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Scottish common sense realism

Scottish Common Sense Realism known as the Scottish School of Common Sense, is a realist school of philosophy that originated in the ideas of Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid, Adam Ferguson, James Beattie, Dugald Stewart during the 18th-century Scottish Enlightenment. Reid emphasized man's innate ability to perceive common ideas and that this process is inherent in and interdependent with judgement. Common sense, therefore, is the foundation of philosophical inquiry. Though best remembered for its opposition to the pervasive philosophy of David Hume, Scottish Common Sense philosophy is influential and evident in the works of Thomas Jefferson and late 18th-century American politics; the Scottish School of Common Sense was an epistemological philosophy that flourished in Scotland in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Its roots can be found in responses to the writings of such philosophers as John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume, its most prominent members were Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid and William Hamilton.

Philosophically, Scottish Realism served as a rebuttal to scepticism while keeping with the influential teachings of Isaac Newton and Francis Bacon. While understated for many years, the influence it had on philosophers elsewhere in Europe, not to mention in the United States, is of a considerable magnitude. One central concern of the school was to defend "common sense" against philosophical paradox and scepticism, it argued that common-sense beliefs govern the lives and thoughts of those who avow non-commonsensical beliefs and that matters of common sense are inherent to the acquisition of knowledge. The qualities of its works were not consistent; the Scottish School of Common Sense was founded by Reid in opposition to Descartes's Theory of Ideas. But the epistemology of sense experience led John Locke and David Hume to a skeptical philosophy that realists found absurd and contrary to common experience, thus Hume and his sceptical argument would serve as the primary foil to the development of Reid's philosophy.

Under the tutelage of George Turnbull, Reid embraced the tenets of Providential Naturalism and its four interconnected tenets. Reid painstakingly developed his treatise An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense over the course of 40 years seeking the input of his contemporary philosophers within the Scottish Enlightenment including Hume. Reid articulated the basic principle of Common Sense Realism: "If there are certain principles, as I think there are, which the constitution of our nature leads us to believe, which we are under a necessity to take for granted in the common concerns of life, without being able to give a reason for them — these are what we call the principles of common sense; the principles of common sense are fundamental to our accumulation of knowledge of both metaphysical and physical constructs. However, observation alone cannot account for all knowledge, truth can be garnered by reflection. In Reid's own words: "I can conceive an individual object that exists, such as St. Paul's Church in London.

I have an idea of it. The immediate object of this conception is 400 miles distant; the intellectual faculties support a wide variety of mental events. Acts of conceiving are set in many of them. Examples of conception include judging there is a door in front of me, imagining there is a door in front of me, or reasoning that all doors have handles. “Faculties are all fallible,” as there is evidence of our faculties and senses but not of objects we conceive. But, "we trust them. All Reid’s philosophy depends on not fallacious faculties. Senses are an extension of the faculties. Freedom is another natural conviction from faculties, preloaded and irresistible as first principles prove. Faculties are “the foundation of true philosophy and practical life, without them we shall lead ourselves into the coalpit of skepticism and despair.". The school taught that every person had ordinary experiences that provided intuitively certain assurance of a) the existence of the self, b) the existence of real objects that could be seen and felt.

These principles laid the foundation for Reid's influential theory of perception. In practice, philosophers of the Scottish school offered scientific explanations to historical events and advocated an unprejudiced and inter-disciplinary approach to education, free from religious and patriotic biases. Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart offered related theories of perception rooted in Scottish Common Sense Realism. According to Nicholas Wolterstorff of Yale University, Reid's philosophy can be non-contentiously reduced to four basic precepts: " The objects of acts of perception are external objects-That is, mind-independent spatially-locat

Sophie Howard

Sophie Howard is a former English model from Southport, England. She appeared on Page 3 and in men's magazines such as Maxim and Loaded. In August 2005, Howard was voted 73rd in the FHM UK "100 Sexiest Women" poll. In the 2006 poll, she rose to 68th place. Sophie Amanda Howard, was raised in Southport, England, she moved to Ellesmere Port. She attended Christ the King Catholic High School and was in the Salvation Army until she was 16. Howard studied English at Edge Hill University. During this time, she signed to the IMM modelling agency, she appeared in the magazine. Sophie subsequently signed a contract with Loaded, resulting in a relationship advice column and a regular feature called "Sophie's Choice"; as of 2006, She was signed to Nuts magazine for about 18 months. In 2006, Sophie's management of IMM signed an exclusive, 12-month deal with Dennis Publishing for Sophie to feature in Maxim and Bizarre. In 2009, Sophie returned to Edge Hill University to study for a degree in mental health nursing.

She retired from modelling in December 2011 in order to focus on her studies before returning to modelling again in March 2013. Sophie Monaghan lives in Lancashire with Adam Monaghan; as of 2013 she is retired from modelling. Whilst studying at Sixth form, Howard was diagnosed with Lupus erythematosus, a condition affecting the immune system. Sophie assists with local charities and community programmes. Lad culture Lad mags profile

Buru people

Buru people is an ethnic group living on Indonesian island Buru, as well as on some other Maluku Islands. They call themselves Gebfuka or Gebemliar, which means "people of the world" or "people of the land". Buru people are related to the eastern Indonesian anthropological group and from an ethnographic point of view are similar to other indigenous peoples of the island Buru, they speak Buru language. About 33,000 of 35,000 Buru people live on the island of Buru. There is a small Buru community in the Netherlands formed by the descendants of the soldiers of Republic of South Moluccas who moved there after the accession of this self-proclaimed state in Indonesia in 1950. Buru people are evenly spread over Buru island, except for some parts of the northern coast and the central mountainous part, sparsely populated, their relative fraction is somewhat lower in the towns, such as Namrole and Namlea, owing to inflow of people of other Indonesian ethnicities. In the initial period of the Dutch colonization of the island in the middle of the 17th century, much of the tribal nobility of Buru was moved to the eastern part and became one of the components in the ethnogenesis of ethnic Kayeli people.

Several ethnic groups are distinguished within Buru people, which differ in lifestyle and language specifics – Rana, Wae Sama and Fogi. The nation speaks Buru language, which belongs to the Central Maluku branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages. Three dialects are distinguished according to the major ethnic groups of Rana and Wae Sama. In addition, some 3,000–5,000 of Rana people along with their main dialect use the so-called "secret dialect" Ligahan; the western dialect Fogi is now extinct. Lexical differences between the dialects are small: about 90% between Masarete and Wae Sama, 88% between Masarete and Rana and 80% between Wae Sama and Rana. Apart from native vernaculars, most Buru people in the coastal regions and towns have command of the official language of the country, Indonesian; the coastal population uses the Ambonese language, a creolized form of Malay with additions of the local lexicon. Religiously, Buru people are divided into comparable fractions of Sunni Muslims, who live in the north of the island, Christians-Protestants in the south.

Remnants of traditional local beliefs persist everywhere, in the central areas of the island many profess the cult of the supreme deity Opo Hebe Snulat and his messenger Nabiat. The economical crisis of the 1990s resulted in frequent conflicts among Buru people over religious grounds. So within a few days in December 1999, 43 people were killed and at least 150 houses burned in the Wainibe village. Most Buru people are engaged in farming rice, sago, sweet potato and various spice, such as allspice and Eucalyptus tree, used for aromatic oil. In the inland areas, they hunt the wild pig Buru babirusa and possum, take part in tuna fishing on the coast. In the urban areas, the growing number of Buru people take jobs in the industrial enterprises. Traditional Buru houses are made from bamboo on stilts; the roofs are covered with tiles becoming progressively popular. Traditional Buru clothing is similar. Men wear sarong and a long-skirted tunic, women are dressed in sarong and a shorter jacket. However, the colors and decor items differ quite among Masarete, Wae Sama and Rana.

Traditional Buru weapons are a short spear. In the past, Buru hunters were famed for their spear throwing skills. Buru people, along with the Muslim or Christian names use traditional ones, the most common being Lesnussa, Nurlatu, Lehalima and Sigmarlatu. A Buru – English Dictionary

Charles Handley-Read

Charles Handley-Read was an architectural writer and collector and the first serious 20th century student of the work of William Burges, "a pioneer in Burges studies, the first to assess the historical brilliance of Burges as gesamtkunstwerk architect and designer."Handley-Read was born in 1916 to a father, a magazine illustrator and military artist and a mother who, beside being one of the first qualified female doctors and dentists, was a militant suffragette. In the thirties, he went up to St Catharine's College, Cambridge to read architecture, upon graduation became art master at his old school, Bryanston School, his career was interrupted by Second World War service as a conscientious objector, during which he worked at the epileptic colony at Lingfield, developing art therapy for children. On the resumption of his career, Handley-Read's architectural passion was Modernism and in 1951 he completed his monograph on "The Art of Wyndham Lewis." However, the subsequent, different, course of his life was set when, in 1952, he saw the Exhibition of Victorian and Edwardian Decorative Arts at the Victoria and Albert Museum.

Following the exhibition, his marriage to the devotee of Victorian sculpture Lavinia Stainton, Handley-Read "pinned all his hopes and dreams on one central, all-consuming passion: the work of William Burges." In the period between the First World War and the 1960s Victorian architecture reached its nadir of appreciation. The desire for, the prices of, the Victorian decorative arts were therefore at an all-time low. Handley-Read and his wife, aided by a considerable inheritance, began to collect on an gargantuan scale, but whilst his collection expanded, his ability to write about the works he bought did not: "A lifetime spent struggling to write produced just seventeen articles." Accepting his own inability to undertake Burges's biography, Handley-Read wrote to a friend, Joseph Mordaunt Crook. You have just edited Eastlake's Gothic Revival...with complete success. You are well soaked in 3rd Marquess of Bute. You know all about Smirke...why not do William Burges?...partnership is less than I am looking for.

I want to hand the job over."On 15 October 1971, Handley-Read committed suicide, followed by Lavinia on 9 December the same year. In an article in Country Life in March 1972, Mark Girouard, the architectural historian and close friend to both, wrote of his visits to their London home to view their collection. Of Charles and Lavinia, Girouard recalled "two strung and complicated people who for 18 years had supported each other", their collection of Victorian artefacts was broken up at sale. Many pieces were bought by major museums such as the Victoria & Albert Museum and Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery, as well as private collectors; the largest part of the collection to stay together was the 200 plus pieces purchased by The Higgins Art Gallery & Museum, including William Burges's own bed and dressing table. Handley-Read's notes on William Burges were passed to Joseph Mordaunt Crook and became the basis of his seminal work on Burges, William Burges and the High Victorian Dream; the book received positive reviews and was instrumental in establishing Burges's rehabilitation.

A rare criticism is contained in a review written by Anthony Symondson in 1982. Symondson's critique relates not to Burges, but rather to Crook's portrait of Handley-Read. Crook, J. Mordaunt. William Burges and the High Victorian Dream. John Murray. ISBN 978-0-7195-3822-3. Girouard, Mark. "Two Collectors Extraordinary: Charles and Lavinia Handley-Read". Country Life. Lawrence, David; the Cathedral of Saint Fin Barre at Cork: William Burges in Ireland. Four Courts Press. ISBN 978-1-84682-023-6

Underground Vol. 2: Club Memphis

Underground Vol. 2: Club Memphis is a compilation album by Three 6 Mafia. Like its predecessor, "Underground Vol. 1:", this is a collection of Three 6 Mafia's greatest underground hits. "Y'all Ready For This" - Lord Infamous "Half on a Sack or Blow" - Lil' E "Suck a Nigga Dick" - DJ Paul feat. Lil' Buck and Lord Infamous "Lick My Nutts" - Lord Infamous "Funky Town" - Triple Six Mafia "Fuck Dat Nigga" - Project Pat feat. DJ Paul "Blow A Nigga Ass Off - Lil' Glock & S. O. G. "Liquor & Dat Bud" - DJ Paul & Lord Infamous "Fuck Dat Shit" - Juicy J "Beat Down" - Lord Infamous feat. DJ Paul "Droppin' Dat Dirt" - Devin Steel "No I'm Not Dat Nigga" - Juicy J "Nine To Yo Dome" - Project Pat "South Memphis Representin'" - Michael "Boogaloo" Boyd "Get Buck Mutha Fucka" - Juicy J "Long & Hard" - DJ Paul & Lord Infamous "Tear Da Club Up" - DJ Paul & Lord Infamous "North Memphis Area" - DJ Paul & Juicy J "Slob on My Knob" - Juicy J

St. Columb's Anglican Church

St Columb's Anglican Church is an Anglican church in Hawthorn, Victoria, a suburb of Melbourne in Australia. The church is located on the corner of St Columbs Street; the exact address is 5 St Columb's Street. The church is named after St Columb's Cathedral in Derry, Northern Ireland, in honour of Saint Columba, an Irish abbot and missionary who spread Christianity to Scotland; the church was founded in 1879 as a chapel of ease for another church in Hawthorn. The main building was designed by George Wharton in the Decorated Gothic architectural style in 1882-1883, it was built by James Anderson in the 1880s, using freestone dressings. The first sermon took place in 1883. However, the entire church building was only completed in 1907, to the designs of architects H. W. & F. B. Tompkins. Other buildings include the Large Hall on Burwood Road, which used to act as a Sunday School and is now an education centre and cafe, the Small Hall, a former nursery school, now home to the children's ministries; the stained glass was designed by Alan Sumner and others.

The original pipe organ, built by William Stone of St Kilda, was sold to St Andrew's Presbyterian Church in Murwillumbah, New South Wales in 1923. The current pipe organ, built by Roberts Ltd of Melbourne and Adelaide, has been in this church since 1923, it is listed by the National Trust of Australia. In 2007, the pews were replaced with padded seats. Since 2012, the church has received donations from Louise and Graham Tuckwell of the Tuckwell Foundation; the current vicar is Rev. Mike Flynn. Carolan, Jane. St Columb's Hawthorn 1883-1983. Harthorn, Victoria: Vestry of St. Columb's. 1983