Texarkana is a city in Bowie County, United States, located in the Ark-La-Tex region. Located 180 miles from Dallas, Texarkana is a twin city with neighboring Texarkana, Arkansas; the population of the Texas city was 37,679 at the 2016 census estimate. The city and its Arkansas counterpart form the core of the Texarkana Metropolitan Statistical Area, encompassing all of Bowie County and Miller County, Arkansas; the two cities had a combined population of 67,592 at the 2017 census, the metropolitan area had a total population of 150,098. Railroads were quick to see the possibilities of this vast area. In the late 1850s, the builders of the Cairo and Fulton Railroad were pushing their line across Arkansas. By 1874, they had reached the Texas state line. Between February 16 and March 19, 1874, trains ran between the Texas border and the Red River, whence passengers and freight were ferried to Fulton to continue by rail; the Red River Bridge opened on March 20, 1874, since trains have run directly from Texarkana to St. Louis.
Keen rivalry existed between the 1870s railroad builders. The Texas and Pacific Railroad reached across Texas to the Arkansas state line; the border was the logical place for the different railways to connect. On December 8, 1873, the Texas and Pacific sold the first town lots for the future city. First to buy was J. W. Davis, who purchased the land where today's Hotel McCartney now stands, opposite Union Station. Who gave Texarkana its name is not known. A popular story credits Colonel Gus Knobel, who surveyed the Iron Mountain Railroad right-of-way from Little Rock to this section to the state line, he painted "TEX-ARK-ANA" on a plank and nailed it to a tree, saying, "This is the name of a town, to be built here." Miller County, on the Arkansas side of the metropolitan area, was abolished during the border dispute between the Republic of Texas and the United States only to be re-established later. Miller County was formed in 1820 to honor Arkansas' first governor. Miller County was formed with a large degree of uncertainty as to the location of the line dividing the county and the Mexican boundary.
Settlers felt that Arkansas levied and collected taxes on land that might be held by Mexico. Moreover, many who resented the oppression of Texans by the Mexicans were declaring allegiance to the Texans; this led to general unrest, after the Texas Republic was created, it grew worse. So, in 1838, Governor James Conway proposed that the "easiest and most effective remedy is the abolition of Miller County to an area, more patriotic." From that year until 1874, it was a part of Arkansas. Its re-establishment sprung only from the sale of town lots in Texarkana in 1873. Efforts of the young town to be incorporated were not realized until October 17, 1880, nearly seven years after Texarkana, was formed. December 8, 1873, is recognized by both cities as the date of organization. Texarkana is located at the junction of Interstate 30 and US highways 59, 67, 71, 82 in extreme northeast Texas on the Texas-Arkansas border, at 33°26′14″N 94°4′3″W, it is bordered by the city of Texarkana, Arkansas, to the east, by the smaller cities of Nash and Wake Village, Texas, to the west.
It is in the Central Time Zone. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Texas city has a total area of 29.5 square miles, of which 29.0 square miles is land and 0.42 square miles, or 1.39%, is covered by water. The city is 180 miles northeast of Dallas; the warmest month is July. The highest recorded temperature was 117 °F in 1936. On average, the coolest month is January; the lowest recorded temperature was -6 °F in 1989. The most precipitation on average occurs in November. On the evening of May 22, 2008, a microburst producing winds up to 100 mph occurred over Stateline Avenue and surrounding communities. An analysis of radar data leading up to the damage showed that two severe thunderstorms came together on the south side of the city. One severe storm was moving northeastward from southern Bowie County, while the other was moving northwestward through Miller County. Both storms collided in an area just south of downtown Texarkana; as of the census of 2010, 37,679 people, 13,569 households, 8,941 families resided in the city.
The population density was 1,357.3 people per square mile. The 16,280 housing units averaged 589.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 59.18% White, 37.05% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.73% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.43% from other races, 1.22% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.91% of the population. Of the 16,280 households, 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 19.3% have a female householder with no husband present. And 34.1% were not families. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.01. In the city, the age distribution of the population was 26.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 15.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,727, for a family was $39,119.
Males had a median income of $34,155 versus $21,143 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,815. About 19.4% of families and 24.0% of the population were below
Works Progress Administration
The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of people to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034. In a much smaller project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects; the four projects dedicated to these were: the Federal Writers’ Project, the Historical Records Survey, the Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Music Project, the Federal Art Project. In the Historical Records Survey, for instance, many former slaves in the South were interviewed. Theater and music groups toured throughout America, gave more than 225,000 performances. Archaeological investigations under the WPA were influential in the rediscovery of pre-Columbian Native American cultures, the development of professional archaeology in the US; every community in the United States had a new park, bridge, or school, constructed by the agency.
The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States, while developing infrastructure to support the current and future society. Above all, the WPA hired workers and craftsmen who were employed in building streets. Thus, under the leadership of the WPA, more than 1 million km of streets and over 10,000 bridges were built, in addition to many airports and much housing; the largest single project of the WPA was the Tennessee Valley Authority, which provided the impoverished Tennessee Valley with dams and waterworks to create an infrastructure for electrical power. Camp David, the presidential estate in Maryland used for international meetings, San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge were both constructed by the WPA. At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration.
Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people. Most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. Full employment, reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the goal of the WPA. "Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, kept skills sharp."The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. The local sponsor provided land and trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages. WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs, it was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II.
The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years. A joint resolution introduced January 21, 1935, the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 8, 1935. On May 6, 1935, FDR issued executive order 7034; the WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, dissolved. Direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA; the WPA was shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and close adviser to Roosevelt. Both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA. Hallie Flanagan, national director of the Federal Theatre Project, wrote that "for the first time in the relief experiments of this country the preservation of the skill of the worker, hence the preservation of his self-respect, became important."The WPA was organized into the following divisions: The Division of Engineering and Construction, which planned and supervised construction projects including airports, dams and sanitation systems.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, responsible for white-collar projects including education programs, recreation programs, the arts projects. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division; the Division of Finance. The Division of Information; the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics known as the Division of Social Research; the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety and Training and Reemployment; these ordinary men and women proved to be extraordinary beyond all expectation. They
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Aubrey Willis Williams
Aubrey Willis Williams was an American social and civil rights activist who headed the National Youth Administration during the New Deal. Aubrey Williams was born in Springville, Alabama, on August 23, 1890, he grew up in impoverished circumstances. His grandfather had been born poor in North Carolina and migrated to Alabama, where he accrued wealth and became the owner of a successful plantation and a large number of slaves, he was, however troubled by the morality of slavery, in 1855 voluntarily freed his workers. The rest of his property was nonetheless seized in the American Civil War, leaving the family destitute. Trained only for leisure, Aubrey Williams' father turned to manual labor, becoming a notably unsuccessful blacksmith. At the young age of six, Aubrey went to work as a cash-boy in a Birmingham, Alabama department store. At times his whole family of four had to live on his $3.50 weekly wage. As he grew older, Aubrey took on other jobs, while studying nights in a Y. M. C. A, he earned his way at Maryville College in Tennessee by painting signs, at the University of Cincinnati by managing a Chautauqua, an early form of adult education.
A post-War stay in France saw. Not until he reached 30 was he ready to begin the career of social work in Ohio and Wisconsin which would lead to his appointment by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to Assistant Federal Relief Administrator, the second highest ranking U. S. relief official. In this role, Williams reported to Harry Lloyd Hopkins, one of President Roosevelt's closest advisers, one of the architects of the New Deal. Hopkins directed the many relief programs of the Works Progress Administration, which he built into the largest employer in the country. In World War II he was Roosevelt's chief diplomatic advisor and troubleshooter, was a key policy maker in the $50 billion Lend Lease program that sent aid to the allies. During the mid-1930s, the New Deal had accomplished much good for the vast number of unemployed, for farmers, for Artists and Writers, for Homeowners, Bank Depositors and Investors. By the spring of 1935 though, 20 percent of the nation’s twenty-two million youngsters remained out of school and either on relief or wandering the country looking for work.
In 1937, the President stated: "I have determined, that we shall do something for the nation's unemployed Youth...." Beneficiaries would be all male and female youths aged 16 to 25 not attending school. Time magazine of that year announced: “By executive order the President forthwith created a National Youth Administration, with Aubrey Williams as executive director, Assistant Secretary of the Treasury Josephine Roche as executive committee chairman. Following the usual New Deal formula, there were to be 48 State Youth Divisions under 48 State Youth Directors, plus Youth Committees in cities, counties.” The young man selected as youth director for the state of Texas was the 26-year-old future president of the United States Lyndon Baines Johnson. Johnson had begun his political career as the congressional secretary and assistant to Congressman Richard Mifflin Kleberg. In 1935 he left the service of Congressman Kleberg to become Texas state director of the National Youth Administration, headed by Aubrey Williams.
During his tenure, the two men established a lasting friendship. In his new position, with headquarters in Austin, Johnson soon put an elaborate program into effect. Years a notable African American leader of the time said: "In the middle thirties we didn't know Lyndon Johnson from Adam," and continued, "We began to get word up here that there was one NYA director who wasn't like the others, he was looking after Negroes and poor folks and most NYA people weren't doing that." Johnson carried that same progressive spirit into his presidency, as exemplified in his War on Poverty program and the Great Society. It has be said that these early youth programs were the inspiration for such Johnsonian initiatives as the Job Corps and Upward Bound. Speaking before the NYA’s advisory committee on Oct. 27, 1941, a meeting attended by first lady Eleanor Roosevelt, Aubrey Williams stated “I must confess to all of you that I am frightened,” further declaring, “I think we are fighting with our backs against the wall all over this country.”
In the six years since its creation, the NYA had grown into the closest thing the country had had to a comprehensive national youth development program, providing millions of young people with jobs and job training, community service work, remedial education and real-life lessons in the benefits of democracy at a time when democracy was fighting for its life. But the agency had made powerful enemies – Washington’s education establishment. Months after the NYA’s advisory committee heard Williams’ warning in the East Room of the White House, the United States Congress cut the agency’s budget and debated killing it altogether. Within two years, the NYA was ended. Aubrey Willis Williams served for 10 years as executive secretary of the Wisconsin Conference of Social Work, he served as an officer of the Southern Conference Education Fund. It was his service with the Southern Conference for Human Welfare that resulted in his not being ratified by the Senate to the Rural Electrification Administration.
He opposed the Vietnam War, expressing as much to the newly re-elected President Johnson in 1965. The following is an excerpt from the book Pillar of Fire, written by Taylor Branch: "From his sick bed, dying of Cancer, Aubrey Williams scrawled a “Dear Lyndon” letter to his rambunctious protégé of the New Deal era, he instru
Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America is one of the largest scouting organizations and youth organizations in the United States, with about 2.4 million youth participants and about one million adult volunteers. The BSA was founded in 1910, since about 110 million Americans have been participants in BSA programs at some time; the BSA is part of the international Scout Movement and became a founding member organization of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1922. The mission of the Boy Scouts of America is to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law. Youth are trained in responsible citizenship, character development, self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is part of the program to instill typical Scouting values such as trustworthiness, good citizenship, outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping and hiking.
To further these outdoor activities, the BSA has four high-adventure bases: Northern Tier, Philmont Scout Ranch, Sea Base, Summit Bechtel Reserve, as well as close to a hundred separate camps and reservations dedicated to scouts. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for ages 5 to 11 years, Scouts BSA for ages 11 to 17, Venturing for ages 14 through 21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional affiliate. On February 1, 2019, the Boy Scouts of America renamed their flagship program, Boy Scouting, to Scouts BSA to reflect their change of policy to allow girls to join in separate troops; the BSA operates traditional Scouting by chartering local organizations, such as churches, civic associations, or educational organization, to implement the Scouting program for youth within their communities. Units are led by volunteers appointed by the chartering organization, who are supported by local councils using both paid professional Scouters and volunteers; the progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early 20th century.
With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that young men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was an early promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, physical and religious development.:72–82 BSA had two notable predecessors in the United States: the Woodcraft Indians started by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1902 in Cos Cob and the Sons of Daniel Boone founded by Daniel Carter Beard in 1905 in Cincinnati, Ohio. In 1907, Robert Baden-Powell, founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Seton's works among other influences. Several Scout programs for boys started independently in the US.. Many of these Scout programs in the US merged with the BSA.:52 In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, where he encountered a boy who came to be known as the Unknown Scout. Boyce was lost on a foggy street when an unknown Scout came to his aid, guiding him to his destination.
The boy refused Boyce's tip, explaining that he was a Boy Scout and was doing his daily good turn. Interested in the Boy Scouts, Boyce met with staff at the Boy Scouts Headquarters and, by some accounts, Baden-Powell. Upon his return to the US, Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910. Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA and convinced Boyce to turn the program over to the YMCA for development in April 1910. Robinson enlisted Seton, Charles Eastman, other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. Former president Theodore Roosevelt, who had long complained of the decline in American manhood, became an ardent supporter. In January 1911, Robinson turned the movement over to James E. West who became the first Chief Scout Executive and Scouting began to expand in the US:148 The BSA's stated purpose at its incorporation in 1910 was "to teach patriotism, self-reliance, kindred values.":7 Later, in 1937, Deputy Chief Scout Executive George J. Fisher expressed the BSA's mission: "Each generation as it comes to maturity has no more important duty than that of teaching high ideals and proper behavior to the generation which follows."
The current mission statement of the BSA is "to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law." Boy Scouts of America is distinct in its use of the term "Scout Oath" rather than "Scout Promise". The difference is that while the former phrase implies that a Scout is making his promise before God, the latter phrasing indicates that the Scout makes his commitment in the presence of fellow human beings; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was the first partner to sponsor Scouting in the United States, adopting the program in 1913 as part of its Mutual Improvement Association program for young men. In May 2018, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints announced that, effective year-end 2019, it would no longer sponsor scouting units with the Boy Scouts of America to focus on its own global youth leadership and development program, although Mormon youth are free to join scouting units sponsored by other organizations.
The BSA holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, which means that it is one of the comparatively rare "Title
Order of the Arrow
The Order of the Arrow is the National Honor Society of the Boy Scouts of America. The society was created by E. Urner Goodman, with the assistance of Carroll A. Edson, in 1915 as a means of reinforcing the Scout Oath and the Scout Law, it uses imagery associated with American Indian cultures for its self-invented ceremonies. These ceremonies are for recognition of leadership qualities, camping skills, other scouting ideals as exemplified by their elected peers. Influenced by Scout camp customs, the OA uses "safeguarded" symbols and private rituals to impart a sense of community. Native Americans have criticized the OA's various symbols and "rituals" as cultural appropriation based on non-Native stereotypes of American Indians. Inducted members, known as Arrowmen or Brothers, are organized into local youth-led lodges that harbor fellowship, promote camping, render service to Boy Scout councils and their communities; each lodge corresponds to a BSA council in the area. Lodges are further broken down into chapters.
Members wear identifying insignia on their uniforms, most notably the OA pocket flap that represents their individual OA lodge and the OA sash worn at official OA functions. The OA program sponsors several events and training functions. In 1915, E. Urner Goodman, a newly hired field executive for the Philadelphia Council, was assigned to serve as director of the council's summer camp at Treasure Island Scout Reservation on the Delaware River, he believed that the summer camp experience should do more than just teach proficiency in Scoutcraft skills. Along with his assistant camp director, Carroll A. Edson, he started an experimental program, Wimachtendienk, to recognize those Scouts best exemplifying those traits as an example to their peers. Goodman and Edson decided that a "camp fraternity" was the way to improve the summer camp experience and to encourage older Scouts to continue attending Scout summer camp. In developing this program they borrowed from the traditions and practices of several other organizations.
Edward Cave's Boy's Camp Book was consulted for the concept of a camp society that would perpetuate camp traditions. College fraternities were influential for their concepts of brotherhood and rituals, the idea of new members pledging themselves to the new organization. Inspired by Ernest Thompson Seton's previous Woodcraft Indians program, American Indian lore was used to make the organization interesting and appealing to youth. Other influences include the Brotherhood of Andrew and Phillip, a Presbyterian church youth group with which Goodman had been involved as a young man, Freemasonry; the traditions and rituals of Freemasonry contributed more to the basic structure of the OA ritual than any other organization. In fact, there appears to be no known fraternal organization more faithful in form to Freemasonry than the OA. Familiar terms such as "lodge" and "obligation" were borrowed from Masonic practice, as were most of the ceremonial structures and ritual formulae; the early national meeting was called a "Grand Lodge," a Masonic reference.
Of course, despite several facts—the common intent to impart a sense of obligation to a higher moral authority. Goodman and Edson devised a program where troops chose, at the summer camp's conclusion, those boys from among their number who best exemplified the ideals of Scouting; those elected were acknowledged as having displayed, in the eyes of their fellow Scouts, a spirit of unselfish service and brotherhood. Edson helped Goodman research the traditions and language of the Lenni Lenape—also known as the Delaware—who had inhabited Treasure Island; the brotherhood of Scout honor campers with its American Indian overtones was a success and was repeated again the following summer at Treasure Island. Those Scouts honored at Treasure Island in 1915 and 1916 would become members of what is now Unami Lodge. By 1921, Goodman had spoken to Scout leaders in surrounding states about the honor society, which resulted in multiple lodges being established by Scout councils in the northeastern United States.
The name of the society was changed to Order of the Arrow, in October 1921, Goodman convened the first national meeting of what at that time was called the "National Lodge of the Order of the Arrow" in Philadelphia—where Goodman was elected as Grand Chieftain. Committees were organized to formulate a constitution, refine ceremonial rituals, devise insignia, plan future development. In the early 1920s, many Scout executives were skeptical of what they called "secret camp fraternities." By September 1922, opposition to the Order of the Arrow was such that a formal resolution opposing "camp fraternities" was proposed at a national meeting of Scout executives. Goodman argued against the motion: "Using the Scout ideals as our great objective", he said, a camp activity that will "further the advancement of those ideals" should not be suppressed; the motion was narrowly defeated, the fledgling Order continued as an experimental program throughout the 1920s and 1930s. In 1931, there were OA lodges in 7 percent of BSA councils nationwide.
By 1948, about two-thirds of the BSA's councils had established OA lodges. That year, the OA was integrated as an official part of the Scouting program. Over the century since the Order of the Arrow's founding, more than one million Scouts and Sc
Arkadelphia is a city in Clark County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,714; the city is the county seat of Clark County. It is situated at the foothills of the Ouachita Mountains. Two universities, Henderson State University and Ouachita Baptist University, are located there. Arkadelphia was incorporated in 1857; the site was settled in about 1809 by John Hemphill, operator of a nearby salt works, Arkansas's first industry. It was known as Blakelytown until 1839. Origin of the name "Arkadelphia" is uncertain. One possibility is that it was formed by combining Ark- from the state's name Arkansas and adelphia from the Greek meaning "brother/place". Another explanation of the name is a combination of "adelphia" for place and "arc." Arkadelphia was once known as the "City of Rainbows" because the humid climate resulted in rain. Arkadelphia is located in northeastern Clark County at 34°7′19″N 93°3′58″W, on the west bank of the Ouachita River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.3 square miles, of which 7.3 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.49%, is water.
The climate is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Arkadelphia has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,714 people residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 64.0% White, 30.0% Black, 0.4% Native American, 0.8% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.4% from two or more races. 3.2% were Hispanic or Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,912 people, 3,865 households, 2,187 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,486.2 people per square mile. There were 4,216 housing units at an average density of 574.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.98% White, 26.51% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 1.29% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.35% from other races, 1.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.59% of the population.
There were 3,865 households out of which 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.6% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.4% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.87. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 18.1% under the age of 18, 32.9% from 18 to 24, 20.4% from 25 to 44, 14.5% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,651, the median income for a family was $42,479. Males had a median income of $30,152 versus $19,459 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,268. About 19.8% of families and 23.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.8% of those under the age of 18 and 15.9% of those 65 and older.
Major factors in Arkadelphia's economy are manufacturing. Ouachita Baptist University, Henderson State University, Arkadelphia School District employ many people in the education sector; the manufacturing sector consists of Alumacraft Boat Co. Danfoss Scroll Technologies LLC, Georgia Pacific, Siplast; the economy includes small-scale businesses, including fast-food restaurants. The city is served by The Siftings Herald. Opened in 2011, the Arkadelphia Arts Center hosts exhibits and educational workshops for many organizations in town, including the Caddo River Art Guild, the Poet and Writer's Guild, the Little Theatre, the two universities, Arkadelphia School District. Henderson State University holds plays and musical performances in Arkansas Hall located on campus. Ouachita Baptist University displays student sculpture in the Hammons Gallery. OBU performing arts take place in the OBU Jones Performing Arts Center on Ouachita Street; the Clark County Historical Museum contains artifacts from prehistoric times through today in an attempt to document the history of the county.
Based in the former Amtrak station, a historic tour through Arkadelphia, including the historic James E. M. Barkman House; the Captain Henderson House is a historic bed and breakfast owned and operated by Henderson State University and inhabited by the university's namesake. Downtown Arkadelphia includes the Arkadelphia Commercial Historic District, the Arkadelphia Confederate Monument, Clark County Courthouse, the Clark County Library, all listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Other family attractions include the Diamond Lakes Regional Visitors Center on Highway 7 near I-30, the Reynolds Science Center Planetarium, open to the public during the academic year, is located on the Henderson State University campus. Arkadelphia Parks and Recreation Department operates facilities and manages activities for the community. Within Feaster Park, the department operates Arkadelphia Aquatic Park, which features water slides and diving areas; the park includes a recreation center that has an indoor basketball/volleyball court, a weight lifting area and an elevated walking track.
In 2013, the department completed construction of DeSoto Bluff Trail, which overlooks the Ouachita River. DeGray Lake Resort State Park surrounds 13,800-acre DeGray Lake, located 8 miles northwest of Arkadelphia, on Arkansas Sc