National Museum of Scotland
The two connected buildings stand beside each other on Chambers Street, by the intersection with the George IV Bridge, in central Edinburgh. The museum is part of National Museums Scotland, the National Museum incorporates the collections of the former National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, and the Royal Museum. The 16 new galleries reopened in 2011 include 8,000 objects,80 per cent of which were not formerly on display, one of the more notable exhibits is the stuffed body of Dolly the sheep, the first successful clone of a mammal from an adult cell. Other highlights include Ancient Egyptian exhibitions, one of Elton Johns extravagant suits, a Scottish invention that is a perennial favourite with school parties is The Maiden, an early form of guillotine. In 2016, the museum had 1.81 million visitors over the year, the Victorian building, as reopened in 2011, contains four zones, covering natural history, world cultures, European art and design, and science & technology. Beyond the Grand Gallery at ground level is the Discoveries gallery, with objects connected to remarkable Scots.
in the fields of invention, monymusk Reliquary St Ninians Isle Treasure 11 of the Lewis chessmen. The original extent of the building was completed in 1888 and it was designed by civil engineer Captain Francis Fowke of the Royal Engineers, who is responsible for the Royal Albert Hall. The exterior, designed in a Venetian Renaissance style, contrasts sharply with the main hall or Grand Gallery. Numerous extensions at the rear of the building, particularly in the 1930s,1998 saw the opening of the Museum of Scotland, which is linked internally to the Royal Museum building. The major redevelopment completed in 2011 by Gareth Hoskins Architects uses former storage areas to form a vaulted Entrance Hall of 1400 sq M at street level with visitor facilities and this involved lowering the floor level by 1.2 metres. Despite being a Class A listed building, it was possible to add lifts, the buildings architecture was controversial from the start, and Prince Charles resigned as patron of the museum, in protest at the lack of consultation over its design.
The building is made up of geometric, Corbusian forms, but has references to Scotland, such as brochs and castellated. It is clad in golden Moray sandstone, which one of its architects, Gordon Benson, has called the oldest exhibit in the building, the building was a 1999 Stirling Prize nominee. In 1861 construction of the Industrial Museum of Scotland began, with Prince Albert laying the foundation stone, in 1866, renamed the Edinburgh Museum of Science and Art, the eastern end and the Grand Gallery were opened by Prince Alfred. In 1888 the building was finished and in 1904 the institution was renamed the Royal Scottish Museum, in 1998 the new Museum of Scotland building opened, adjacent to the Royal Museum, and connected to it. The old Royal Museum building closed for redevelopment in 2008, before reopening in July 2011, much of the Royal Museums collection came from the museum of Edinburgh University, and there is a bridge connecting the museum to the universitys Old College building. The students saw the collection as their own, and curators would often find the exhibits rearranged or even missing.
The final straw came in the 1870s, when students who were holding a party found that the museum was holding a reception for local dignitaries, when the museum found the refreshments missing, the bridge was bricked up the next day, and has remained so since
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style of Georgian buildings is very variable, but marked by a taste for symmetry and proportion based on the architecture of Greece and Rome. Ornament is normally in the tradition, but typically rather restrained. In towns, which expanded greatly during the period, landowners turned into property developers, even the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town, especially if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world. The period saw the growth of a distinct and trained architectural profession, before the mid-century the high-sounding title and this contrasted with earlier styles, which were primarily disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system.
Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny published editions in America as well as Britain, mail-order kit homes were popular before World War II. The architect James Gibbs was a figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, and John Wood, the styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking worlds equivalent of European Rococo. John Nash was one of the most prolific architects of the late Georgian era known as The Regency style, greek Revival architecture was added to the repertory, beginning around 1750, but increasing in popularity after 1800. Leading exponents were William Wilkins and Robert Smirke, regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning.
In Britain brick or stone are almost invariably used, brick is often disguised with stucco, in America and other colonies wood remained very common, as its availability and cost-ratio with the other materials was more favourable. Versions of revived Palladian architecture dominated English country house architecture, Houses were increasingly placed in grand landscaped settings, and large houses were generally made wide and relatively shallow, largely to look more impressive from a distance. The height was usually highest in the centre, and the Baroque emphasis on corner pavilions often found on the continent generally avoided, in grand houses, an entrance hall led to steps up to a piano nobile or mezzanine floor where the main reception rooms were. A single block was typical, with a perhaps a small court for carriages at the front marked off by railings and a gate, but rarely a stone gatehouse, or side wings around the court. Windows in all types of buildings were large and regularly placed on a grid, this was partly to minimize window tax and their height increasingly varied between the floors, and they increasingly began below waist-height in the main rooms, making a small balcony desirable
Robert Rowand Anderson
Sir Robert Rowand Anderson, FRSE RSA was a Scottish Victorian architect. Anderson trained in the office of George Gilbert Scott in London before setting up his own practice in Edinburgh in 1860, during the 1860s his main work was small churches in the First Pointed style that is characteristic of Scotts former assistants. By 1880 his practice was designing some of the most prestigious public, Anderson was born at Liberton, outside Edinburgh, the third child of James Anderson, a solicitor, and Margaret Rowand. Educated at George Watsons College, he began an apprenticeship in 1845. He began to study architecture in 1849, attending classes at the Trustees Drawing Academy, in 1857 he took a two-year post as an assistant to George Gilbert Scott, in his office at Trafalgar Square, London. Here he worked alongside many influential architects and he spent time travelling and studying in France and Italy, working briefly for Pierre Cuypers in Roermond, Netherlands. In 1860 Anderson returned to Edinburgh, and began working as an architect with the Royal Engineers, undertaking works on coastal defences, all of these were carried out alongside his work for the Royal Engineers, and show the influence of Scotts church designs.
Anderson set up his own independent practice in 1868 and his first significant commission came in 1871, for the restoration of St Vigeans Parish Church, Angus. He went on to win the competition to design the Catholic Apostolic Church in Edinburgh, Anderson joined the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, where he met future clients including the Marquis of Bute. In 1873 a short-lived partnership with David Bryce began, but was dissolved only a few months later, in 1874 he was invited to submit designs for a competition for the University of Edinburgh Medical Faculty and graduation hall. He undertook further tours to Europe, resulting in the winning Italian Renaissance style design which was finalised in 1877. The design secured Andersons election to the Royal Scottish Academy, although the Medical School was not completed until 1886, and his next major commission came soon after, in 1876, when he was appointed as architect for Glasgow Central Station. In 1878 Anderson designed a new Mount Stuart House in an Italian Gothic style for the 3rd Marquess of Bute, the Scottish National Portrait Gallery was designed in a similar style, and executed in red sandstone.
However, Browne left in 1885, and Hew Wardrop died in 1887 at Udny Castle, notable architects employed within the Anderson practice included Robert Weir Schultz, Robert Lorimer, Sydney Mitchell, and James Jerdan. During the 1880s, Andersons style became increasingly influenced by Scottish historical architecture, possibly as a result of his friendship with architectural historians MacGibbon, the Scottish influence is evident in the Normand Memorial Hall, Ardgowan Estate Office and the Pearce Institute, Govan. From the 1890s, restoration became the focus of Andersons architecture and he had already undertaken work at Iona Abbey and Jedburgh Abbey in the 1870s, and now restored Dunblane Cathedral and Paisley Abbey. He became more involved in teaching, helping to set up a School of Applied Art in 1892, in 1903 this merged into the new Edinburgh College of Art, with Anderson as a trustee. In his years Anderson became difficult to work with, and was perceived as arrogant, another partnership, formed in 1899, was dissolved following lawsuits in 1902
Mount Stuart House
Mount Stuart House on the east coast of the Isle of Bute, Scotland, is a Gothic Revival country house and the ancestral home of the Marquesses of Bute. It was designed by Sir Robert Rowand Anderson for the 3rd Marquess of Bute in the late 1870s, replacing a house by Alexander McGill. The house is a Category A listed building, the house is the seat of the Stuarts of Bute, derived from the hereditary office Steward of Bute held since 1157. The family are direct descendants of John Stewart, the illegitimate son of King Robert II of Scotland. By virtue of descent, they are descendants of Robert the Bruce, whose daughter Marjorie was mother of Robert II by her marriage to Walter Stewart. The original house was built in 1719 by the 2nd Earl of Bute, Burges built an oratory at the house. The main part of the present house is a flamboyant example of 19th-century Gothic Revival architecture, built in a reddish-brown stone. Mount Stuarts major features include the colonnaded Marble Hall at the centre of the block and the Marble Chapel.
Two earlier wings in a different style survive. They are much smaller in scale, have Georgian-style sash windows and are painted white, much of the furniture was custom-designed for the house by Robert Weir Schultz in the early years of the 20th century. He laid out sections of the gardens. The Mount Stuart House claims to be home to the worlds first heated pool in any house, it was the first home in Scotland to be lit by electricity, however the tradition of fire-heated encasements and pool water in British houses goes back to the Roman era. In April 2016 it was announced that a Shakespeare First Folio had been discovered in the Houses Library, the house is open to the public. The Buildings of Scotland and Bute, william Burges and the High Victorian Dream. Robert Weir Schultz and His Work for the Marquesses of Bute, Mount Stuart House & Gardens website
An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection, the term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand, private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere. In broad terms, in North American usage, the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, the term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are home to at least one gallery, but they may be found in towns or villages. Contemporary art galleries are open to the general public without charge, however. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales, from 25% to 50% is typical, there are many non-profit or collective galleries.
Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly, a gallerys definition can include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. A vanity gallery is an art gallery that charges fees from artists in order to show their work, the shows are not legitimately curated and will frequently or usually include as many artists as possible. Most art professionals are able to identify them on an artists resume, University art museums and galleries constitute collections of art that are developed and maintained by all kinds of schools, community colleges and universities. This phenomenon exists in both the West and East, making it a global practice, although largely overlooked, there are over 700 university art museums in America alone.
This number, in comparison to other kinds of art museums, throughout history and expensive works of art have generally been commissioned by religious institutions and monarchs and been displayed in temples and palaces. Although these collections of art were private, they were made available for viewing for a portion of the public. In classical times, religious institutions began to function as a form of art gallery. Wealthy Roman collectors of engraved gems and other precious objects often donated their collections to temples and it is unclear how easy it was in practice for the public to view these items. At the Palace of Versailles, entrance was restricted to wearing the proper apparel – the appropriate accessories could be hired from shops outside
John Ritchie Findlay
John Ritchie Findlay was a Scottish newspaper owner and philanthropist. He was born at Arbroath, son of Peter Findlay and was educated at Edinburgh University, after a period as a clerk, he moved to the editorial office. He became a partner in the paper in 1868, and in 1870 inherited the greater part of the property from his great uncle. He presented to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, opened in Edinburgh in 1889 and he contributed largely to the collections of the National Gallery of Scotland. This manages to blends well with its surroundings despite being larger than its neighbours. Findlay undertook a number of philanthropic projects under his own direct supervision. In 1889 he built the Well Court development in Edinburghs Dean Village, followed by the developments of Hawthorn Buildings. He avoided political office and refused the offer of a baronetcy in 1896, the freedom of Edinburgh was given him in 1896. He died at Aberlour, Banffshire, in 1898 and he was buried with his great uncle in Lords Row in Dean Cemetery.
His younger son, James Leslie Findlay became an architect, among whose projects were distinctive new offices and printing works for The Scotsman on North Bridge and his daughter, Dora Louise Findlay, married Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger Backhouse in 1907. In 1863, he married Susan Leslie, and left ten children, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Prothero. Dictionary of National Biography,1901 supplement
A niche in classical architecture is an exedra or an apse that has been reduced in size, retaining the half-dome heading usual for an apse. The word derives from the Latin nidus or nest, via the French niche, in Gothic architecture, a niche may be set within a tabernacle framing, like a richly-decorated miniature house, such as might serve for a reliquary. The backings for the altars in churches can be embedded with niches for statues, one of the earliest buildings which uses external niches containing statues is the Church of Orsanmichele in Florence, built between 1380-1404. The Uffizi Palace in Florence modified the concept by setting the niche within the wall so it did not protrude, the Uffizi has two dozen or so such niches containing statues of great historical figures. In England the Uffizi style niches were adopted at Montacute House, in Fra Filippo Lippis Madonna the trompe-loeil niche frames her as with the canopy of estate that was positioned over a personage of importance in the late Middle Ages and Early Modern Europe.
At the same time, the Madonna is represented as an iconic sculpture who has come alive with miraculous immediacy, expanding from its primary sense as an architectural recess, a niche can be applied to a rocky hollow, crevice, or foothold. The sense of a niche as a clearly defined narrow space led to its use describing the position of an organisms species. Alcove Grotto Mihrab Wave cut platform Sir John Summerson,1948. in Heavenly Mansions
In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle. Turrets were used to provide a defensive position allowing covering fire to the adjacent wall in the days of military fortification. As their military use faded, turrets were used for decorative purposes, a turret can have a circular top with crenellations as seen in the picture at right, a pointed roof, or other kind of apex. The size of a turret is therefore limited by technology, since it puts additional stresses on the structure of the building and it would traditionally be supported by a corbel. Bartizan, an overhanging, wall-mounted turret found particularly on French and they returned to prominence in the 19th century with their popularity in Scottish baronial style
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the Metropolitan City of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants, Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of the time. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has called the Athens of the Middle Ages. A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family, from 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. The Historic Centre of Florence attracts 13 million tourists each year and it was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance art and architecture, the city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florences artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world, in 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy.
Florence originated as a Roman city, and later, after a period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe, the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, and still is, accepted as the Italian language. Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War and they similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European historys most important noble families, Lorenzo de Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century, Leo X, catherine de Medici married king Henry II of France and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France.
Marie de Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king Louis XIII, the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de Medici in 1737. The Etruscans initially formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole and it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the route between Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century, Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital. The population began to again and commerce prospered
Robert Burns, known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist. He is widely regarded as the poet of Scotland and is celebrated worldwide. He is the best known of the poets who have written in the Scots language, although much of his writing is in English and he wrote in standard English, and in these writings his political or civil commentary is often at its bluntest. Celebration of his life and work became almost a national charismatic cult during the 19th and 20th centuries, in 2009 he was chosen as the greatest Scot by the Scottish public in a vote run by Scottish television channel STV. As well as making original compositions, Burns collected songs from across Scotland. His poem Auld Lang Syne is often sung at Hogmanay, and he was born in a house built by his father, where he lived until Easter 1766, when he was seven years old. William Burnes sold the house and took the tenancy of the 70-acre Mount Oliphant farm, here Burns grew up in poverty and hardship, and the severe manual labour of the farm left its traces in a premature stoop and a weakened constitution.
By the age of 15, Burns was the principal labourer at Mount Oliphant, during the harvest of 1774, he was assisted by Nelly Kilpatrick, who inspired his first attempt at poetry, O, Once I Lovd A Bonnie Lass. In the summer of 1775, he was sent to finish his education with a tutor at Kirkoswald, despite his ability and character, William Burnes was consistently unfortunate, and migrated with his large family from farm to farm without ever being able to improve his circumstances. Subsequently, the family became integrated into the community of Tarbolton, to his fathers disapproval, Robert joined a country dancing school in 1779 and, with Gilbert, formed the Tarbolton Bachelors Club the following year. His earliest existing letters date from this time, when he began making overtures to Alison Begbie. In spite of four songs written for her and a suggestion that he was willing to marry her, Robert Burns was initiated into masonic Lodge St David, Tarbolton, on 4 July 1781, when he was 22. This venture accordingly came to an end, and Burns went home to Lochlea farm, during this time he met and befriended Captain Richard Brown who encouraged him to become a poet.
He continued to write poems and songs and began a book in 1783. The case went to the Court of Session, and Burnes was upheld in January 1784, a fortnight before he died. During the summer of 1784 Burns came to know a group of girls known collectively as The Belles of Mauchline, one of whom was Jean Armour, the daughter of a stonemason from Mauchline. His first child, Elizabeth Paton Burns, was born to his mothers servant, Elizabeth Paton, while he was embarking on a relationship with Jean Armour, Burns signed a paper attesting his marriage to Jean, but her father was in the greatest distress, and fainted away. To avoid disgrace, her parents sent her to live with her uncle in Paisley, although Armours father initially forbade it, they were eventually married in 1788
The Vasari Corridor is an elevated enclosed passageway in Florence, central Italy, which connects the Palazzo Vecchio with the Palazzo Pitti. At the time of construction, the corridor had to be built around the Torre dei Mannelli, using brackets, the corridor covers up part of the façade of the chiesa di Santa Felicita. The corridor snakes its way over rows of houses in the Oltrarno district, becoming narrower, most of it is closed to visitors. The Vasari Corridor was built in 5 months by order of Duke Cosimo I de Medici in 1565 and it was commissioned in connection with the marriage of Cosimos son, with Johanna of Austria. The meat market of Ponte Vecchio was moved to avoid its smell reaching into the passage, at the latter extremity, the corridor was forced to pass around the Mannellis Tower, after the staunch opposition of that family to its destruction. In the middle of Ponte Vecchio the corridor is characterized by a series of windows facing the Arno. These replaced the windows of the original construction in 1939.
The larger windows were installed for a visit to Florence by Adolf Hitler to give him a panoramic view of the river. In its Uffizi section the Vasari Corridor is used to exhibit the famous collection of self-portraits. The area closest to the Uffizi entrance was damaged by a bombing commissioned by the Italian mafia on the night of May 27th,1993. These paintings, some hopelessly damaged, have been pieced back together, self-portraits in the Uffizi Gallery Media related to Vasari Corridor at Wikimedia Commons