Balvenie Castle is a ruined castle near Dufftown in the Moray region of Scotland. Known as Mortlach, it was built in the 12th century by a branch of the powerful Comyn family and extended and altered in the 15th and 16th centuries; the castle fell out of use in the early 14th century when the Comyns were reduced by Robert the Bruce. At some point in the 14th century the castle and the lordship of Balvenie passed into the earldom of Douglas. Nothing is documented as to how the Black Douglases first acquired the castle but the most account is that it came with the marriage of the heiress Joanna Murray to Archibald'the Grim', 3rd Earl of Douglas in 1362, his son and successor Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas granted his younger brother James Douglas, 7th Earl of Douglas, latterly known as James'the Gross', the lordship of Balvenie in 1408. James's main residence was at Abercorn Castle, a coastal fortress to the west of Edinburgh and Balvenie Castle's use was as temporary accommodation when the need arose.
In 1440, William Douglas, 6th Earl of Douglas was murdered by King James II of Scotland, the elderly James the Gross complicit to the murder, became the 7th earl. James provided the lordship of Balvenie with its castle to his youngest son, John Douglas, Lord of Balvenie. Earl James's death in 1443 signaled a resumption of the hostility between the royal Stewarts and the Black Douglases; the Battle of Arkinholm in May 1455 saw the defeat of this, the main Douglas line by an army loyal to James II. All of their lands and titles were forfeited including Balvenie Castle. King James divided up the estates among his supporters, which included the Douglas Earl of Angus and provided Balvenie Castle to Sir John Stewart, who became the first Earl of Atholl. Balvenie Castle served as a garrison during the Jacobite rebellion, it was abandoned in 1720s but was garrisoned by Government troops in 1746. Today, the remains of the castle are managed by Historic Environment Scotland as a scheduled monument. However, ownership continues in private hands.
S. A; the castle is open to the public from the beginning of April to the end of September. Balvenie whisky is produced by William Grant & Sons at the Balvenie distillery down the hill from the castle. Historic Environment Scotland: Visitor guide
Gothic Revival architecture
Gothic Revival is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its popularity grew in the early 19th century, when serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops; the Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England. Its roots were intertwined with philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of High Church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism; the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became widespread for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
In parallel to the ascendancy of neo-Gothic styles in 19th-century England, interest spread to the continent of Europe, in Australia, Sierra Leone, South Africa and to the Americas. The influence of the Revival had peaked by the 1870s. New architectural movements, sometimes related as in the Arts and Crafts movement, sometimes in outright opposition, such as Modernism, gained ground, by the 1930s the architecture of the Victorian era was condemned or ignored; the 20th century saw a revival of interest, manifested in the United Kingdom by the establishment of the Victorian Society in 1958. The rise of Evangelicalism in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries saw in England a reaction in the High church movement which sought to emphasise the continuity between the established church and the pre-Reformation Catholic church. Architecture, in the form of the Gothic Revival, became one of the main weapons in the High church's armoury; the Gothic Revival was paralleled and supported by "medievalism", which had its roots in antiquarian concerns with survivals and curiosities.
As "industrialisation" progressed, a reaction against machine production and the appearance of factories grew. Proponents of the picturesque such as Thomas Carlyle and Augustus Pugin took a critical view of industrial society and portrayed pre-industrial medieval society as a golden age. To Pugin, Gothic architecture was infused with the Christian values, supplanted by classicism and were being destroyed by industrialisation. Gothic Revival took on political connotations. In English literature, the architectural Gothic Revival and classical Romanticism gave rise to the Gothic novel genre, beginning with The Castle of Otranto by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford, inspired a 19th-century genre of medieval poetry that stems from the pseudo-bardic poetry of "Ossian". Poems such as "Idylls of the King" by Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson recast modern themes in medieval settings of Arthurian romance. In German literature, the Gothic Revival had a grounding in literary fashions. Gothic architecture began at the Basilica of Saint Denis near Paris, the Cathedral of Sens in 1140 and ended with a last flourish in the early 16th century with buildings like Henry VII's Chapel at Westminster.
However, Gothic architecture did not die out in the 16th century but instead lingered in on-going cathedral-building projects. In Bologna, in 1646, the Baroque architect Carlo Rainaldi constructed Gothic vaults for the Basilica of San Petronio in Bologna, under construction since 1390. Guarino Guarini, a 17th-century Theatine monk active in Turin, recognized the "Gothic order" as one of the primary systems of architecture and made use of it in his practice. Gothic architecture survived in an urban setting during the 17th century, as shown in Oxford and Cambridge, where some additions and repairs to Gothic buildings were considered to be more in keeping with the style of the original structures than contemporary Baroque. Sir Christopher Wren's Tom Tower for Christ Church, University of Oxford, Nicholas Hawksmoor's west towers of Westminster Abbey, blur the boundaries between what is called "Gothic survival" and the Gothic Revival. Throughout France in the 16th and 17th centuries, churches such as St-Eustache continued to be built following gothic forms cloaked in classical details, until the arrival of Baroque architecture.
In the mid-18th century, with the rise of Romanticism, an increased in
William Burn was a Scottish architect. A talented architect, he received major commissions from the age of 20 until his death at 81, he was a pioneer of the Scottish Baronial Revival. Burn was born on Rose Street in the son of architect Robert Burn, he was educated at the Royal High School. After training with the architect Sir Robert Smirke, designer of the British Museum, he returned to Edinburgh in 1812. Here he established a practice from the family builders' yard. In 1841, he took on a pupil, David Bryce, with whom he went into partnership. From 1844 he worked in London. In 1827 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, unusual for an architect, his proposer being James Skene, he resigned in 1845 following his move to London. In the 1830s he was working at 131 George Street in the New Town. Burn was a master of many styles, but all are typified by well-proportioned simplicity externally and frequent stunning interiors, he was a pioneer of the Scottish baronial Revival with Helen's Tower, Castlewellan Castle, Balintore Castle.
He died at 6 Stratton Street in Piccadilly, London and is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery just on the edge of the path to the north-west of the Anglican Chapel. William Burn had many pupils: John Honeyman David Bryce John Lessels George Meikle Kemp Thomas Brown James Campbell Walker William Eden Nesfield David MacGibbonDavid Bryce went on to perfect the Scottish Baronial Revival style of architecture. Burn was a prolific architect and happy to turn his hand to a variety of styles, he designed churches, public buildings, country houses and other structures in Scotland but in England and Ireland. His works include among others: Ardanaiseig House, near Kilchrenan, Argyll Balintore Castle, Angus Scottish Baronial The Binns, remodelled for the Dalyell family Gothic Blairquhan Castle, South Ayrshire Gothic Blantyre Monument, Erskine Camperdown House, Dundee Greek Revival Carstairs House, South Lanarkshire Gothic Corstorphine Old Parish Church - considered too radical and returned to its medieval orientation in 1905 The Duke of Gordon's Monument, Moray Dundas Castle, near Edinburgh Gothic Dunira, Perthshire demolished Dupplin Castle demolished The Edinburgh Academy George Watson's College Gallanach House, near Oban, Argyll Garscube House, Dunbartonshire Inverness Castle, Inverness Gothic John Watson's Hospital now the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh Neoclassic Keir Parish Church, Keirmill Village, Dumfriesshire Lauriston Castle, Scotland, Jacobean Murray Royal Lunatic Asylum, Perth North Leith Parish Church, Madeira Street, Leith Neoclassical Church of St John the Evangelist, Edinburgh Gothic The Melville Monument in the centre of St Andrew Square, Edinburgh New Abbey Church, Fife Madras College, St Andrews Jacobean Adderstone Hall, near Lucker, Northumberland Georgian Grecian Cliveden, Buckinghamshire Harlaxton Manor, Lincolnshire Lynford Hall, Norfolk Jacobean Montagu House, London, French Renaissance, demolished Prestwold Hall, Leicestershire Classical Revesby Abbey, Elizabethan-Jacobean Rauceby Hall, South Rauceby, Lincolnshire Bangor Castle, County Down, Northern Ireland Elizabethan-Jacobean Castlewellan Castle, County Down, Northern Ireland Scottish Baronial Dartrey Castle, near Rockcorry in County Monaghan Elizabethan-Jacobean, demolished Helen's Tower, Clandeboye Estate near Bangor Scottish Baronial Muckross House, County Kerry Tudor Walker, David: William Burn and the influence of Sir Robert Smirke and William Wilkins on Scottish Greek Revival Design, 1810-40 in Scottish Pioneers of the Greek Revival, The Scottish Georgian Society, Edinburgh, pp 3–35 Gazetteer for Scotland- William Burn "Archival material relating to William Burn".
UK National Archives
David Bryce FRSE FRIBA RSA was a Scottish architect. Bryce was born at 5 South College Street in Edinburgh, the son of David Bryce a grocer with a successful side interest in building, he was educated at the Royal High School and joined the office of the architect William Burn in 1825, at the age of 22. By 1841, Bryce had risen to be Burn's partner. Burn and Bryce formally dissolved their partnership in 1845, with disputes over the building of St Mary's Church, Midlothian, for the Duke of Buccleuch. Burn moved to London, Bryce succeeded to a large and increasing practice, to which he devoted himself with the enthusiasm of an artistic temperament and untiring energy and perseverance. In the course of a busy and successful career, continued down to his death, he attained the foremost place in his profession in Scotland, designed important works in most of the principal towns of the country. In the 1830s Bryce was living at 8 Great Stuart Street on the Moray Estate in Edinburgh's West End. In 1835 he was elected an associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, in the following year became an academician.
He was a fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects, of the Architectural Institute of Scotland, of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, officiated for several years as grand architect to the Grand Lodge of Masons in Scotland. He died on 7 May 1876, after a short illness from bronchitis, leaving many important works in progress, which were completed under the superintendence of his nephew, his partner for some years, who succeeded to his business, he died unmarried, but had one son, David Bryce Tod who he recognised in life, in his will. He is buried in the New Calton Cemetery in Edinburgh just west of the main north-south path, beside his nephew, John Bryce an architect, who worked with him in life. David Bryce never married, but he had one son, David Bryce Tod 1837-1918 with his common law wife Janet Tod. Bryce worked in all styles, at first chiefly in the so-called Palladian and Italian Renaissance, but he soon devoted himself more to the Gothic that variety of it known as Scottish Baronial, of which he became the most distinguished and the ablest exponent.
It was in this style that his greatest successes were achieved in the erection and alteration of mansion houses throughout the country, of which at least fifty testify to his sound judgement in planning, to his appreciation of its opportunities for picturesque effects. The best of his public buildings in this style are Fettes College and the Royal Infirmary in Edinburgh, his fame is, however due to his ability in reviving the picturesque French Gothic, now naturalised in Scotland under the name of Baronial. With commissions for over 230 buildings during his career, Bryce is best known for perfecting the Scottish Baronial style, with which he pioneered the development of large and loosely planned country houses, for example Craigends House in Renfrewshire, his designs drew inspiration from 16th century Scottish architecture, including crow-stepped gables and carved doorways. In his banks and public buildings, he preferred to use Italianate classical styles similar to those of Charles Barry - his design for Fettes College, Edinburgh was one of the first to revive the French château style.
Several other architects trained under Bryce including Charles Kinnear, John Starforth, James M. Wardrop, James McLaren, John Milne, J. J. Stevenson, Sir James Gowans, William Hamilton Beattie and James Campbell Walker. Newton Hall, by Kennoway, Fife. Bryce's first known independent commission. St. Marks Unitarian Church, Castle Terrace, Edinburgh Caledonian Insurance Company, 19 George Street, Edinburgh Luscar House, Fife House demolished Aug 2003 - Stables remain, Elizabethan-Jacobean Life Association of Scotland building, Princes Street, Edinburgh Contributed to St Mary's Church, Dalkeith Palace, Midlothian Refit of interior to west end of Greyfriars Kirk following a severe fire. Headquarters of the British Linen Bank in St Andrew Square, Edinburgh Completion of Hamilton Mausoleum Supervision of the dismantling stone by stone of Trinity College Church to make way for the building of Waverley Station in Edinburgh Clifton Hall School, Edinburgh Scottish Baronial Falkland Parish Church, 1849 Kimmerghame House, Berwickshire Scottish Baronial Panmure House, Angus Balfour Castle, Orkney Scottish Baronial Surgical Hospital, High School Yards Edinburgh The Royal Exchange, Dundee The Glen, Peeblesshire Scottish Baronial Torosay Castle, Isle of Mull Scottish Baronial Shambellie House, New Abbey Kirkcudbrightshire Craigends House, Renfrewshire Scottish Baronial Eastbury Park, Northwood Scottish Baronial Freemasons' Hall, George Street, Edinburgh Eaglesham House 1859- Craigflower House, Dunfermline Life Association of Scotland, 40-41 Dame Street, Ireland Dalmore House, East Ayrshire French Renaissance Redesign of the headquarters of the Bank of Scotland, The Mound, Edinburgh Glenapp C
Auchans Castle, Ayrshire
Auchans Castle, House of Auchans or Old Auchans, is a mock military mansion, Category A listed, T-plan building of a late 16th-century date converted to the L-plan during the early-to-mid-17th century. Parish of Dundonald, it was held at various times by the Wallace and Montgomerie families. McKean refers to Auchans as being amongst Scotland's principal châteaux which he defines as the dwelling of the owner of a great property, a large and beautiful pleasure house in the countryside, records that James Wallace added the fashionable square stair-tower in the re-entrant angle, with its viewing platform and broken pediments in 1644; the spelling on Joan Blaeu's map of 1654 is'Aghans'. The castle stands on a elevated knoll and is constructed of whinstone. Cummell recorded in the 18th century that the building reminded him of the old Glasgow College buildings; the original house, with its high gables, had three principal storeys. The balustraded terrace on the South side of castle was at one time enclosed within a courtyard.
A new wing, three storeys and a garret in height, was at a date added at the West end of the North wall, a stair-tower, with a Renaissance-style doorway, was built, still visible in the present ruins. This new wing was extended still further on the North by the addition of a block with two towers; the basement of the block was vaulted. Domestic buildings were added on the East sides of the courtyard; the kitchen stood in the western wing. It was wood had an ornate marble fireplace; the second floor contained bedrooms and the third floor in the roof, was chiefly occupied by a long gallery. This was lit by a large traceried window in the east gable, long built up; the entrance was of the Renaissance style. The main block of the castle was not vaulted and only the cellars in the North wing had vaults. Only a few gun-loops were provided as by 1644 such defensive structures were redundant. One of the'side angles' in 1876 carried a date stone engraved with the year'1644' and another carried the date'1667'.
Marriage stones carried the initials that relate to Sir William Cochrane and his wife Eupheme Scott. The now ruined castle stands in its woodland policies amidst a series of stone-walled parks, the walls of which are in a state of collapse; the building and the park walls were in the main constructed using stone robbed from Dundonald Castle. A vast number of valuable Eglinton family papers were discovered in one of the apartments in the 1880s, rescued as the building was in a terminal state of decay. Many had been destroyed through neglect. MacGibbon & Ross record that flower gardens stood to the side of the property within a walled garden. In 1875 this garden was still under cultivation and in the orchard had stood the parent tree of the famous Auchans pear, the first of its kind in the county, brought in from France at an early date, said to be during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots; this tree had grown to a great height and was blown down in 1793. In 2003 a sample of pears from Pluscarden Abbey near Elgin were sent for identification and were found to be the Black Aachen or Auchans pear.
Hogg's Fruit Manual records them as growing in Cheshire. The Auchans pear may have taken its name from the castle as the proper name,'The Toadback Pear', had dropped out of usage, it is a lumpy russet, showing great health and vigour and the fruit is described as being as "ugly as a toad". Other varieties are Winter Achan; the flesh is described as tender, juicy, with a rich and aromatic flavour. Auchans are Scotch dessert pears of first-rate quality; as stated, the tree is a abundant and regular bearer when it has acquired age. The Auchans pear spread all over Scotland. An artificial loch was situated within the policies, well stocked with fish; the Old Bank is the name given to the tree-covered hillside to the west, bordering the old deer park. An area known as Kemp Law is associated with the site of a vitrified fort and the Badger Brae that lies nearby; the mid-19th century OS maps show a complex of out-buildings and a dwelling called Old Auchans, situated above the castle and with Parkthorn farm nearby.
The Old Auchans property is now ruinous. A deer park was present in the 1820s. Opposite Dundonald Castle is a high and precipitous bank, which until the 1820s formed part of the boundary of the Auchans deer park; the whole herd was removed by the Earl of Eglinton to the Eglinton Castle policies. The woods around the property were old; the OS map of the mid-19th century shows a rabbit warren in the central area between the Beech Wood and the Kemp Law areas. In 1527 the estate of Achynche was first held by the Wallaces of Dundonald. Colonel James Wallace was the last of that family to occupy the castle, he died in exile in Rotterdam in 1678. His family were a branch of the
Sir Robert Stodart Lorimer, KBE was a prolific Scottish architect and furniture designer noted for his sensitive restorations of historic houses and castles, for new work in Scots Baronial and Gothic Revival styles, for promotion of the Arts and Crafts movement. Lorimer was born in Edinburgh, the son of Hannah Stodart and James Lorimer, Regius Professor of Public Law at University of Edinburgh from 1862 to 1890. In his youth the family lived at 21 Hill Street, a Georgian house in Edinburgh's South Side, close to where his father worked at Old College. From 1877 to 1882 he was educated at Edinburgh Academy, going on to study at University of Edinburgh from 1882 to 1885, however he left without completing his studies, he was part of a talented family, being the younger brother of painter John Henry Lorimer, father to the sculptor Hew Lorimer. In 1878 the Lorimer family acquired the lease of Kellie Castle in Fife and began its restoration for use as a holiday home. Lorimer began his architectural career in 1885 working for Sir Robert Rowand Anderson in Edinburgh, in 1889 for George Frederick Bodley in London.
He returned to Edinburgh opening his own practice in 1891. His first major restoration commission was Earlshall Castle in Fife for Robert MacKenzie, a friend of his parents, he was influenced by Scottish domestic architecture of the 16th and 17th centuries and the Scottish baronial style of Kellie Castle where he had spent much of his childhood and adolescence. From his time in Bodley's office, Lorimer was influenced by the ideas of William Morris, went on to become a committed exponent of the Arts and Crafts approach to architecture, he assembled a collaborative group of artists and craftsmen who, collectively contributed to his various commissions and to the manufacture of furniture sent to the Arts and Crafts exhibitions in London. In 1896 he was elected to the Art Workers Guild. Lorimer designed a series of cottages in the Arts and Crafts style in the Colinton area of Edinburgh, the so-called "Colinton Cottages". Constructed using traditional methods and materials, each cottage included a garden layout and interior design, including furniture, in keeping with the Arts and Crafts concept.
By 1900, eight cottages had been built and four others were under construction. As his reputation grew the scale of his commissions increased, including major alterations and additions to important houses in various styles, culminating in three new country houses designed in his personal interpretation of Scots baronial style. Of these, Ardkinglas, on Loch Fyne, was the only one built as designed and, Lorimer having been given carte blanche, represents his masterpiece, his important restorations at this time include Lennoxlove House and his most evocative. He could take a house of modest character and give it a strong personality, such as Pitkerro, Forfarshire or Briglands, Kinross where he found the raw materials sympathetic, but he could disregard existing architectural qualities in a way that modern conservation practice would question, if he felt the result justified its replacement, such as at Hill of Tarvit, Fife where he demolished a previous house by Sir William Bruce, or at Marchmont, Berwickshire where he re-configured an altered house by William Adam, ignoring Adam's design.
He was called in to a number of properties to carry out a range of improvements, such as minor alterations, design of interiors and furnishings, work to ancillary buildings, garden designs and features. A good representative of this sort of work is Hunterston Castle in Ayrshire; the First World War restricted the demand for large new houses and his attention shifted to smaller scale projects, war memorials, restorations. He had a reputation as one of Scotland's leading restoration architects following the restoration of Earlshall and Dunderave, he went on to carry out significant alteration and restoration works at Dunrobin Castle in Sutherland following a fire, at Balmanno Castle in Perthshire, said to have been the only one of his commissions he would like to have lived in. Although much of his work, reputation, was in the sphere of domestic architecture, Lorimer carried out significant public works. Principal amongst these include his design for the new chapel for the Knights of the Thistle in St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh in 1911.
He received a knighthood for his efforts and went on to gain the commission for the Scottish National War Memorial at Edinburgh Castle in 1919, subsequently opened by the Prince of Wales in 1927. Following the completion of the memorial, Lorimer was in December 1927 appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire, he designed the Doiran Memorial and the three great naval memorials to the missing: Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Plymouth Naval Memorial and Chatham Naval Memorial, each of, a Grade I Listed Building. Lorimer was responsible for St Andrew's Garrison Church, completed 1927, a large Army church dedicated to the soldiers of the Church of Scotland and kindred churches who lost their lives in World War One. In 1928, he returned to complete St Peter's Church in Morningside, which he had designed in 1905. One of his last works was Knightswood St Margaret's Parish Church, dedicated in 1932. Lorimer became President of the professional body in Scotland, the Incorporation of Architects in Scotland, it was during his tenure in office that the body received its second