The Scout movement known as Scouting or the Scouts, is a voluntary non-political educational movement for young people open to all without distinction of gender, race or creed, in accordance with the purpose and method conceived by the founder, Lord Baden-Powell. The purpose of the Scout Movement is to contribute to the development of young people in achieving their full physical, emotional and spiritual potentials as individuals, as responsible citizens and as members of their local and international communities. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting; this book, Scouting for Boys, was based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson.

In mid-1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book. This camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement; the movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion.

The trigger for the Scouting movement was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell. At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors; as a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.

Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.

Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell

Simon Wallace

Simon Wallace is a British composer and pianist. Simon Wallace was born in South Wales, he studied music at the Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama and University College, where he ran the Oxford University Jazz Club and played with The Oxcentrics a Dixieland jazz band. He studied with jazz pianists in London and New York, he collaborated with the film and television composer Simon Brint from 1980 until Brint's death in 2011. They composed music for television series including Absolutely Fabulous, Coupling and Saunders, Murder Most Horrid, All Rise For Julian Clary, The Ruby Wax Show, Bosom Pals, The All New Alexie Sayle Show, The Clive James Show and The Ben Elton Show. In 1982 they scored A Shocking Accident which won 1983 Oscar for'best live action short their last broadcast work together was the music for The One Ronnie in December 2010. Independently of Brint he scored the 1982 David Leland television drama R. H. I. N. O; the 1998 series Duck Patrol, the documentary series Famous Authors. He worked on two series of The Armstrong and Miller Show arranging and playing music for the Brabbins and Fyffe sketches.

In 1986, the Bangkok Symphony Orchestra commissioned a five movement symphony for Bhumibol Adulyadej, the King of Thailand's 60th birthday. A further commission Fanfare and Rhapsody was performed in 2006 as part of the celebrations for His Majesty the King's 60th Jubilee. From 1990 to 1993, Wallace toured internationally as a member of The Lindsay Kemp Company devising and performing music with composer percussionist Joji Hirota for the show Onnagata and the film Travelling Light. In 1993, he was musical director for the West End production and cast recording album of Elegies for Angels and Raging Queens. In 1994, he met the American lyricist Fran Landesman. With whom he collaborated until her death in 2011 writing some 300 songs. Theatre shows based on Landesman/Wallace songs include There's Something Irresistible in Down produced at the Young Vic by members of the Royal Shakespeare Company, Forbidden Games at the Ustinov Theatre Bath, the Pleasance Theatre Edinburgh and the Gdansk Shakespeare Festival and Queen of the Bohemian Dream produced at the Source Theatre in Washington, D.

C. From 2003-06, Wallace was musical director for jazz singer Clare Teal, he arranged and directed her 2004 album Don't Talk and wrote arrangements for her broadcasts with the BBC Big Band, the BBC Concert Orchestra and for television appearances including two on the Michael Parkinson Show. From 2009-11, he toured in the UK and US with singer Barb Jungr and in 2010 worked with The Waterboys on the premier of "An Appointment With Mr Yeats" at the Abbey Theatre, Ireland, he arranged and co-produced Jungr's 2010 album The Men I Love and has produced albums by singers Ian Shaw, Sarah Moule, Nicki Leighton-Thomas, Pete Atkin and Gill Manly He is married to jazz singer Sarah Moule, lives in Southeast London and has a son born in 2000. Simon Wallace on MySpace

Edward Smart

Lieutenant General Edward Kenneth Smart, was a career officer in the Australian Army, subsequently a diplomat. Ken Smart was born 23 May 1891 in Kew, an inner suburb of Melbourne and was educated at Melbourne Church of England Grammar School, he was commissioned into the Corps of Australian Engineers as a second lieutenant on 18 July 1910. On 1 December he was promoted to lieutenant in the Royal Australian Garrison Artillery, by 1914 was an officer of the Siege Artillery Brigade commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Walter Adams Coxen. On 12 June 1915 he married Phyllis E. Robertson. Smart enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 21 May 1915, on 17 July the Siege Artillery Brigade embarked upon HMAT Orsova from Melbourne, arriving England 25 August. Smart arrived in France on 2 March 1916, saw action at Vimy Ridge in May before becoming involved in the Battle of the Somme from June 1916 to March 1917. In September 1916, during the course of heavy fighting in which he was wounded, his actions led to him being awarded the Military Cross.

The citation reads: Lt. Edward Kenneth Smart, R.-Arty. For conspicuous gallantry in action. Although wounded, he observed throughout the day with great courage and skill, sending back valuable information, he has done fine work. On 13 December 1916 he was appointed adjutant of the 36th Heavy Artillery Group and promoted to the rank of captain. During 1917 he was placed in command of 39th Battery, 10th Australian Field Artillery Brigade, 4th Australian Division, saw action in Messines, near Nieuport and near Dixmude. In November 1917 he took a position at headquarters 4th Divisional Artillery as a Brigade-Major Trainee, in December he was mentioned in despatches. In April 1918 Smart took a position at headquarters Australian Corps near Albert, in June was promoted to brevet major, taking command of the 110th Howitzer Battery, 10th Australian Field Artillery Brigade. Involved in heavy fighting in August and September, he was wounded on 27 September, subsequently recommended for the Distinguished Service Order.

His service in the First World War resulted in nine entries in the Australian War Memorial's Honours and Awards database: After discharge from the AIF, Smart remained in the army and from 31 May to 1 October 1919 attended Artillery College in England. He returned to Australia and, from 16 February to 10 September 1920, served as Officer Commanding No. 6 Company, Royal Australian Garrison Artillery, 3rd Military District in Victoria. Smart returned to England until February 1925 where he served in a number of positions: On return to Australia, Smart served in a number of positions until January 1936: On 16 January 1936, Smart took up the position of Military Liaison Officer in the High Commissioner's Office in London, serving there until 25 August 1939, being promoted to brevet colonel in July 1937. On return to Australia, the outbreak of the Second World War, on 13 October 1939 Smart was promoted to major general and appointed QuarterMaster General and 3rd Military Member of the Military Board at Army Headquarters in Melbourne.

On 24 October 1940 he was promoted to temporary lieutenant general and appointed General Officer Commanding, Southern Command, District Officer Commanding the 3rd Military District. In April 1942 he was made substantive lieutenant general and was appointed Australian Military Representative in Washington D. C. or Head of the Australian Military Mission to the United States. In August 1942 he was appointed Australian Army Representative in London, he remained in this position until his retirement from the Australian Army on 2 July 1946. From London Smart proceeded to San Francisco where he served as Australian Consul-General from 1946 to 1949, to New York, where he continued to serve as Australian Consul-General, from 1946 until his retirement in 1954. Smart married Phyllis E. Robertson, daughter of Lieutenant Colonel J. Robertson, on 12 June 1915, they had two children. Smart's recreations were walking and motoring, his club was the Navy and Air Force Club in Melbourne. Smart died on 2 May 1961.

Honours awarded to Ken Smart until 1920: Distinguished Service Order Military Cross 1914–15 Star British War Medal Victory MedalAlso, Mentioned in Despatches: 28 December 1917 and 11 July 1919 Warren Perry Lieutenant-General Edward Kenneth Smart, DSO, MC, MiD: Centenary of his birth in Melbourne: a biographical sketch, OCLC: 222247879