Scree is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces. Landforms associated with these materials are called talus deposits. Talus deposits have a concave upwards form, while the maximum inclination corresponds to the angle of repose of the mean debris size; the term scree comes from the Old Norse term for landslide, skriða, while the term talus is a French word meaning a slope or embankment. Formation of scree or talus deposits is the result of physical and chemical weathering and erosion acting on a rock face; the predominant processes that degrade a rock slope depend on the regional climate. Examples are: Biotic processes Chemical weathering by mineral hydration and salt deposition Physical weathering by ice Thermal stresses Topographic stressesScree formation is attributed to the formation of ice within mountain rock slopes. During the day, water can flow into discontinuities in the rock wall.

If the temperature drops enough, for example in the evening, this water may freeze. Since water expands by 9% when it freezes, it can generate large forces that either create new cracks or wedge blocks into an unstable position. Special boundary conditions may be required for this to happen. Freeze-thaw scree production is thought to be most common during the spring and fall, when the daily temperatures fluctuate around the freezing point of water, snow melt produces ample free water; the efficiency of freeze/thaw processes in scree production is debated by scientists. Many researchers believe that ice formation in large open crack systems cannot generate high pressures, instead suggest that the water and ice flow out of the cracks as pressure builds. Many argue that frost heaving, like that known to act in soil in permafrost areas, may play an important role in cliff degradation in cold places. Scree can conceal a glacier. For example, Lech dl Dragon, in the Sella group of the Dolomites, derives from the melting waters of a glacier, hidden under a thick layer of scree.

The melting process of the underlying glacier is slowed by the protective layer of scree. A rock slope may be covered by its own scree, so that production of new material ceases; the slope is said to be "mantled" with debris. Fellfield Lava stringer Mass wasting Stratified slope deposit Weathering – Breaking down of rocks and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere and waters Scree plot


WASP-1b is an extrasolar planet orbiting the star WASP-1 located 1,300 light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. The planet's mass and radius indicate that it is a gas giant with a similar bulk composition to Jupiter. Unlike Jupiter, but similar to many other planets detected around other stars, WASP-1b is located close to its star, belongs to the class of planets known as hot Jupiters. WASP-1 b was discovered via the transit method by SuperWASP, for which the star and planet are named. Follow-up radial velocity measurements confirmed the presence of an unseen companion, allowed for the mass of WASP-1 b to be determined. HD 209458 b WASP-2b Charbonneau, David. "Precise Radius Estimates for the Exoplanets WASP-1b and WASP-2b". The Astrophysical Journal. 658: 1322–1327. ArXiv:astro-ph/0610589. Bibcode:2007ApJ...658.1322C. doi:10.1086/512008. Shporer, A.. "Photometric follow-up of the transiting planet around WASP-1". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 376: 1296–1300. ArXiv:astro-ph/0610556.

Bibcode:2007MNRAS.376.1296S. Doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2007.11537.x. Media related to WASP-1b at Wikimedia Commons "Planet WASP-1 b"; the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2018-11-07. BBC News article WASP Planets

Kingdom of Madness (Edguy album)

Kingdom of Madness is the second album by the German power metal band Edguy, released in 1997. It is referred to as their "official" debut album since it was the first to be professionally recorded and to receive record company distribution. All lyrics by Tobias Sammet. Music as indicated. "Paradise" – 6:24 "Wings of a Dream" – 5:24 "Heart of Twilight" – 5:32 "Dark Symphony" – 1:05 "Deadmaker" – 5:15 "Angel Rebellion" – 6:44 "When a Hero Cries" – 3:59 "Steel Church" – 6:29 "The Kingdom" – 18:23 Band membersTobias Sammet – vocals, piano, keyboards Jens Ludwigguitar Dirk Sauer – guitar Dominik Storch – drumsAdditional musiciansChris Boltendahl - guest vocals on track 9ProductionErik Grösch - producer, engineer Ralph Hubert - engineer