Fort McHenry is a historical American coastal pentagonal bastion fort located in the Locust Point neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland. It is best known for its role in the War of 1812, when it defended Baltimore Harbor from an attack by the British navy from the Chesapeake Bay on September 13–14, 1814, it was first built in 1798 and was used continuously by the U. S. armed forces through World War I and by the Coast Guard in World War II. It was designated a national park in 1925, in 1939 was redesignated a "National Monument and Historic Shrine". During the War of 1812 an American storm flag, 17 by 25 feet, was flown over Fort McHenry during the bombardment, it was replaced early on the morning of September 14, 1814 with a larger American garrison flag, 30 by 42 feet. The larger flag signaled American victory over the British in the Battle of Baltimore; the sight of the ensign inspired Francis Scott Key to write the poem "Defence of Fort M'Henry", set to the tune "To Anacreon in Heaven" and became known as "The Star Spangled Banner", the national anthem of the United States.
Fort McHenry was built on the site of the former Fort Whetstone, which had defended Baltimore from 1776 to 1797. Fort Whetstone stood on Whetstone Point peninsula, which juts into the opening of Baltimore Harbor between the Basin and Northwest branch on the north side and the Middle and Ferry branches of the Patapsco River on the south side; the Frenchman Jean Foncin designed the fort in 1798, it was built between 1798 and 1800. The new fort's purpose was to improve the defenses of the important Port of Baltimore from future enemy attacks; the new fort was a bastioned pentagon, surrounded by a dry moat -- a broad trench. The moat would serve as a shelter. In case of such an attack on this first line of defense, each point, or bastion could provide a crossfire of cannon and small arms fire. Fort McHenry was named after early American statesman James McHenry, a Scots-Irish immigrant and surgeon-soldier, he was a delegate to the Continental Congress from Maryland and a signer of the United States Constitution.
Afterwards, he was appointed United States Secretary of War, serving under Presidents George Washington and John Adams. Beginning at 6:00 a.m. on September 13, 1814, British warships under the command of Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane continuously bombarded Fort McHenry for 25 hours. The American defenders had 24 - and 32-pounder cannons; the British guns had a range of 2 miles, the British rockets had a 1.75-mile range, but neither guns nor rockets were accurate. The British ships were unable to pass Fort McHenry and penetrate Baltimore Harbor because of its defenses, including a chain of 22 sunken ships, the American cannons; the British vessels were only able to fire their rockets and mortars at the fort at the weapons' maximum range. The poor accuracy on both sides resulted in little damage to either side before the British, having depleted their ammunition, ceased their attack on the morning of September 14, thus the naval part of the British invasion of Baltimore had been repulsed. Only one British warship, a bomb vessel, received a direct hit from the fort's return fire, which wounded one crewman.
The Americans, under the command of Major George Armistead, lost four killed—including one African-American soldier, Private William Williams, a woman, cut in half by a bomb as she carried supplies to the troops—and 24 wounded. At one point during the bombardment, a bomb crashed through the fort's powder magazine. However, either the rain extinguished the bomb was a dud. Francis Scott Key, a Washington lawyer who had come to Baltimore to negotiate the release of Dr. William Beanes, a civilian prisoner of war, witnessed the bombardment from a nearby truce ship. An oversized American flag had been sewn by Mary Pickersgill for $405.90 in anticipation of the British attack on the fort. When Key saw the flag emerge intact in the dawn of September 14, he was so moved that he began that morning to compose the poem "Defence of Fort M'Henry", set to the tune "To Anacreon in Heaven" which would be renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner" and become the United States' national anthem. During the American Civil War the area where Fort McHenry sits served as a military prison, confining both Confederate soldiers, as well as a large number of Maryland political figures who were suspected of being Confederate sympathizers.
The imprisoned included newly elected Baltimore Mayor George William Brown, the city council, the new police commissioner, George P. Kane, members of the Maryland General Assembly along with several newspaper editors and owners. Francis Scott Key's grandson, Francis Key Howard, was one of these political detainees; some of the cells used still can be visited at the fort. A drama beginning the famous Supreme Court case involving the night arrest in Baltimore County and imprisonment here of John Merryman and the upholding of his demand for a writ of habeas corpus for release by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney occurred at the gates between Court and Federal Marshals and the commander of Union troops occupying the Fort under orders from President Abraham Lincoln in 1861. Fort McHenry served to train artillery at this time. During World War I, an additional hundred-odd buildings were built on the land surrounding the fort in order to convert the entire facility into an enormous U. S. Army hospital for the treatment of troops returning
Scouting in Maryland
Scouting in Maryland has a long history, from the 1910s to the present day, serving millions of youth with activities that have adapted to the changing cultural environment but have always been rooted in an active outdoor program. Scouting in Maryland dates back to the earliest days of the movement. Robert S. Garrett was among the twenty-five men who organized the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America in 1910. Mr. Garrett was a Baltimore civic leader, prominent philanthropist and Olympic champion. Named in the federal charter of 1916, Mr. Garrett served on the BSA National Executive Board from 1912 to 1919 and remained a member of the National Council until his death, he was one of the original nine Baltimore recipients of the Silver Beaver Award in 1931. The first seven Scout Troops in Baltimore were granted charters by Scout Commissioner H. Laurance Eddy on September 9, 1910. A month prior, Robert Garrett and Laurance Eddy ensured that a patrol of eight Scouts from Mount Washington Troop 1 aended the first National Boy Scout camp held at Silver Bay on Lake George.
The Maryland Council of Boy Scouts of America was duly incorporated on May 9, 1911. The initial board of directors was composed of Robert Garrett, William H. Morris, James Carey, Jr. Frank Smith and Stuart S. Janney; the first Scout headquarters was at 512 Continental Trust Building Almost the council was referred to as the “Baltimore Council.” From 1911 through 1921, the Baltimore Council operated as a department of the Baltimore Social Service Corporation, sharing a finance director, advisory board and other office support with the Public Athlelc League, the Social Workers’ Bureau and other Garrett-supported civic endeavors. The Frostburg Council was founded in 1917 and closed in 1919. By 1917, the Baltimore Council provided less support beyond Central Maryland as local councils were created in Frostburg, Westminster and Frederick; the Westminster Council was founded in 1917 and closed in 1919. The Salisbury Council was founded in 1917 and closed in 1921; the Frederick Council was founded in 1917 and changed its name in 1921 to the Frederick County Council in 1926.
In 1928 it changed its name again to the Francis Scott Key Council and merged with the Washington DC Council in 1930. The Washington DC Council was founded in 1913 and changed its name in 1937 to the National Capital Area Council in 1926; the Baltimore Area Council was incorporated on May 9, 1911 as the Maryland Council but referred to as the Baltimore Council. The Balmore Council was first referred to as the Baltimore Area Council beginning in 1926; the Washington County Council was founded in 1927 and changed its name in 1939 to the Washington Area Council in 1939. In 1956 it changed its name again to the Mason-Dixon Council; the Cumberland Council was founded 1926. In 1938 it changed its name to the Potomac Council, It merged in 2014 with Laurel Highlands Council; the Order of the Arrow Nentico Lodge was established in 1922 by E. Urner Goodman; the 1923 National Order of the Arrow Lodge Meeting was held at Maryland. In the early 1920s, there were several camps named Rodney in the Delmarva area.
However, the current Rodney Scout Reservation was established in 1921. In Severna Park, was Camp Linstead, the camp of Nentico Lodge in its early years. There are six Boy Scouts of America local councils serving the youth of Maryland. All the councils are within the Northeast Region of the BSA. Baltimore Area Council partners with 800 community-based organizations providing programs to more than 35,000 youth each year. Baltimore Area Council operates three full service Scout Shops either directly or thru license with the National Council, Boy Scouts of America in Baltimore City and Whiteford in Harford County, Maryland; the Harford Scout Shop is located in Camp Saffran at Broad Creek Memorial Scout Reservation at 1929 Susquehanna Hall Road Whiteford, Maryland. The Dorsey Road Scout Shop is located at 7502 Connelley Dr Ste 117, Maryland; the Baltimore Scout Shop is located directly across the street from the Council's Shapiro Scout Service Center in the Stieff Silver Building at 800 Wyman Park Drive, Baltimore Maryland.
In 2008, Baltimore Area Council announced ten top initiative programs to highlight the Boy Scouts of America 100th Anniversary in 2010. The Top Ten Initiatives are: Star-Spangled Camporee at Ft. McHenry and surrounding City Parks, Scout Sunday And Sabbath, Anniversary Black Tie Gala, Gathering of Eagles, Flag Ceremonies, the 100 Great Moments in Baltimore Area Scouting History, Birthday Card Contest, Scouting Mural/Mosaic Project and the 100th Anniversary Service Project. In February 2009, the Star-Spangled Banner Flag or the Great Garrison Flag was adopted as the Official U. S. Flag of the Baltimore Area Council, Boy Scouts of America by authority of the Council Executive Board. A public ceremony was conducted on February 8, 2009, on the occasion of the 99th Anniversary of the incorporation of the Boy Scouts of America in Washington, D. C. by William D. Boyce, a Chicago publisher. Representatives of Scout Units, the Council and the public were on hand to commemorate the adoption at the Shapiro Scout Service Center.
This was done in anticipation of the bicentennial commemoration at Fort McHenry in 2014 of the battle which inspired Francis Scott Key to write his inspirational poem which became our national anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner. The Baltimore Area Council inclu
William D. Boyce
William Dickson Boyce was an American newspaper man, magazine publisher, explorer. He was the founder of the short-lived Lone Scouts of America. Born in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, he acquired a love for the outdoors early in his life. After working as a schoolteacher and a coal miner, Boyce attended Wooster Academy in Ohio before moving to the Midwest and Canada. An astute businessman, Boyce established several newspapers, such as The Commercial in Winnipeg and the Lisbon Clipper in Lisbon, North Dakota. With his first wife, Mary Jane Beacom, he moved to Chicago to pursue his entrepreneurial ambitions. There he established the Mutual Newspaper Publishing Company and the weekly Saturday Blade, which catered to a rural audience and was distributed by thousands of newspaper boys. With his novel employment of newsboys to boost newspaper sales, Boyce's namesake publishing company maintained a circulation of 500,000 copies per week by 1894. Boyce supported worker rights, as demonstrated by his businesses' support of labor unions and his concern for his newsboys' well-being.
By the early years of the 20th century, Boyce had become a multi-millionaire and had taken a step back from his businesses to pursue his interests in civic affairs, devoting more time to traveling and participating in expeditions. In 1909, he embarked on a two-month trip to Europe and a large photographic expedition to Africa with photographer George R. Lawrence and cartoonist John T. McCutcheon. Over the next two decades, Boyce led expeditions to South America and North Africa, where he visited the newly discovered tomb of King Tutankhamun. Boyce learned about Scouting while passing through London during his first expedition to Africa in 1909. According to somewhat fictionalized legend, Boyce had become lost in the dense London fog, but was guided back to his destination by a young boy, who told him that he was doing his duty as a Boy Scout. Boyce read printed material on Scouting, on his return to the United States, he formed the B. S. A. From its start, Boyce focused the Scouting program on teaching self-reliance, resourcefulness, obedience, cheerfulness and courtesy in order "to make men".
After clashing over the Scouting program with the first Chief Scout Executive James E. West, he left the B. S. A. and founded the L. S. A. in January 1915, which catered to rural boys who had limited opportunities to form a troop or a patrol. In June 1924, five years before Boyce's death, a merger was completed between the B. S. A. and the struggling L. S. A. Boyce received many awards and memorials for his efforts in the U. S. Scouting movement, including the famed "Silver Buffalo Award". Boyce was born on June 16, 1858 in New Texas, Pennsylvania – now Plum Borough —to a Presbyterian farm couple and Margaret Jane Bratton Boyce; the Boyces had three children: William Dickson and John. During his rural childhood, Boyce acquired a love for the outdoors, he began teaching school at the age of 16 and worked as a coal miner. He returned to teaching before joining his sister at Wooster Academy in Ohio, which—according to school records—he attended from 1880 to 1881, it is uncertain if he was expelled. He worked as a teacher, lumberjack and salesman in the Midwest and Canada before settling in Chicago, where he became known as a persuasive and shrewd salesman and learned business quickly.
His books on business and expeditions used the phrase "We pushed on." On January 1, 1884, Boyce married Mary Jane Beacom, whom he had known since his Pennsylvania childhood. Boyce called her Betsy, but to many her nickname was "Rattlesnake Jane" because she matched his skill in poker, was an expert shot, rode horses cross saddle, it had become obvious that she was more masculine than Boyce himself, although he had never admitted this, it became clear out of his journal. They had one son and two daughters: Benjamin Stevens and Sydney. Boyce's personal activities included hunting, Odd Fellows, Shriners, country clubs and the Chicago Hussars—an independent equestrian military organization. In 1903, Boyce purchased a four-story mansion on 38 acres in Ottawa, which became the center of his family and social activities. Thereafter, he showed little interest in its social activities. Boyce and Mary led separate lives and divorced, reported on the front page of the Chicago Tribune because of the prominence he had attained by that time.
The divorce was finalized in a Campbell County, South Dakota court in September 1908. After the divorce was finalized, Boyce courted Virginia Dorcas Lee, a vocalist from Oak Park, 23 years his junior and the eldest child of Virginia and John Adams Lee, a former Lieutenant Governor of Missouri. Both Virginia's parents and Boyce's son Ben opposed the relationship. In May 1910, after the planned marriage was announced, an infuriated Ben scuffled with his father outside the Blackstone Hotel and Boyce sustained a facial wound. Ben was fined $5 and court costs. Two days Boyce and Virginia married and went to Europe on an extended honeymoon. There was speculation amongst family members and in newspapers about problems within the marriage. On April 9, 1911, Boyce and Virginia had a daughter. A few months in December 1911, Boyce signed an agreement to support and educate their infant daughter. After Boyce's wife filed for divorce
The Star-Spangled Banner
"The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States. The lyrics come from the Defence of Fort M'Henry, a poem written on September 14, 1814, by the 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British ships of the Royal Navy in Baltimore Harbor during the Battle of Baltimore in the War of 1812. Key was inspired by the large U. S. flag, with 15 stars and 15 stripes, known as the Star-Spangled Banner, flying triumphantly above the fort during the U. S. victory. The poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a men's social club in London. "To Anacreon in Heaven", with various lyrics, was popular in the United States. Set to Key's poem and renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner", it soon became a well-known U. S. patriotic song. With a range of 19 semitones, it is known for being difficult to sing. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is sung today.
"The Star-Spangled Banner" was recognized for official use by the United States Navy in 1889, by U. S. President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931, signed by President Herbert Hoover. Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of U. S. officialdom. "Hail, Columbia" served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. "My Country,'Tis of Thee", whose melody is identical to "God Save the Queen", the United Kingdom's national anthem served as a de facto national anthem. Following the War of 1812 and subsequent U. S. wars, other songs emerged to compete for popularity at public events, among them "America the Beautiful", which itself was being considered before 1931, as a candidate to become the national anthem of the United States. On September 3, 1814, following the Burning of Washington and the Raid on Alexandria, Francis Scott Key and John Stuart Skinner set sail from Baltimore aboard the ship HMS Minden, flying a flag of truce on a mission approved by President James Madison.
Their objective was to secure an exchange of prisoners, one of whom was Dr. William Beanes, the elderly and popular town physician of Upper Marlboro and a friend of Key's, captured in his home. Beanes was accused of aiding the arrest of British soldiers. Key and Skinner boarded the British flagship HMS Tonnant on September 7 and spoke with Major General Robert Ross and Vice Admiral Alexander Cochrane over dinner while the two officers discussed war plans. At first and Cochrane refused to release Beanes but relented after Key and Skinner showed them letters written by wounded British prisoners praising Beanes and other Americans for their kind treatment; because Key and Skinner had heard details of the plans for the attack on Baltimore, they were held captive until after the battle, first aboard HMS Surprise and back on HMS Minden. After the bombardment, certain British gunboats attempted to slip past the fort and effect a landing in a cove to the west of it, but they were turned away by fire from nearby Fort Covington, the city's last line of defense.
During the rainy night, Key had witnessed the bombardment and observed that the fort's smaller "storm flag" continued to fly, but once the shell and Congreve rocket barrage had stopped, he would not know how the battle had turned out until dawn. On the morning of September 14, the storm flag had been lowered and the larger flag had been raised. During the bombardment, HMS Terror and HMS Meteor provided some of the "bombs bursting in air". Key was inspired by the U. S. victory and the sight of the large U. S. flag flying triumphantly above the fort. This flag, with fifteen stars and fifteen stripes, had been made by Mary Young Pickersgill together with other workers in her home on Baltimore's Pratt Street; the flag came to be known as the Star-Spangled Banner and is today on display in the National Museum of American History, a treasure of the Smithsonian Institution. It was restored in 1914 by Amelia Fowler, again in 1998 as part of an ongoing conservation program. Aboard the ship the next day, Key wrote a poem on the back of a letter.
At twilight on September 16, he and Skinner were released in Baltimore. He completed the poem at the Indian Queen Hotel, where he was staying, titled it "Defence of Fort M'Henry", it was first published nationally in The Analectic Magazine. Much of the idea of the poem, including the flag imagery and some of the wording, is derived from an earlier song by Key set to the tune of "The Anacreontic Song"; the song, known as "When the Warrior Returns", was written in honor of Stephen Decatur and Charles Stewart on their return from the First Barbary War. Absent elaboration by Francis Scott Key prior to his death in 1843, some have speculated in modern times about the meaning of phrases or verses. According to British historian Robin Blackburn, the words "the hireling and slave" allude to the thousands of ex-slaves in the British ranks organised as the Corps of Colonial Marines, liberated by the British and demanded to be placed in the battle line "where they might expect to meet their former masters."
Professor Mark Clague, a professor of musicology at the University of Michigan, argues that the "middle two verses of Key's lyric vilify the British enemy in the War of 1812" and "in no way glorifies or celebrates slavery." Clague writes that "For Key... the British mercenaries were scoundrels and the Colonial Marines were traitors who threatened to spark a national insurrection." This harshly anti-British nature of Verse 3 led to its omission in sheet music in World War I, when the British and the U. S. were allies. Responding to the assertion of writer
Silver Bay, New York
Silver Bay is a hamlet in the town of Hague in Warren County, New York, United States. It is the site of a YMCA conference center; the conference center is one of only a few of its type in the United States and is host to many large groups throughout the year. The center was started in 1900 and has grown since. Notable structures include the historic Hepbron Hall, built in 1901, a sprawling Victorian Mansion built in 1895 called Paine Hall, a 700 person auditorium built in 1909, Helen Hughes Chapel, built in 1923, Fisher Gymnasium and the Boathouse. Many of the buildings are excellent examples of Adirondack architecture. There is a traditional-style Ice Creme Parlor open during the spring and fall; the Silver Bay Association Complex was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. Silver Bay is the home of the Hacker Boat Co. the oldest builder of motorboats in the world. Silver Bay is the historic first camp for the BSA, founded in 1910. A landmark in Silver Bay is the Silver Bay Inn, built in 1904
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i
E. Urner Goodman
Edward Urner Goodman was an influential leader in the Boy Scouts of America movement for much of the twentieth century. Goodman was the national program director from 1931 until 1951, during the organization's formative years of significant growth when the Cub Scouting and Exploring programs were established, he developed the BSA's national training center in the early 1930s and was responsible for publication of the read Boy Scout Handbook and other Scouting books, writing the Leaders Handbook used by Scout leaders in the United States during the 1930s and 1940s. In the 1950s, Goodman was Executive Director of Men's Work for the National Council of Churches in New York City and active in church work. Goodman is best remembered today for having created the Order of the Arrow, a popular and successful program of the BSA that continues to honor Scouts for their cheerful service. Since its founding in 1915, the Order of the Arrow has grown to become a nationwide program having thousands of members, which recognizes those Scouts who best exemplify the virtues of cheerful service and leadership by membership in BSA's honor society.
As of 2007, the Order of the Arrow has more than 183,000 members. Goodman was born and raised in Philadelphia, where his father, was a printer and real estate agent, his mother, died of typhoid fever in early 1895 when Goodman was just three years old. He attended Central High School, graduating in 1909, he enjoyed writing and began keeping a detailed journal of daily activities during his senior year of high school, expressing his aspirations for the future along with occasional doubts. With several classmates, he published a newsletter, The Inkstand, he showed interest in music, playing the piano and violin, composed a song for his high school senior class. When it was not selected by the class officers, he wrote in his journal of his disappointment. Goodman took an early interest in church activities as a youth, participating in a boys' brotherhood group and Sunday school and becoming a member of Tioga Presbyterian Church at age 14, an event he described as "the most important step I took or will take in my life."
Just out of his teens, Goodman became a popular and respected Sunday school teacher and led the Philadelphia chapter of a young men's group called the Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip. Aspiring to a career in education, Goodman enrolled in the Philadelphia School of Pedagogy in 1911, he was selected to be the commencement speaker at his graduation in 1913 and his address was entitled, "The Call to Teach". Goodman did graduate work in education at Temple University, while teaching at the Potter School in Philadelphia. On June 18, 1920, Goodman married Louise Wynkoop Waygood, the daughter of a Presbyterian minister and a 1918 honors graduate of Swarthmore College, they had three children: Theodore and Lydia Ann. He was a member of Kiwanis, Rotary International, a Freemason, joining Robert A. Lamberton Lodge No. 487, Free and Accepted Masons of Philadelphia on March 5, 1918. While studying for his degree in Education, Goodman first became involved in Boy Scouting in 1911 when only 20 years old, as a volunteer Scoutmaster of Troop 1, the first Scout troop in Philadelphia.
As far as can be established, this would make him the second-youngest Scoutmaster in the history of the BSA. In his four years as Scoutmaster, the troop grew to more than 100 Scouts. A contemporary of Goodman described him in 1912 as "well beloved by the boys, enjoys their confidence and is heart and soul in this phase of the work." In years, he would recall with nostalgia his troop, noting that renowned composer Albert Hay Malotte was "one of his boys" in Troop 1. In April 1915, he entered full-time professional service in Boy Scouting as a field executive, serving that summer as director of the Philadelphia Scout Council's summer camp, he was promoted in December 1917 to Scout executive of the Philadelphia Council. Goodman's professional Scouting career was interrupted during World War I, when he was drafted into the U. S. Army shortly after his promotion to Scout executive, he served in the infantry as a first lieutenant. In December 1918, he was discharged from the Army and resumed his professional career as Scout executive in Philadelphia.
He served as Scout executive there until May 1927, when he was promoted to the larger Chicago Area Council as Scout executive. During his four-year tenure in the "Windy City", he reversed a decline in finances and increased Scout membership from 11,806 to 16,920. On April 1, 1931, Goodman was promoted by Chief Scout Executive James E. West to become national program director of the BSA, as part of an organizational restructuring. Goodman was one of four division directors reporting to West; as national program director, he was responsible for professional and volunteer training, relations with sponsoring organizations, public relations, program development. The Cub Scouting and Exploring programs were established under his leadership, he expanded BSA training programs for adult leaders, establishing the BSA's regarded national training center at Schiff Scout Reservation in New Jersey in 1932 and the training program at Philmont Scout Ranch, beginning in 1938. He oversaw the publication of the Boy Scout Handbook, edited by his good friend and colleague William "Green Bar Bill" Hillcourt, as well as the Handbook for Scoutmasters and the first edition of the read Scout Field Book.
Goodman wrote the Leader's Handbook, a key instructional guide for Scout leaders. In early July 1937, the B