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Scottish Premiership

The Scottish Premiership, known for sponsorship reasons as the Ladbrokes Premiership, is the top division of the Scottish Professional Football League, the league competition for men's professional football clubs in Scotland. The Scottish Premiership was established in July 2013, after the SPFL was formed by a merger of the Scottish Premier League and Scottish Football League. There are 12 teams in this division, with each team playing 38 matches per season. Sixteen clubs have played in the Scottish Premiership since its creation in the 2013–14 season. Celtic are the current league champions, being the only league champion to date since its establishment. Teams receive one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points goal difference, goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned league champion. If the points, goal difference and goals scored between teams are equal, a playoff game held at a neutral venue shall be played to determine the final placings.

The play-off will only occur when the position of the teams affects the outcome of the title, European qualification, or relegation and shall not occur otherwise. The top flight of Scottish football has contained 12 clubs since the 2000–01 season, the longest period without change in the history of the Scottish football league system. During this period the Scottish Premier League, now the Scottish Premiership, has operated a "split" format; this is used to prevent the need for a 44-game schedule, based on playing each other four times. That format was used in the Scottish Premier Division in the mid-1980s and early 1990s, but is now considered to be too high a number of games in a league season. A season, which runs from August until May, is divided into two phases. During the first phase, each club plays three games against every other team, either once at home and twice away or vice versa. After this first phase of matches, by which time all clubs have played 33 games, the league splits into two halves - a'top six' section and a'bottom six' section.

Each club proceeds to play a further five matches, one against each of the other five teams in their own section. Points achieved during the first phase of 33 matches are carried forward to the second phase, but the teams compete only within their own sections during the second phase. After the first phase is completed, clubs cannot move out of their own half in the league if they achieve more or fewer points than a higher or lower ranked team, respectively. At the beginning of each season, the SPFL'predicts' the positions of each club in order to produce a fixture schedule that ensures the best possible chance of all clubs playing each other twice at home and twice away; this is based on clubs' performance in the previous season. If the clubs do not finish in the half where they are predicted to finish anomalies can be created in the fixture list. Clubs sometimes play another three times at home and once away, or a club can end up playing 20 home games in a season; the bottom placed Premiership club at the end of the season is relegated, swaps places with the winner of the Scottish Championship, provided that the winner satisfies Premiership entry criteria.

With the creation of the SPFL, promotion and relegation play-offs involving the top flight were introduced for the first time in seventeen years. The Premiership club in eleventh place plays the Championship play-off winners over two legs, with the winner earning the right to play in the Scottish Premiership the following season; this enables two clubs to be relegated from the Premiership each season, with two being promoted. Prior to the creation of the Scottish Premiership, only a single club could be relegated each season - with only the second tier champions being promoted; the Scottish Football League had used playoffs amongst its three divisions since 2007. UEFA grants European places to the Scottish Football Association, determined by the Scotland's position in the UEFA country coefficient rankings; the Scottish Football Association in turn allocate a number of these European places to final Scottish Premiership positions. At the end of the 2018–19 season, Scotland was ranked 20th in Europe – granting them a single side in the UEFA Champions League and three sides in the UEFA Europa League.

For the 2019–20 season, the top placed team in the Scottish Premiership gains qualification to the Champions League first qualifying round, whilst the second and third placed teams enter the Europa League at the first qualifying round stage. An additional place in the Europa League first qualifying round is awarded to the winners of the Scottish Cup. Should the winners of that competition have qualified for European competition the fourth placed team enters the first qualifying round; the 2017'Global Sports Salaries Survey' report found a large variation between the wages offered by teams in the Scottish Premiership, with champions Celtic paying an average annual salary of £735,040, per player, whilst traditional rivals Rangers could only pay £329,600 and league runners-up Aberdeen offered £136,382. The lowest salary offered by any of the twelve member clubs was Hamilton's £41,488 – 17 times less than Celtic, whose wages were close to the sum of the other eleven clubs combined; the report stated that this disparity was the third-greatest from the 18 leagues surveyed, that the Scottish Premiership offered the third-lowest salaries of those leagues.

The clubs listed below have competed in the Scottish Premiership since it was fo

West End Historic District

West End Historic District, or Westend Historic District, variations with Commercial or Old or other, may refer to: in the United States West End Historic District West End North Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Hartford County, Connecticut West End South Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Hartford County, Connecticut West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Hartford County, Connecticut West End Commercial District, listed on the NRHP in Litchfield County, Connecticut West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Fulton County West End Historic District Harrisburg-West End Historic District, Augusta, GA, listed on the NRHP in Richmond County, Georgia West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Macon County, Illinois West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Allen County, Indiana Old West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Delaware County, Indiana West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Mississippi West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Cleveland County, North Carolina West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Forsyth County, North Carolina Old West End District, listed on the NRHP in Lucas County, Ohio West End Commercial Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Greenville County, South Carolina Columbia West End Historic District, Tennessee, listed on the NRHP in Maury County, Tennessee Hillsboro-West End Historic District, Tennessee, listed on the NRHP in Davidson County, Tennessee Richland-West End Historic District, Tennessee, listed on the NRHP in Davidson County, Tennessee West End Historic District West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP as Westend Historic District West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Ellis County West End Historic District, listed on the NRHP in Suffolk County, Virginia

Naval Battle of Guadalcanal

The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, sometimes referred to as the Third and Fourth Battles of Savo Island, the Battle of the Solomons, the Battle of Friday the 13th, or, in Japanese sources, the Third Battle of the Solomon Sea, took place from 12–15 November 1942, was the decisive engagement in a series of naval battles between Allied and Imperial Japanese forces during the months-long Guadalcanal Campaign in the Solomon Islands during World War II. The action consisted of combined air and sea engagements over four days, most near Guadalcanal and all related to a Japanese effort to reinforce land forces on the island; the only two U. S. Navy admirals to be killed in a surface engagement in the war. Allied forces landed on Guadalcanal on 7 August 1942 and seized an airfield called Henderson Field, under construction by the Japanese military. There were several subsequent attempts to recapture the airfield by the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy using reinforcements delivered to Guadalcanal by ship, efforts which failed.

In early November 1942, the Japanese organized a transport convoy to take 7,000 infantry troops and their equipment to Guadalcanal to attempt once again to retake the airfield. Several Japanese warship forces were assigned to bombard Henderson Field with the goal of destroying Allied aircraft that posed a threat to the convoy. Learning of the Japanese reinforcement effort, U. S. forces launched aircraft and warship attacks to defend Henderson Field and prevent the Japanese ground troops from reaching Guadalcanal. In the resulting battle, both sides lost numerous warships in two destructive surface engagements at night; the U. S. succeeded in turning back attempts by the Japanese to bombard Henderson Field with battleships. Allied aircraft sank most of the Japanese troop transports and prevented the majority of the Japanese troops and equipment from reaching Guadalcanal. Thus, the battle turned back Japan's last major attempt to dislodge Allied forces from Guadalcanal and nearby Tulagi, resulting in a strategic victory for the U.

S. and its allies and deciding the ultimate outcome of the Guadalcanal campaign in their favor. The six-month Guadalcanal campaign began on 7 August 1942, when Allied forces landed on Guadalcanal and the Florida Islands in the Solomon Islands, a pre-war colonial possession of Great Britain; the landings were meant to prevent the Japanese using the islands as bases from which to threaten the supply routes between the U. S. and Australia, to secure them as starting points for a campaign to neutralize the major Imperial Japanese military base at Rabaul and support of the Allied New Guinea campaign. The Japanese had occupied Tulagi in May 1942 and began constructing an airfield on Guadalcanal in June 1942. By nightfall on 8 August, the 11,000 Allied troops secured Tulagi, the nearby small islands, a Japanese airfield under construction at Lunga Point on Guadalcanal. Allied aircraft operating out of Henderson were called the "Cactus Air Force" after the Allied code name for Guadalcanal. To protect the airfield, the U.

S. Marines established a perimeter defense around Lunga Point. Additional reinforcements over the next two months increased the number of U. S. troops at Lunga Point to more than 20,000 men. In response, the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters assigned the Imperial Japanese Army's 17th Army, a corps-sized command based at Rabaul and under the command of Lieutenant-General Harukichi Hyakutake, with the task of retaking Guadalcanal. Units of the 17th Army began to arrive on Guadalcanal on 19 August, to drive Allied forces from the island; because of the threat posed by CAF aircraft based at Henderson Field, the Japanese were unable to use large, slow transport ships to deliver troops and supplies to the island. Instead, they used warships based at the Shortland Islands; the Japanese warships—mainly light cruisers or destroyers from the Eighth Fleet under the command of Vice Admiral Gunichi Mikawa—were able to make the round trip down "The Slot" to Guadalcanal and back in a single night, thereby minimizing their exposure to air attack.

Delivering the troops in this manner, prevented most of the soldiers' heavy equipment and supplies—such as heavy artillery and much food and ammunition—from being carried to Guadalcanal with them. These high-speed warship runs to Guadalcanal occurred throughout the campaign and came to be known as the "Tokyo Express" by Allied forces and "Rat Transportation" by the Japanese; the first Japanese attempt to recapture Henderson Field failed when a 917-man force was defeated on 21 August in the Battle of the Tenaru. The next attempt took place from 12 to 14 September, ending in the defeat of the 6,000 men under the command of Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi at the Battle of Edson's Ridge. In October, the Japanese again tried to recapture Henderson Field by delivering 15,000 more men—mainly from the Army's 2nd Infantry Division – to Guadalcanal. In addition to delivering the troops and their equipment by Tokyo Express runs, the Japanese successfully pushed through one large convoy of slower transport ships.

Enabling the approach of the transport convoy was a nighttime bombardment of Henderson Field by two battleships on 14 October that damaged the airfield's runways, destroyed half of the CAF's aircraft, burned most of the available aviation fuel. In spite of the damage, Henderson personnel were able to restore the two runways to service and replacement aircraft and fuel were delivered restoring the CAF to its prebombardment level over the next few weeks; the next Imperial attempt to retake the island with the newly arrived troops occurred from 20 to