Polish Scouting and Guiding Association
The Polish Scouting and Guiding Association is the coeducational Polish Scouting organization recognized by the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. It was founded in 1918 and is the largest Scouting organization in Poland; the first ZHP was founded in 1916, the current one is the fourth organization with this name. It is a public benefit organization as defined by Polish law; the Polish Scout movement was started in 1910. The ideas of Scouting were implemented by Andrzej Małkowski and his wife Olga; the three main branches of Polish Scouting included the Strzelec paramilitary organization for boys, a sport and education society Sokół and the anti-alcoholic association Eleusis. However, it wasn't until the Partitions of Poland came to an end that the ZHP would be founded by the merging of existing groups. Soon after the merger in 1918, the ZHP members fought in all the conflicts Poland was engaged in around this time: Great Poland Uprising, Polish-Bolshevik War, Silesian Uprisings, Polish-Ukrainian War, much like their predecessors during the Siege of Mafeking.
All of the units joined together in 1918 and formed the ZHP, one of the founding members of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Although many units retained their own traditions, a common law, common symbols and a common oath was introduced; the primary difference between most Scouting organizations and the Polish Harcerstwo was described by Andrzej Małkowski: Harcerstwo is Scouting plus independence. Before 1939 the ZHP was one of the largest social and educational associations in Poland with over 200,000 members. Among the "sponsors" of Polish Harcerstwo were all the presidents of Poland and several high-ranking officers, including general Józef Haller. After the invasion of Poland of 1939, the ZHP were branded criminals by Nazi Germany, who had executed many Scouts and Guides, along with other possible resistance leaders, but the ZHP carried on as a clandestine organization. In 1940, the Soviet Union executed most of the Boy Scouts held at Ostashkov prison; the wartime Scouts evolved into the paramilitary Szare Szeregi, cooperating with the Polish underground state and the Armia Krajowa resistance.
Older Scouts carried out sabotage, armed resistance, assassinations. The Girl Guides formed auxiliary units working as nurses and munition carriers. At the same time the youngest Scouts were involved in so-called small sabotage under the auspice of the Wawer organization, which included dropping leaflets or painting the kotwica sign on the walls. During Operation Tempest, during the Warsaw Uprising, the Scouts participated in the fighting, several Szare Szeregi units were some of the most effective in combat. In December 1944 the Polish Committee of National Liberation reformed the Scouting movement under the name of the pre-WWII Scouting organization, though with authorities loyal to the puppet government and an ethos in line with that of the Soviet Pioneer Movement, pressuring the organization to become a member thereof altogether disbanding in in that form in 1949; the organization was integrated into the Polish United Workers' Party, with most of its members now part of a new Soviet style, government-sponsored Pioneer organization - the Scouts of the Working Youth of Poland, which retained the original Polish Scouting movement's motto while adopting Pioneer traditions of Eastern Bloc countries, save for the uniform.
The only existing part of pre-war ZHP is the ZHP pgK, established to serve Polish Scouts outside their homeland. In 1956, after Stalin's and Bolesław Bierut's death, the Polish United Workers' Party youth movement ZMP OH was transformed and renamed to ZHP; however the new ZHP did not consider itself as a continuation of the pre-war ZHP, but as a new organization. After 1958 many pre-war instructors were removed from the new ZHP or marginalized and the original oath, educational content and methods were changed, but the most visible change was the transformation from the Pioneer salute back to the two-finger salute. Despite this, the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association became one of the few official organizations that retained some independence from the communist party; because of this, its growth was rapid, in 1980 it had more than three million active members. The Polish Scouts were engaged in a variety of duties, varying from helping in the fields of the most poor regions to organizing the visits of Pope John Paul II.
After the martial law was imposed in 1981 the ZHP was the only large social organization not to be banned. The "VIII ZHP Convention" supported the martial law. However, many of its high-ranking officials were interned because of their involvement in the Solidarność movement, as well as several Scoutmasters; the ZHP would be admitted in the 1980s as part of the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth. In 1989 after the period of peaceful transformation began, many groups of instructors formed separate Scouting organizations; these moves were prompted by political disagreements with the character of ZHP. ZHR's founding will serve as an adequate ex
Provo is the third-largest city in Utah, United States. It is 43 miles south of Salt Lake City along the Wasatch Front. Provo is the largest county seat of Utah County. Provo lies between the cities of Orem to Springville to the south. With a population at the 2010 census of 115,264, Provo is the principal city in the Provo-Orem metropolitan area, which had a population of 526,810 at the 2010 census, it is Utah's second-largest metropolitan area after Salt Lake City. Provo is the home of Brigham Young University, a private higher education institution operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Provo has the LDS Church's largest Missionary Training Center; the city is a focus area for technology development in Utah, with several billion-dollar startups. The city's Peaks Ice Arena was a venue for the Salt Lake City Winter Olympics in 2002. Sundance Resort is 13 miles northeast, at Provo Canyon. In 2015, Forbes cited Provo among the "Best Small And Medium-Size Cities For Jobs," and the Bureau of Labor Statistics found that Utah County had the year's highest job growth.
In 2013, Forbes ranked Provo the No. 2 city on its list of Best Places for Careers. Provo was ranked first for first in health/well-being; the Provo area was called Timpanogas, a Numic word meaning "rock river". The area was inhabited by the Timpanogos, it was the largest and most settled area in modern-day Utah. The ample food from the Provo River made the Timpanogos a peaceful people; the area served as the traditional meeting place for the Ute and Shoshone tribes and as a spot to worship their creator. Father Silvestre Velez de Escalante, a Spanish Franciscan missionary-explorer, is considered the first European explorer to have visited the area, in 1776, he was guided by two Timpanogos Utes, whom he called Joaquin. Escalante chronicled this first European exploration across the Great Basin Desert; the Europeans did not build a permanent settlement, but traded with the Timpanogos whom they called Lagunas or Come Pescado. In 1847, the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley, just north of Timpanogos Mountain.
At first, they were friendly with the Mormons. But, as relations deteriorated with the Shoshoni and Utes because of disputes over land and cattle, tensions rose; because of the reported stolen goods of settlers by the Utes, Brigham Young gave a small militia orders "to take such measures as would put a final end to their depredations in future." This ended in modern-day Pleasant Grove, Utah. The Mormons continued pushing into Timpanog lands. In 1849, 33 Mormon families from Salt Lake City established Fort Utah. In 1850, Brigham Young sent an army from Salt Lake to drive out the Timpanogos in what is called the Provo War; the ruthlessness of the Mormon invaders angered the Timpanog. Fort Utah was renamed Provo in 1850 for Étienne Provost, an early French-Canadian trapper who arrived in the region in 1825. 1850 saw the construction of the first school house in Provo, built within Utah Fort. As more Latter-day Saints moved in Provo grew as a city, it soon came to be nicknamed The Garden City with the large number of fruit orchards and gardens there.1872 saw the railroad reach Provo.
It was this year that the Provo Woolen Mills opened. They were the first large factory in Provo and employed about 150 people mainly skilled textile laborers who had immigrated from Britain. Provo lies in the Utah Valley at an elevation of 4,549 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.2 square miles, of which 41.7 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles, or 5.66%, is water. The Wasatch Range contains many peaks within Utah County along the east side of the Wasatch Front. One of these peaks, known as Y Mountain, towers over the city. There is a large hillside letter Y made of whitewashed concrete halfway up the steep mountain, built in the early part of the 20th century to commemorate Brigham Young University. Wild deer still roam the mountains; the geography allows for hiking, skiing and other outdoor activities. Provo has a humid continental climate bordering on a humid subtropical climate or hot-summer Mediterranean climate, with four distinct seasons.
Overall, annual rainfall at the location of Brigham Young University is around 19.75 inches or 500 millimetres. The wettest calendar year in Provo has been 1983 with 37.54 inches and the driest 2002 with 10.65 inches. Winters are cold with substantial snowfall averaging 57.2 inches or 1.45 metres and a record monthly total of 66.0 inches in January 1918, during which the record snow cover of 34 inches or 0.86 metres was record on the 17th. Seasonal snowfall has ranged from 127.5 inches in 1983–84 to a mere 10.1 inches in 2014–15. Cold weather may occur when cold air from over the Continental Divide invades the region: although only four mornings fall to or below 0 °F or −17.8 °C during an average winter and this temperature was not reached at all between 1999 and 2006, during the cold January 1917, seventeen mornings fell this cold. By contrast, in several recent winters like 1994–95, 1995–96, 19
Ogden is a city and the county seat of Weber County, United States 10 miles east of the Great Salt Lake and 40 miles north of Salt Lake City. The population was 84,316 in 2014, according to the US Census Bureau, making it Utah's 7th largest city; the city served as a major railway hub through much of its history, still handles a great deal of freight rail traffic which makes it a convenient location for manufacturing and commerce. Ogden is known for its many historic buildings, proximity to the Wasatch Mountains, as the location of Weber State University. Ogden is a principal city of the Ogden–Clearfield, Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Weber, Morgan and Box Elder counties; the 2010 Census placed the Metro population at 597,159. In 2010, Forbes rated the Ogden-Clearfield MSA as the 6th best place to raise a family. Ogden has had a sister city relationship to Hof since 1954. Named Fort Buenaventura, Ogden was the first permanent settlement by people of European descent in what is now Utah.
It was established by the trapper Miles Goodyear in 1846 about a mile west of where downtown Ogden sits today. In November 1847, Captain James Brown purchased all the land now comprising Weber County together with some livestock and Fort Buenaventura for $3,000; the land was conveyed to Captain Brown in a Mexican Land Grant, this area being at that time a part of Mexico. The settlement was called Brownsville, after Captain James Brown, but was named Ogden for a brigade leader of the Hudson's Bay Company, Peter Skene Ogden, who had trapped in the Weber Valley a generation earlier. There is some confusion. A Samuel Ogden traveled though the western United States on an exploration trip in 1818; the site of the original Fort Buenaventura is now a Weber County park. Ogden is the closest sizable city to the Golden Spike location at Promontory Summit, where the First Transcontinental Railroad was joined in 1869, it was known as a major passenger railroad junction owing to its location along major east–west and north–south routes, prompting the local chamber of commerce to adopt the motto, "You can't get anywhere without coming to Ogden."
Railroad passengers traveling west to San Francisco from the eastern United States passed through Ogden. However, the national passenger rail system, no longer serves Ogden. Passengers who want to travel to and from Ogden by rail must travel via FrontRunner commuter rail to Salt Lake City and Provo. In 1972, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints completed construction of and dedicated the Ogden Utah Temple in Ogden; the temple was built to serve the area's large LDS population. In 2010, the LDS Church announced they would renovate the adjacent Tabernacle; the work which began in 2011 includes an update to the exterior, the removal of the Tabernacle's steeple to make the Temple's steeple a main focus and a new underground parking garage and gardens. The Temple was rededicated in 2014; because Ogden has been Utah's second largest city, it is home to a large number of historic buildings. However, by the 1980s, several Salt Lake City suburbs and Provo had surpassed Ogden in population; the Defense Depot Ogden Utah operated in Ogden from 1941 to 1997.
Some of its 1,128 acres have been converted into a commercial and industrial park called the Business Depot Ogden. Ogden is located at 41°13′11″N 111°58′16″W, at the foot of the Wasatch Mountains. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of all land. Elevations in the city range from about 4,300 to 5,200 feet above sea level; the Ogden and Weber Rivers, which originate in the mountains to the east, flow through the city and meet at a confluence just west of the city limits. Pineview Dam is in the Ogden River Canyon 7 miles east of Ogden; the reservoir behind the dam provides over 110,000 acre feet of water storage and water recreation for the area. Prominent mountain peaks near Ogden include Mount Ogden to the east and Ben Lomond to the north. Ogden experiences a dry summer continental climate. Summers are hot and dry, with highs reaching 95 °F, with a few days per year reaching 100 °F. Rain is provided in the form of infrequent thunderstorms during summer between mid-July and mid-September during the height of monsoon season.
The Pacific storm season lasts from about October through May, with precipitation reaching its peak in spring. Snow first occurs in late October or early November, with the last occurring sometime in April. Winters are snowy, with highs averaging 37 °F in January. Snowfall averages about 40 inches, with 21.98 inches of precipitation annually. Extremes range from −16 °F, set on January 26, 1949, to 106 °F, set on July 14, 2002; as of the census of 2000, there were 77,226 people, 27,384 households, 18,402 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,899.2 people per square mile. There were 29,763 housing units at an average density of 1,117.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 79.01% White, 2.31% African American, 1.20% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 12.95% from other races, 2.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.64% of the population. There were 27,384 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present
Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming and Idaho. It was established by the U. S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone was the first national park in the U. S. and is widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features Old Faithful geyser, one of its most popular features, it has many types of ecosystems. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion. Native Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early-to-mid-19th century, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. Management and control of the park fell under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, the first being Columbus Delano. However, the U. S. Army was subsequently commissioned to oversee management of Yellowstone for a 30-year period between 1886 and 1916. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, created the previous year.
Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, researchers have examined more than a thousand archaeological sites. Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles, comprising lakes, canyons and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent; the caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geysers and hydrothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone; the park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. In 1978, Yellowstone was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hundreds of species of mammals, birds and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened.
The vast forests and grasslands include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the contiguous United States. Grizzly bears and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in this park; the Yellowstone Park bison herd is the largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, boating and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles; the park contains the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. Near the end of the 18th century, French trappers named the river Roche Jaune, a translation of the Hidatsa name Mi tsi a-da-zi. American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone". Although it is believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is unclear.
The human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago when Native Americans began to hunt and fish in the region. During the construction of the post office in Gardiner, Montana, in the 1950s, an obsidian projectile point of Clovis origin was found that dated from 11,000 years ago; these Paleo-Indians, of the Clovis culture, used the significant amounts of obsidian found in the park to make cutting tools and weapons. Arrowheads made of Yellowstone obsidian have been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley, indicating that a regular obsidian trade existed between local tribes and tribes farther east. By the time white explorers first entered the region during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805, they encountered the Nez Perce and Shoshone tribes. While passing through present day Montana, the expedition members heard of the Yellowstone region to the south, but they did not investigate it. In 1806, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, left to join a group of fur trappers.
After splitting up with the other trappers in 1807, Colter passed through a portion of what became the park, during the winter of 1807–1808. He observed at least one geothermal area near Tower Fall. After surviving wounds he suffered in a battle with members of the Crow and Blackfoot tribes in 1809, Colter described a place of "fire and brimstone" that most people dismissed as delirium. Over the next 40 years, numerous reports from mountain men and trappers told of boiling mud, steaming rivers, petrified trees, yet most of these reports were believed at the time to be myth. After an 1856 exploration, mountain man Jim Bridger reported observing boiling springs, spouting water, a mountain of glass and yellow rock; these reports were ignored because Bridger was a known "spinner of yarns". In 1859, a U. S. Army Surveyor named Captain William F. Raynolds embarked on a two-year survey of the northern Rockies. After wintering in Wyoming, in May 1860, Raynolds and his party – which included naturalist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden and guide Jim B
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church, considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah in the United States, has established congregations and built temples worldwide. According to the church, it has 67,000 full-time volunteer missionaries. In 2012, the National Council of Churches ranked the church as the fourth-largest Christian denomination in the United States, with over 6.5 million members reported by the church, as of January 2018. It is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith during the period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening. Adherents referred to as "Latter-day Saints" or, less formally, "Mormons", view faith in Jesus Christ and his atonement as fundamental principles of their religion. LDS theology includes the Christian doctrine of salvation only through Jesus Christ, though LDS doctrines regarding the nature of God and the potential of mankind differ from mainstream Christianity.
The church has an open canon which includes four scriptural texts: the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, the Pearl of Great Price. Other than the Bible, the majority of the LDS canon constitutes revelation received by Joseph Smith and recorded by his scribes which includes commentary and exegesis about the Bible, texts described as lost parts of the Bible, other works believed to be written by ancient prophets; because of some of the doctrinal differences, Catholic and several Protestant churches consider the Church to be distinct and separate from mainstream Christianity. Under the doctrine of continuing revelation, Latter-day Saints believe that the church president is a modern-day "prophet and revelator" and that Jesus Christ, under the direction of God the Father, leads the church by revealing his will to its president. Individual members of the church believe that they can receive personal revelation from God in conducting their lives; the president heads a hierarchical structure with various levels reaching down to local congregations.
Bishops, drawn from the laity, lead local congregations. Male members, beginning in January of the year they reach age 12, may be ordained to the priesthood, provided they are living the standards of the church. Women are not ordained to the priesthood but do occupy leadership roles in some church auxiliary organizations. Both men and women may serve as missionaries and the church maintains a large missionary program that proselytizes and conducts humanitarian services worldwide. Faithful members adhere to church laws of sexual purity, health and Sabbath observance, contribute ten percent of their income to the church in tithing; the church teaches about sacred ordinances through which adherents make covenants with God, including baptism, the sacrament, priesthood ordination and celestial marriage —all of which are of great significance to church members. The history of the LDS Church is divided into three broad time periods: the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, in common with all Latter Day Saint movement churches.
The LDS Church called the Church of Christ, was formally organized by Joseph Smith on April 6, 1830, in western New York. Smith changed the name to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after he stated he had received a revelation to do so. Initial converts were drawn to the church in part because of the newly published Book of Mormon, a self-described chronicle of indigenous American prophets that Smith said he had translated from golden plates. Smith intended to establish the New Jerusalem in North America, called Zion. In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland and began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, where he planned to move the church headquarters. However, in 1833, Missouri settlers brutally expelled the Latter Day Saints from Jackson County, the church was unable via a paramilitary expedition to recover the land; the church flourished in Kirtland as Smith published new revelations and the church built the Kirtland Temple, culminating in a dedication of the building similar to the day of Pentecost.
The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after a financial scandal rocked the church and caused widespread defections. Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, but tensions soon escalated into violent conflicts with the old Missouri settlers. Believing the Saints to be in insurrection, the Missouri governor ordered that the Saints be "exterminated or driven from the State." In 1839, the Saints converted a swampland on the banks of the Mississippi River into Nauvoo, which became the church's new headquarters. Nauvoo grew as missionaries sent to Europe and elsewhere gained new converts who flooded into Nauvoo. Meanwhile, Smith introduced polygamy to his closest associates, he established ceremonies, which he stated the Lord had revealed to him, to allow righteous people to become gods in the afterlife, a secular institution to govern the Millennial kingdom. He introduced the church to a full accounting of his First Vision, in which two heavenly "personages" (God the Father and his
Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park is an American national park in northwestern Wyoming. At 310,000 acres, the park includes the major peaks of the 40-mile-long Teton Range as well as most of the northern sections of the valley known as Jackson Hole. Grand Teton National Park is only 10 miles south of Yellowstone National Park, to which it is connected by the National Park Service-managed John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Along with surrounding national forests, these three protected areas constitute the 18,000,000-acre Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, one of the world's largest intact mid-latitude temperate ecosystems. Human history of the Grand Teton region dates back at least 11,000 years, when the first nomadic hunter-gatherer Paleo-Indians began migrating into the region during warmer months pursuing food and supplies. In the early 19th century, the first white explorers encountered the eastern Shoshone natives. Between 1810 and 1840, the region attracted fur trading companies that vied for control of the lucrative beaver pelt trade.
U. S. Government expeditions to the region commenced in the mid-19th century as an offshoot of exploration in Yellowstone, with the first permanent white settlers in Jackson Hole arriving in the 1880s. Efforts to preserve the region as a national park began in the late 19th century, in 1929 Grand Teton National Park was established, protecting the Teton Range's major peaks; the valley of Jackson Hole remained in private ownership until the 1930s, when conservationists led by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. began purchasing land in Jackson Hole to be added to the existing national park. Against public opinion and with repeated Congressional efforts to repeal the measures, much of Jackson Hole was set aside for protection as Jackson Hole National Monument in 1943; the monument was abolished in 1950 and most of the monument land was added to Grand Teton National Park. Grand Teton National Park is named for the tallest mountain in the Teton Range; the naming of the mountains is attributed to early 19th-century French-speaking trappers—les trois tétons was anglicized and shortened to Tetons.
At 13,775 feet, Grand Teton abruptly rises more than 7,000 feet above Jackson Hole 850 feet higher than Mount Owen, the second-highest summit in the range. The park has numerous lakes, including 15-mile-long Jackson Lake as well as streams of varying length and the upper main stem of the Snake River. Though in a state of recession, a dozen small glaciers persist at the higher elevations near the highest peaks in the range; some of the rocks in the park are the oldest found in any American national park and have been dated at nearly 2.7 billion years. Grand Teton National Park is an pristine ecosystem and the same species of flora and fauna that have existed since prehistoric times can still be found there. More than 1,000 species of vascular plants, dozens of species of mammals, 300 species of birds, more than a dozen fish species and a few species of reptiles and amphibians inhabit the park. Due to various changes in the ecosystem, some of them human-induced, efforts have been made to provide enhanced protection to some species of native fish and the threatened whitebark pine.
Grand Teton National Park is a popular destination for mountaineering, hiking and other forms of recreation. There are more than 1,000 drive-in campsites and over 200 miles of hiking trails that provide access to backcountry camping areas. Noted for world-renowned trout fishing, the park is one of the few places to catch Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout. Grand Teton has several National Park Service-run visitor centers, operated concessions for motels, gas stations and marinas. Paleo-Indian presence in what is now Grand Teton National Park dates back more than 11,000 years. Jackson Hole valley climate at that time was colder and more alpine than the semi-arid climate found today, the first humans were migratory hunter-gatherers spending summer months in Jackson Hole and wintering in the valleys west of the Teton Range. Along the shores of Jackson Lake, fire pits and what are thought to have been fishing weights have been discovered. One of the tools found is of a type associated with the Clovis culture, tools from this cultural period date back at least 11,500 years.
Some of the tools are made of obsidian which chemical analysis indicates came from sources near present-day Teton Pass, south of Grand Teton National Park. Though obsidian was available north of Jackson Hole all the obsidian spear points found are from a source to the south, indicating that the main seasonal migratory route for the Paleo-Indian was from this direction. Elk, which winter on the National Elk Refuge at the southern end of Jackson Hole and northwest into higher altitudes during spring and summer, follow a similar migratory pattern to this day. From 11,000 to about 500 years ago, there is little evidence of change in the migratory patterns amongst the Native American groups in the region and no evidence that indicates any permanent human settlement; when white American explorers first entered the region in the first decade of the 19th century, they encountered the eastern tribes of the Shoshone people. Most of the Shoshone that lived in the mountain vastness of the greater Yellowstone region continued to be pedestrian while other groups of Shoshone that resided in lower elevations had limited use of horses.
The mountain-dwelling Shoshone were known as "Sheep-eaters" or "Tukudika" as they referred to themselves, since a staple of their diet was the Bighorn Sheep. The Shoshones continued to follow the same migratory pattern as their predecessors and have been documente