The Scoville scale is a measurement of the pungency of chili peppers and other spicy foods, as recorded in Scoville Heat Units based on the concentration of capsaicinoids, among which capsaicin is the predominant component. The scale is named after its creator, American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville, whose 1912 method is known as the Scoville organoleptic test; the Scoville organoleptic test is the most practical method for estimating SHU and is a subjective assessment derived from the capsaicinoid sensitivity by people experienced with eating hot chilis. An alternative method, using high-performance liquid chromatography can be used to analytically quantify the capsaicinoid content as an indicator of pungency; as of 2011, the subjective organoleptic test has been superseded by analytical methods such as chromatography. In the Scoville organoleptic test, an exact weight of dried pepper is dissolved in alcohol to extract the heat components diluted in a solution of sugar water. Decreasing concentrations of the extracted capsaicinoids are given to a panel of five trained tasters, until a majority can no longer detect the heat in a dilution.
The heat level is based on this dilution, rated in multiples of 100 SHU. Another source using subjective assessment stated: "Conventional methods used in determining the level of pungency or capsaicin concentration are using a panel of tasters.... Pepper pungency is measured in Scoville Heat Units; this measurement is the highest dilution of a chili pepper extract at which heat can be detected by a taste panel."A weakness of the Scoville organoleptic test is its imprecision due to human subjectivity, depending on the taster's palate and number of mouth heat receptors, which vary among people. Another weakness is sensory fatigue. Results vary between laboratories. Since the 1980s, spice heat has been assessed quantitatively by high-performance liquid chromatography, which measures the concentration of heat-producing capsaicinoids with capsaicin content as the main measure; as stated in one review: "the most reliable and efficient method to identify and quantify capsaicinoids is HPLC. HPLC results permit the measurement of a substance’s capsaicin capacity to produce perceived heat.
This method gives results in American Spice Trade Association "pungency units", which are defined as one part capsaicin per million parts dried pepper mass. For parts per million measurements, SHU units are calculated from "parts per million of heat", found with the following calculation: ppmH = peak area + 0.82 ⋅ peak area peak area }}}}} Peak areas are calculated from HPLC traces of dry samples of the substance to be tested in 1 ml of acetonitrile. The standard used to calibrate the calculation is 1 gram of capsaicin. Scoville heat units are found by multiplying the ppmH value by a factor of 15 or 16. An orally administered capsule of capsaicinoids claiming 100,000 Scoville units will correspond to around 6.6 mg of capsaicinoids. The levels of pungency, in terms of Scoville units are: Since Scoville ratings are defined per unit of dry mass, comparison of ratings between products having different water content can be misleading. For example, typical fresh chili peppers have a water content around 90%, whereas Tabasco sauce has a water content of 95%.
For law-enforcement-grade pepper spray, values from 500,000 up to 5 million SHU have been reported, but the actual strength of the spray depends on the dilution. Numerical results for any specimen vary depending on its cultivation conditions and the uncertainty of the laboratory methods used to assess the capsaicinoid content. Pungency values for any pepper are variable, owing to expected variation within a species by a factor of 10 or more, depending on seed lineage and humidity, soil composition supplying nutrients; the inaccuracies described in the measurement methods contribute to the imprecision of these values. Capsicum chili peppers are used to add pungency in cuisines worldwide; the range of pepper heat reflected by a Scoville score is from 100 or less to over 3 million. The class of compounds causing pungency in plants like chili peppers is called capsaicinoids, which display a linear correlation between concentration and Scoville scale, may vary in content during ripening. Capsaicin is the major capsaicinoid in chili peppers
Sylvan Joseph Davis, Jr. is an American retired politician and judge in the state of Florida. Davis was born in Leesburg, Georgia in 1923. After moving to Florida in 1930, he was educated in Sanford and attended Stetson University, where he attained his legal degree in 1954 in the law school of that same institution, he is a member of the Phi Alpha Delta fraternal organization. Admitted to the Florida bar in 1957, he is a member of the Seminole County and American Bar Associations, he was elected to the Florida House of Representatives in 1962, serving a two terms, representing Seminole County from 1962 to 1966. Davis has served stints as City Attorney of Altamonte Springs, Longwood, Oviedo, Florida, he is senior judge on the Florida Circuit Court's Eighteenth Judicial Circuit, being appointed there in 1979 by Governor Bob Graham in 1979. He is a certified mediator and arbitrator, he has three daughters. An active community man, Davis is a past president of the Seminole County Bar Association and Seminole County Chamber of Commerce, among many posts held.
His religion is Baptist
Emmanuil Gedeonovich Vitorgan is a Soviet, Russian film and theater actor, Honored Artist of the RSFSR. People's Artist of Russia, he acted in over a hundred films. First wife — actress Tamara Rumyantseva, the marriage broke up in 1970. Daughter Ksenia Rumyantseva. Grandchildren — Alexander and Nikita. Great-grandchildren - Mark and Alisa. Second wife — actress Alla Balter. Son Maxim — film and theater actor, married to Ksenia Sobchak. Grandchildren — Polina and Platon. Third wife — Irina Mlodik. Daughter Ethel. 1960 — A Man with the Future as miner 1971 — King Lear as servant / Edgar 1980 — Star Inspector as Douglas Kober 1982 — Charodei as Viktor Kovrov 1983 — Anxious Sunday as Igor Chagin 1985 — Battle of Moscow as Yefim Fomin 1990 — Frenzied Bus as Mr. Anouk, a member of the Israeli Foreign Ministry 1991 — Anna Karamazoff as Prokudin-Gorsky, director 1992 — Weather Is Good on Deribasovskaya, It Rains Again on Brighton Beach as Jack 2003 / 2004 — Poor Nastya as Prince Pyotr Dolgoruky 2004 — Children of the Arbat as Sergey Spigelglas 2004 — Neznayka and Barrabass as Barrabass 2008 — Radio Day as Emmanuil Gedeonovich, owner of radio station 2010 — Sea Rex 2011 — Svaty as Alexander Berkovich 2014 — Black Rose as Colonel Gromov 2014 — Yolki 1914 as Alexey Trofimovich 2016 — Friday as Sergei Dubravin Emmanuil Vitorgan on IMDb
The Six Days of Amsterdam is a six-day track cycling race held at the Amsterdam Velodrome in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The recordholder for the Six Days of Amsterdam is the Dutch cyclist Danny Stam with four victories; the most recent edition took place in 2016 and was won by Belgians Kenny De Ketele and Moreno De Pauw, their third Six Day victory as a duo. The first edition was between 18 and 24 November 1932, in the old building of the Amsterdam RAI on the Ferdinand Bolstraat on a 166.6 metre track. This first edition was won by Piet van Kempen; the year afterwards the Dutch couple Jan Pijnenburg/Cor Wals beat the French couple Marcel Guimbretiere/Paul Broccado and the year during the third edition it was the other way around and the French couple won. After Adolphe Charlier and Frans Slaats won the fourth edition in 1936 there were no more Six Days held in Amsterdam for thirty years. Due to the large unemployment and also due to the second world war, the National Cycling Union prohibited to organise Six Day races.
There were many proposals to organise a Six Day race after the second world war but the fifth edition was years in 1966, in the new RAI building located on the Europaplein. After four editions in this building there were again about thirty years without the event organised in Amsterdam. Since 2001 the race takes place in the new build Amsterdam Velodrome located in Sportpark Sloten, with a 200-metre track and a capacity for 2000 spectators. World Champion Ellen van Dijk fired the starting shot for the 21st edition in October 2013. Source Six Days of Ghent Six Days of Grenoble Six Days of New York Official website Official website
The Johnston Building known as the Midtown Plaza, is a 17-story skyscraper in Charlotte, North Carolina with an approximate height of 81m. The building's official height has never been released. 15 stories when completed in 1924, it was the tallest building in Charlotte until 1926. Located at 212 South Tryon Street, the lot was home to the Trust Building, which burned in 1922. Anchor Mills Company bought the site for $100 in 1923 from the Textile Office Building Company. William Lee Stoddart, a New York City architect known for large hotels, had designed the Hotel Charlotte, under construction and had Charles Worth Johnston as an investor; the builder was Hunkin-Conkey Construction, the cost was reported to be $600,000. The Neo-classical steel frame building had limestone blocks for the facade, buff-colored brick, but these were only for appearance and did not support the building. Rental agent Thomas Griffith said the Johnston Building had tenants booked before completion. Offices housed cotton brokers, insurance agents and realty companies.
Among those located in the building when it opened: the E. C. Griffith Company, architect C. C. Hook, Cameron Morrison. Southern Bell took over the entire fifteenth floor by 1926 and had all of three floors and parts of others by 1947. A 1927 Chamber of Commerce report said the Johnston Building had 125,000 square feet of "first class" office space. Only the First National Bank Building, which superseded the Johnston Building as Charlotte's tallest in 1926, had more space with 160,000 square feet. In 1929 two more floors were added; the current building has a total of 172,382 square feet. David R. Johnston, son of Charles Worth Johnston, took over the family business interests. Anchor Mills decided to sell the property in 1975 due to the younger Johnston's health problems. Johnston Building Inc. assumed a $2.1 million mortgage with New York Life Insurance Company, which took over the building in 1981 when payments could not be made. That same year, New York Life sold the Johnston Building to Howard and Barnard of California, after which renovations began.
The appraised value of the building and lot in 1991 was nearly $17.2 million, $2 million of that for the lot. The Dilweg Companies of Durham, North Carolina announced February 2, 2015 that the company bought the Johnston Building. County records showed the purchase price was $25.3 million
Manav Bharti University is a Private University located in the village Laddo near Kumarhatti in Solan district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It was established under the Himachal Pradesh State Legislature Act and notified under Section 2 of the University Grants Commission Act 1956. MBU facilitates sports and leisure activities through a variety of clubs. Campus facilities. Include canteens and cafeteria, a gymnasium, the Central Library, Departmental Libraries; the university provides separate accommodation for women. Manav Bharti University stands firm in terms of offering various features to its students; the university runs various courses and events to make learning easier and accessible to the aspiring students. Candidates seeking admission must ensure that they fulfill the minimum eligibility criteria defined by the university