A scourge is a whip or lash a multi-thong type, used to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification. It is made of leather; the word is most considered to be derived from Old French escorgier - "to whip", going further back to the Vulgar Latin excorrigiare: the Latin prefix ex- "out, off" with its additional English meaning of "thoroughly", plus corrigia - "thong", or in this case "whip". Some connect it to Latin: excoriare, "to flay", built of two Latin parts, ex- and corium, "skin". A scourge consists of several thongs fastened to a handle. A well known configuration of a scourge is the cat o' nine tails; the cat o' nine tails has two versions: the navy version is made of thick ropes with knotted ends, the army and civil prison versions are made of leather. The scourge, or flail, the crook are the two symbols of power and domination depicted in the hands of Osiris in Egyptian monuments; the shape of the flail or scourge is unchanged throughout history. However, when a scourge is described as a'flail' as depicted in Egyptian mythology, it may be referring to use as an agricultural instrument.

A flail was used to thresh wheat, not implement corporal punishment. The priests of Cybele scourged others; such stripes were considered sacred. Hard material can be affixed to multiple thongs to give a flesh-tearing "bite". A scourge with these additions is called a scorpion. Scorpio is Latin for a Roman flagrum and is referred to in the Bible: 1 Kings 12:11: "... My father scourged you with whips; the name testifies to the pain caused by the arachnid. Testifying to its generous Roman application is the existence of the Latin words Flagrifer'carrying a whip' and Flagritriba'often-lashed slave'. According to the Gospel of John, Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judea, ordered Jesus to be scourged. Scourging was soon adopted as a sanction in the monastic discipline of the fifth and following centuries. Early in the fifth century it is mentioned by Palladius of Galatia in the Historia Lausiaca, Socrates Scholasticus tells us that, instead of being excommunicated, offending young monks were scourged.

Thenceforth scourging is mentioned in monastic rules and councils as a preservative of discipline. Its use as a punishment was general in the seventh century in all monasteries of the severe Columban rule. Canon law recognized it as a punishment for ecclesiastics. Though doubtless at an early date a private means of penance and mortification, such use is publicly exemplified in the tenth and eleventh centuries by the lives of St. Dominic Loricatus and St. Peter Damian; the latter wrote a special treatise in praise of self-flagellation. From on the practice appeared in most medieval religious orders and associations; the practice was, of course, capable of abuse, as demonstrated in the thirteenth century by the rise of the fanatical sect of the Flagellants, though in the same period we meet with the private use of the "discipline" by such saintly persons as King Louis IX of France and Elisabeth of Hungary. Semi-literal usages such as "the scourge of God" for Attila the Hun led to metaphoric uses to mean a severe affliction, e.g. "the scourge of drug abuse".

The scourge is described as one of the tools used in Wicca in the Gardnerian Tradition. The purpose of using the scourge is not to cause pain or to torture, but for purification purposes for Initiates; the scourge is a reminder to the coven members. During the Initiation, the Initiate is scourged by the Initiator to follow the Three-Fold Law, it is used during the Drawing Down the Moon Rite by the High Priestess. In the Legend of the Descent of the Goddess, the Goddess is described as being scourged by the God for rebuffing his love when she goes to the Underworld to learn about death. Flagellation, includes flogging Knout Skin Whip This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Tierney, John j.. "Flagellation". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 6. New York: Robert Appleton. H. H. Mallinckrodt, Latijn-Nederlands woordenboek


Aiolosaurus is an extinct genus of monitor lizard from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. The type and only species, Aiolosaurus oriens, was named in 2000 from Ukhaa Tolgod, a rich fossil site in the Campanian-age Djadochta Formation. Aiolosaurus was named in 2000 on the basis of a single holotype specimen cataloged as IGM 3/171; this specimen includes parts of the postcranial skeleton. Aiolosaurus is named after Aeolus, the Greek god of wind, while the specific name of A. oriens means "east." Diagnostic features of Aiolosaurus are found in the skull. They include: The division of the nasals into two bones. A small hole in the snout between the premaxilla and maxilla bones called the premaxillary fenestra; the separation of the premaxilla and septomaxilla bones by a projection of the maxilla bone. The small size of another hole in the snout called the septomaxillary foramen. Near the jaw joint, a hole in the surangular bone of the lower jaw, positioned underneath the coronoid process of the upper jaw.

Aiolosaurus was classified as a basal member of Varanoidea, the superfamily that includes monitor lizards and mosasaurs. Cherminotus, another Late Cretaceous varanoid from Mongolia, was classified in this way. In a 2008 phylogenetic analysis, Aiolosaurus was classified as a member of Varanidae, it was placed in the subfamily Lanthanotinae along with Cherminotus and the living Earless monitor lizard. Another 2008 analysis supported the placement of Aiolosaurus in Varanidae but did not find it to be a member of Lanthanotinae. Instead, it was found to be a more basal varanid; as some of the earliest monitor lizards, Aiolosaurus and the related Ovoo are representative of the first evolutionary radiation of varanids

There Are Rules

There Are Rules is the fifth studio album by American rock band The Get Up Kids, the band's first studio album release since 2004's Guilt Show. After their initial reunion, the band decided to challenge themselves to write and record an album in only two weeks without using any digital technology. Due to conflicting schedules, they dropped the two-week deadline and recorded over several months in 2009 and 2010. Much of the album was recorded in the same sessions as their first post-reunion release, Simple Science, the song "Keith Case" being featured on both; the Get Up Kids released their fourth album Guilt Show in March 2004. They tried to promote it as much as they could prior to August, by which point vocalist/guitarist Matt Pryor had his second child, before going a break to focus on other projects, they returned for a farewell tour in 2005, before breaking up, reuniting for shows in 2008 and 2009. In August and September 2009, they went on a European tour. After a show, they decided to start writing music together again – something they hadn't done since 2003.

They worked on a lot of material at drummer Ryan Pope's home studio in Kansas. None of the members were allowed to bring in outside ideas, resulting in the songs stemming from jamming. By mid-August, they had two new songs, was playing one of them live. Pryor said the group didn't want to release an album, preferring to release material in a different manner that could accommodate their schedules. By mid-September, they had recorded nine songs in eleven days. In February 2010, the group announced a four-track EP for release in April. By its release, the single EP was expanded into a series of three EPs, with the second and third planned to appear halfway through, towards the end, of the year. However, by July, it was revealed; the plan to release the EPs over a year was decided as the band was unsure if they would be touring. They decided to work towards an album, with a planned release in January or February 2011. In the years away from the group, several members had gone on to join major-label acts.

Because of these prior commitments and recording sessions had to be scheduled long in advance. Sessions took place at Black Lodge Studios, co-owned by Ryan Pope and Ed Rose; the songs written at Pope's place were finished in the studio, a process that the group hadn't done prior. In contrast, for their debut, the band would play the songs over and over again before taking them to the studio, they tracked to 2" analogue tape. The only song recorded in these sessions that has yet to be released is "Neverending," the first song written after the band's reunion, it drew comparisons in the tempo to early Pixies and experimental traces to that on U2's Achtung Baby. Orange County Register said; the writing process itself was more free-form than on previous albums beginning with one member suggesting an instrumental part and building on it. If they didn't like the result in 30 minutes, they abandoned it. For instance, the song "Regent's Court" was written in one hour before Pryor had to pick his kids up from school.

Pope and Dewees came up with song structures, while Suptic and Pryor would provide input with the latter pair singing gibberish over the tracks. The Suptic-sung tracks "Automatic" and "Birmingham" began as jokes, whereas for the Pryor-sung tracks, he would go home and write lyrics for them; as they were streamlining things in the studio and Dewees honed in on the keyboard-centric material with a lot of effect pedal manipulation occurring. The songs are a departure lyrically from the band's past work, due in large part to their attempts to make the album as unique from their past work as possible. Although the band has been known for writing heartfelt, emotional love songs, Pryor didn't want any songs about relationships on the album. "I felt like I could write love songs until I'm blue in the face and it's one of the things that this band has been known for to a certain degree. It's just to challenge myself as a songwriter to not write about anything that's formulaic for me." Pryor didn't write lyrics until the songs were in a completed state, making sure that the music aspect came first.

No love songs. The guitar riff at the start of "Tithe" was the first part written for the record, something that Pryor felt set the tone for the album, he said it showcased "other'emotions' than just longing." "Regent's Court" was written at the end of the final record session in an attempt to write a new song in a short timeframe. Pryor said. "Shatter Your Lungs" talks about a kid falling off of a roof. Pryor said it had a similar song structure to some of the band's earlier pop-based songs such as "Mass Pike". "Automatic" features guitarist Jim Suptic on lead vocals. The bridge features HAL 9000 from the film 2001: A Space Odyssey doing call and response vocals; the title of "Pararelevant" was made up by Proyr. "Rally'Round the Fool" was part of the first batch of songs written for the album, but was shelved. It was revived after the group got an Omnichord synthesizer, made to sound like an old song by the Cure. Both "Better Lie" and