist and modern British art. Special highlights include paintings by Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso and the Scottish Colourists Samuel John Peploe, John Duncan Fergusson, Francis Cadell and Leslie Hunter; the Gallery has a renowned collection of international post-war work and an outstanding collection of modern Scottish art. The post-war collection features art by Francis Bacon, David Hockney, Andy Warhol, Joan Eardley and Alan Davie, with more recent works by artists including Douglas Gordon, Antony Gormley, Robert Priseman and Tracey Emin; the collection includes ARTIST ROOMS, a collection of modern and contemporary art acquired for the nation by National Galleries of Scotland and Tate through the Anthony d’Offay donation with support from the National Heritage Memorial Fund, the Art Fund and the Scottish and British Governments.
The growing collection includes works by major international artists including Andy Warhol, Louise Bourgeois, Robert Mapplethorpe and Damien Hirst. The displays change on a regular basis. Across the road, the Dean Orphan Hospital designed by Thomas Hamilton was constructed in 1833, it was converted to a gallery in 1999 by Terry Farrell and Partners. Modern Two is home to a changing programme of world-class exhibitions and displays drawn from the permanent collection. On permanent display is a recreation of the sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi’s studio, as well as his 7.3 metre-tall sculpture, that dominates the café. Modern Two is home to the Gallery’s world-famous collection of Surrealism, including works by Salvador Dalí, René Magritte and Alberto Giacometti; the building houses a library and special books collection. The library’s great strengths are Dada and Surrealism, early twentieth century artists and contemporary Scottish art; the archive contains over 120 holdings relating to twentieth and twenty-first century artists and art organisations, including the Gallery’s own papers.
The archive holds one of the world’s best collections of Dada and Surrealist material made up by the collections of Roland Penrose and Gabrielle Keiller. The special books collection contains over 2,500 artist books and limited edition livres d’artiste, again with a main focus on Dada and Surrealism, but books by other major artists from the twentieth century including Oskar Kokoschka’s Die Träumenden Knaben and Henri Matisse’s Jazz; this material is available to the public in the reading room, open to the public by appointment. There are regular changing displays in the Gabrielle Keiller library to showcase items from these collections. Modern One and Two are set in extensive parkland, where visitors can discover sculpture by such artists as Ian Hamilton Finlay, Barbara Hepworth, Henry Moore, George Rickey, Rachel Whiteread, Richard Long and Nathan Coley; the lawn to the front of Modern One was re-landscaped in 2002 to a design by Charles Jencks. This dramatic work, or Landform, comprises a stepped, serpentine mound reflected in three crescent-shaped pools of water.
The façade of Modern One is home to Martin Creed’s Work No. 975, EVERYTHING IS GOING TO BE ALRIGHT. Modern One backs on to the Water of Leith river and walkway, which can be accessed by a long flight of steep steps behind the Gallery. Open daily, 10am-5pm. Admission is free. Both galleries have renowned cafés. There is a Gallery Bus which takes visitors from the Scottish National Gallery to the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and back again; the gallery's director is Simon Groom, appointed in 2007. National Galleries of Scotland In the Car Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art and Sculpture Garden – official website official website – Museum collections Charles Jencks' Landform
Alexander Nasmyth was a Scottish portrait and landscape painter, a pupil of Allan Ramsay. Nasmyth was born in Edinburgh on 9 September 1758, he was apprenticed to a coachbuilder. Aged sixteen, he was taken to London by portrait painter Allan Ramsay where he worked on subordinate parts of Ramsay's works. Nasmyth returned to Edinburgh in 1778. Offered a loan by Patrick Miller of Dalswinton, Nasmyth left in 1782 for Italy, where he remained two years furthering his studies. In Italy he devoted most of his attention to landscape painting, is recorded as having copied a work by Claude. Nasmyth returned to Scotland, he painted some works in the style of Ramsay, but most were conversation pieces with outdoor settings. His portrait of Robert Burns, who became a close friend, is now in the Scottish National Gallery. Nasmyth's strong Liberal opinions offended many of his aristocratic patrons in a politically charged Edinburgh, leading to a falling off in commissions for portraits, in 1792 he abandoned the genre, turning instead to landscape painting.
He began painting scenery for theatres, an activity he continued for the next thirty years, in 1796 painted a panorama. His landscapes are all of actual places, architecture is an important element; some works were painted to illustrate the effects that new buildings would have on an area, such as Inverary from the Sea, painted for the Duke of Argyll to show the setting a proposed lighthouse. Nasmyth had a great interest in engineering, proposed several ideas that were widely used, although he never patented any of them. In October 1788, when Patrick Miller sailed the world's first successful steamship, designed by William Symington, on Dalswinton Loch, Nasmyth was one of the crew, he was employed by members of the Scottish nobility in the improvement and beautification of their estates. He designed the circular temple covering St Bernard's Well by the Water of Leith, bridges at Almondell, West Lothian, Tongland, Kirkcudbrightshire. In 1815 he was one of those invited to submit proposals for the expansion of Edinburgh New Town.
Nasmyth set up a drawing school and "instilled a whole generation with the importance of drawing as a tool of empirical investigation". Another successful pupil was the painter, art dealer and connoisseur Andrew Wilson, who had his first art training under Nasmyth. Nasmyth was not only the tutor to the polymath Mary Somerville but he introduced her to the leading intellectuals in Edinburgh. Nasmyth died at 47 York Place in Edinburgh, he was buried in St Cuthbert's Churchyard at the west end of Princes Street. Nasmyth's six daughters all became notable artists, his daughters were Jane, Margaret, Elizabeth and Charlotte. His eldest son, Patrick Nasmyth, studied under his father went to London and attracted attention as a landscapist. Another son, James Nasmyth, invented the steam hammer. Macmillan, Duncan. Painting in Scotland: The Golden Age. Oxford: Phaidon in association with the Talbot Rice Art Centre and the Tate Gallery.online version For an account of Andrew Wilson see "The Scottish Claude" by John Ramm, Antique Dealer & Collectors Guide, July 1997, Vol 50, No. 12 Works in the National Galleries of Scotland
Princes Street is one of the major thoroughfares in central Edinburgh and the main shopping street in the capital. It is the southernmost street of Edinburgh's New Town, stretching around 1 mile from Lothian Road in the west, to Leith Street in the east; the street has no buildings on the south side, allowing panoramic views of the Old Town, Edinburgh Castle, the valley between. Most of the street is limited to trams and taxis with only the east end open to all traffic; the street lies on the line of a medieval country lane known as the Lang Dykes. Princes Street was to have been called St Giles Street after the patron saint of Edinburgh. However, King George III rejected the name, St Giles being the patron saint of lepers and the name of a notorious'rookery' of slums in London; the street is named after King George's two eldest sons, the Prince George, Duke of Rothesay and the Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. It was laid out according to formal plans for Edinburgh's New Town, now known as the First New Town.
These were devised by the architect James Craig and building began around 1770. Princes Street represented a critical part of the plan, being the outer edge, facing Edinburgh Castle and the original city:"Edinburgh Old Town". All buildings had the same format: set back from the street with stairs down to a basement and stairs up to the ground floor with two storeys and an attic above. Of this original format only one such property, no.95, remains in its original form. Through the 19th century most buildings were redeveloped at a larger scale and the street evolved from residential to retail uses. By the 1930s the architecture of Princes Street had a mixed character; the Abercrombie Plan of 1949 proposed tighter control of design to create a more coherent appearance. This theme was taken up by the Princes Street Panel, whose 1967 report proposed comprehensive redevelopment with Modernist buildings to incorporate a first-floor level walkway, theoretically doubling the shopping frontage; the plan was put into operation, resulting in the erection of seven buildings before the approach was dropped in the 1970s.
Two of the new buildings, British Home Stores at no.64, the New Club at nos.84–87, are now listed buildings. During the construction of the New Town, the polluted waters of the Nor Loch were drained, the area was converted into private gardens called Princes Street Gardens; this was taken over by the Edinburgh Council in the late 19th century, by which time most of the street was commercial and there was no great need for private residential gardens. The width of Princes Street was increased soon after, onto what was the northern edge of the gardens. Due to the much lower position of the gardens this led to the creation of the steep embankment on the north side, still visible today; the gardens are one of the many green spaces in the heart of Edinburgh. Princes Street was the scene of rioting in 2005 related to the 31st G8 summit referred to in the press as'The Battle of Princes Street'. Independent media claims the rioting was provoked by police From the 1880s the street, with its commanding views in combination with great ease of access, became a popular street upon which to locate hotels.
The railway companies created huge anchor hotels at either end: the Caledonian Hotel to the west, North British Hotel to the east. In between were the Royal British Hotel, Old Waverley Hotel, Mount Royal Hotel, all of which survive. Several UK high street brands such as Boots, Scotland's largest Boots City Store, H&M, House of Fraser, Marks & Spencer and Topshop, are just a few of the shops located along Princes Street. Jenners department store is an Edinburgh institution, surviving the disappearance of many other local department stores, such as Patrick Thompson's. There has been controversy over buildings from the latter half of the 20th century on Princes Street; this has prompted plans to demolish the BHS and the Marks & Spencer buildings, in an effort to improve the status of the street. Another problem has been that upper floors are used for storage, rather than as office, retail or living space. At an early stage in post-World War II designs for the street, a "high level walkway" was planned, as a further shopping frontage for the first floor level, in lieu of the other side of the street.
However the walkway as built was never more than a number of isolated balconies and in practice the Royal Bank of Scotland was the only business to maintain a frontage at this level for any length of time. The Gardens contain the Ross Bandstand, a war memorial to US soldiers of Scottish descent and a floral clock, together with other attractions. Two of the main Scottish art galleries, the Royal Scottish Academy and the National Gallery of Scotland, are located at the foot of The Mound and are served by Princes Street tram stop. Further along is the Scott Monument, a huge intricate Gothic monument dedicated to Sir Walter Scott, the author of the Waverley Novels, after, named Waverley station, which lies at the east end of the Gardens, its westward lines dividing them. Next to the station on its north side is the former railway hotel known as the North British Hotel, latterly renamed the Balmoral Hotel, the North Bridge which sails at high level over the station; the hotel has a counterpart at the extreme west end of Princes Street.
The Caledonian Hotel, now the Waldorf Astoria Edinburgh - The Caledonian, sits at the north end of Lothian Road. This was built by the Caledonian Railway for their Princes Street Station which closed in the 1960s along with
Archibald Elliot was a Scottish architect based in Edinburgh. He had a distinctive style, typified by square plans, concealed roofs, crenellated walls and square corner towers. All may be said to derive from the earlier local example of Melville Castle by James Playfair. Many of his works have been demolished, he was born in Roxburghshire the son of a carrier. After training as a joiner he moved to cabinet design, working in London, appears to have trained as an architect before returning to Scotland to work in Edinburgh. Archibald Elliot ran an architecture practice in Edinburgh with his brother James Elliot. Following James's death in 1810, Archibald ran the company on his own, it was taken over by Archibald's son, Archibald Elliot Junior. He contributed to many significant buildings and streets in Edinburgh, including St Paul's and St George's Church, Rutland Square, the Regent Bridge, Waterloo Place and Calton Prison, he was involved with work on many country houses in Scotland, including Blair Castle and Taymouth Castle in Perthshire, Loudoun Castle in Ayrshire, Stobo Castle in Peeblesshire.
He is buried near the centre of New Calton Cemetery, close to his works on Waterloo Place. A son, William Elliot lies with him, his younger brother, James Elliot, worked with him from 1800 until his early death. Archibald's sons, Archibald Elliot and Alexander Elliot, ran a practice in London. Archibald inherited his father's practice on his death. Loudoun Castle complete rebuilding around an original 17th-century tower house Stobo Castle Taymouth Castle Guildhall, Dunfermline Calton Prison Midlothian County Hall, Edinburgh Waterloo Monument, Peniel Heugh 35 St Andrew Square, Edinburgh Rutland Square and Rutland Street, Edinburgh St George's Church, Paisley co-designed with William Reid Broughton McDonald Church, Broughton Place, Edinburgh Edmonstone House, south of Edinburgh Blair Atholl Church Jedburgh Castle Jail St Marks Episcopal Church, Portobello completed posthumously by his son
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian. There are two lesser orders: the Tuscan, the rich variant of Corinthian called the composite order, both added by 16th-century Italian architectural writers, based on Roman practice. Of the three canonic orders, the Ionic order has the narrowest columns; the Ionic capital is characterized by the use of volutes. The Ionic columns stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform. Since Vitruvius, a female character has been ascribed to the Ionic; the major features of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital, which have been the subject of much theoretical and practical discourse, based on a brief and obscure passage in Vitruvius. The only tools required to design these features were a straight-edge, a right angle, string and a compass. Below the volutes, the Ionic column may have a wide collar or banding separating the capital from the fluted shaft, or a swag of fruit and flowers may swing from the clefts or "neck" formed by the volutes.
The volutes lay in a single plane. This feature of the Ionic order made it more pliant and satisfactory than the Doric to critical eyes in the 4th century BC: angling the volutes on the corner columns ensured that they "read" when seen from either front or side facade; the 16th-century Renaissance architect and theorist Vincenzo Scamozzi designed a version of such a four-sided Ionic capital. The Ionic column is always more slender than the Doric. Ionic columns are most fluted. After a little early experimentation, the number of hollow flutes in the shaft settled at 24; this standardization kept the fluting in a familiar proportion to the diameter of the column at any scale when the height of the column was exaggerated. Roman fluting leaves a little of the column surface between each hollow. In some instances, the fluting has been omitted. English architect Inigo Jones introduced a note of sobriety with plain Ionic columns on his Banqueting House at Whitehall Palace and when Beaux-Arts architect John Russell Pope wanted to convey the manly stamina combined with intellect of Theodore Roosevelt, he left colossal Ionic columns unfluted on the Roosevelt memorial at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, for an unusual impression of strength and stature.
Wabash Railroad architect R. E. Mohr included 8 unfluted Ionic frontal columns on his 1928 design for the railroad's St. Louis suburban stop Delmar Station; the entablature resting on the columns has three parts: a plain architrave divided into two, or more three, with a frieze resting on it that may be richly sculptural, a cornice built up with dentils, with a corona and cyma molding to support the projecting roof. Pictorial narrative bas-relief frieze carving provides a characteristic feature of the Ionic order, in the area where the Doric order is articulated with triglyphs. Roman and Renaissance practice condensed the height of the entablature by reducing the proportions of the architrave, which made the frieze more prominent; the Ionic anta capital is the ionic version of the anta capital, the crowning portion of an anta, the front edge of a supporting wall in Greek temple architecture. The anta is crowned by a stone block designed to spread the load from superstructure it supports, called an "anta capital" when it is structural, or sometimes "pilaster capital" if it is only decorative as during the Roman period.
In order not to protrude unduly from the wall, these anta capitals display a rather flat surface, so that the capital has more or less a rectangular-shaped structure overall. The ionic anta capital, in contrast to the regular column capitals, is decorated and includes bands of alternating lotuses and flame palmettes, bands of eggs and darts and beads and reels patterns, in order to maintain continuity with the decorative frieze lining the top of the walls; this difference with the column capitals disappeared with Roman times, when anta or pilaster capitals have designs similar to those of the column capitals. The ionic anta capitals as can be seen in the Ionic-order temple of the Erechtheion, are characteristically rectangular Ionic anta capitals, with extensive bands of floral patterns in prolongation of adjoining friezes; the Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia Minor settled by Ionian Greeks, where an Ionian dialect was spoken.
The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC. It was most popular in the Archaic Period in Ionia; the first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos, built about 570–560 BC by the architect Rhoikos. It stood for only a decade. A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, one of t
Scottish art is the body of visual art made in what is now Scotland, or about Scottish subjects, since prehistoric times. It forms a distinctive tradition within European art, but the political union with England has led its partial subsumation in British art; the earliest examples of art from what is now Scotland are decorated carved stone balls from the Neolithic period. From the Bronze Age there are examples of carvings, including the first representations of objects, cup and ring marks. More extensive Scottish examples of patterned objects and gold work are found the Iron Age. Elaborately carved Pictish stones and impressive metalwork emerged in Scotland the early Middle Ages; the development of a common style of Insular art across Great Britain and Ireland influenced elaborate jewellery and illuminated manuscripts such as the Book of Kells. Only isolated examples survive of native artwork from the late Middle Ages and of works created or influenced by artists of Flemish origin; the influence of the Renaissance can be seen in stone carving and painting from the fifteenth century.
In the sixteenth century the crown began to employ Flemish court painters who have left a portrait record of royalty. The Reformation removed a major source of patronage for art and limited the level of public display, but may have helped in the growth of secular domestic forms elaborate painting of roofs and walls. Although the loss of the court as a result of the Union of Crowns in 1603 removed another major source of patronage, the seventeenth century saw the emergence of the first significant native artists for whom names are extant, with figures such as George Jamesone and John Michael Wright. In the eighteenth century Scotland began to produce artists that were significant internationally, all influenced by neoclassicism, such as Allan Ramsay, Gavin Hamilton, the brothers John and Alexander Runciman, Jacob More and David Allan. Towards the end of the century Romanticism began to influence artistic production, can be seen in the portraits of artists such as Henry Raeburn, it contributed to a tradition of Scottish landscape painting that focused on the Highlands, formulated by figures including Alexander Nasmyth.
The Royal Scottish Academy of Art was created in 1826, major portrait painters of this period included Andrew Geddes and David Wilkie. William Dyce emerged as one of the most significant figures in art education in the United Kingdom; the beginnings of a Celtic Revival can be seen in the late nineteenth century and the art scene was dominated by the work of the Glasgow Boys and the Four, led Charles Rennie Mackintosh, who gained an international reputation for their combination of Celtic revival and Crafts and Art Nouveau. The early twentieth century was dominated by the Edinburgh School. Modernism enjoyed popularity during this period, with William Johnstone helping to develop the concept of a Scottish Renaissance. In the post-war period, major artists, including John Bellany and Alexander Moffat, pursued a strand of "Scottish realism". Moffat's influence can be seen in the work of the "new Glasgow Boys" from the late twentieth century. In the twenty-first century Scotland has continued to produce successful and influential artists such as Douglas Gordon and Susan Philipsz.
Scotland possess significant collections of art, such as the National Gallery of Scotland and National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh and the Burrell Collection and Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum in Glasgow. Significant schools of art include the Glasgow School of Art; the major funding body with responsibility for the arts in Scotland is Creative Scotland. Support is given by local councils and independent foundations; the oldest known examples of art to survive from Scotland are carved stone balls, or petrospheres, that date from the late Neolithic era. They are a uniquely Scottish phenomenon, with over 425 known examples. Most are from modern Aberdeenshire, but a handful of examples are known from Iona, Harris, Lewis, Hawick and fifteen from Orkney, five of which were found at the Neolithic village of Skara Brae. Many functions have been suggested for these objects, most indicating that they were prestigious and powerful possessions, their production may have continued into the Iron Age.
From the Bronze Age there are extensive examples of rock art. These include cup and ring marks, a central depression carved into stone, surrounded by rings, sometimes not completed; these are common elsewhere in Atlantic Europe and have been found on natural rocks and isolated stones across Scotland. The most elaborate sets of markings are in western Scotland in the Kilmartin district; the representations of an axe and a boat at the Ri Cruin Cairn in Kilmartin, a boat pecked into Wemyss Cave, are believed to be the oldest known representations of real objects that survive in Scotland. Carved spirals have been found on the cover stones of burial cists in Lanarkshire and Kincardine. By the Iron Age, Scotland had been penetrated by the wider La Tène culture; the Torrs Pony-cap and Horns are the most impressive of the few finds of La Tène decoration from Scotland, indicate links with Ireland and southern Britain. The Stirling torcs, found in 2009, are a group of four gold torcs in different styles, dating from 300 BC and 100 BC Two demonstrate common styles found in Scotland and Ireland, but the other two indicate workmanship from what is now southern France and the Greek and Roman worlds.
In the Early Middle Ages, four distinct linguistic and political groupings existed in what is now Scotland, each of which produced distinct material cultures. In the east were the Picts, whose kingdoms stretched from the River Forth to Shetland. In th
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The Doric is most recognized by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns. Originating in the western Dorian region of Greece, it is the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above; the Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced, had no base, dropping straight into the stylobate or platform on which the temple or other building stood. The capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion, wide in early versions, but more restrained. Above a plain architrave, the complexity comes in the frieze, where the two features unique to the Doric, the triglyph and guttae, are skeuomorphic memories of the beams and retaining pegs of the wooden constructions that preceded stone Doric temples. In stone they are purely ornamental; the uncommon Roman and Renaissance Doric retained these, introduced thin layers of moulding or further ornament, as well as using plain columns.
More they used versions of the Tuscan order, elaborated for nationalistic reasons by Italian Renaissance writers, in effect a simplified Doric, with un-fluted columns and a simpler entablature with no triglyphs or guttae. The Doric order was much used in Greek Revival architecture from the 18th century onwards. Since at least Vitruvius it has been customary for writers to associate the Doric with masculine virtues, it is normally the cheapest of the orders to use. When the three orders are used one above the other, it is usual for the Doric to be at the bottom, with the Ionic and the Corinthian above, the Doric, as "strongest", is used on the ground floor below another order in the storey above. In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement of a temple without a base. With a height only four to eight times their diameter, the columns were the most squat of all the classical orders; the Parthenon has the Doric design columns. It was most popular in the Archaic Period in mainland Greece, found in Magna Graecia, as in the three temples at Paestum.
These are in the Archaic Doric, where the capitals spread wide from the column compared to Classical forms, as exemplified in the Parthenon. Pronounced features of both Greek and Roman versions of the Doric order are the alternating triglyphs and metopes; the triglyphs are decoratively grooved with two vertical grooves and represent the original wooden end-beams, which rest on the plain architrave that occupies the lower half of the entablature. Under each triglyph are peglike "stagons" or "guttae" that appear as if they were hammered in from below to stabilize the post-and-beam construction, they served to "organize" rainwater runoff from above. The spaces between the triglyphs are the "metopes", they may be left plain. The spacing of the triglyphs caused problems. A triglyph is centered above every column, with another between columns, though the Greeks felt that the corner triglyph should form the corner of the entablature, creating an inharmonious mismatch with the supporting column; the architecture followed rules of harmony.
Since the original design came from wooden temples and the triglyphs were real heads of wooden beams, every column had to bear a beam which lay across the centre of the column. Triglyphs were arranged regularly; this was regarded as the ideal solution. Changing to stone cubes instead of wooden beams required full support of the architrave load at the last column. At the first temples the final triglyph was moved, still terminating the sequence, but leaving a gap disturbing the regular order. Worse, the last triglyph was not centered with the corresponding column; that "archaic" manner was not regarded as a harmonious design. The resulting problem is called the doric corner conflict. Another approach was to apply a broader corner triglyph but was not satisfying; because the metopes are somewhat flexible in their proportions, the modular space between columns can be adjusted by the architect. The last two columns were set closer together, to give a subtle visual strengthening to the corners; that is called the "classic" solution of the corner conflict.
Triglyphs could be arranged in a harmonic manner again, the corner was terminated with a triglyph. However, final triglyph and column were not centered. There are many theories as to the origins of the Doric order in temples; the term Doric is believed to have originated from the Greek-speaking Dorian tribes. One belief is. With no hard proof and the sudden appearance of stone temples from one period after the other, this becomes speculation. Another belief is. With the Greeks being present in Ancient Egypt as soon the 7th-century BC, it is possible that Greek traders were inspired by the structure