Rugby league positions
A rugby league team consists of thirteen players on the field, with four substitutes on the bench. Each of the thirteen players is assigned a position with a standardised number, which reflects their role in attack and defence, although players can take up any position at any time. Players are divided into two general types and backs. Forwards are chosen for their size and strength, they are expected to run with the ball, to attack, to make tackles. Forwards are required to improve the team's field position thus creating space and time for the backs. Backs are smaller and faster, though a big, fast player can be of advantage in the backs, their roles require speed and ball-playing skills, rather than just strength, to take advantage of the field position gained by the forwards. Forwards tend to operate in the centre of the field, while backs operate nearer to the touch-lines, where more space can be found; the diagram, shows the typical positions of each player during a scrum. The laws of the game recognise standardised numbering of positions.
The starting side wear the numbers corresponding to their positions, only changing in the case of substitutions and position shifts during the game. In some competitions, such as Super League, players receive a squad number to use all season, no matter what positions they play in; the positions and the numbers are defined by the game's laws as: Backs1 Full Back 2 Right Wing Threequarter 3 Right Centre Threequarter 4 Left Centre Threequarter 5 Left Wing Threequarter 6 Stand-off Half or Five-eighth 7 Scrum Half or HalfbackForwards8 Prop 9 Hooker 10 Front Row Forward 11 Second Row Forward 12 Second Row Forward 13 Lock ForwardIn practice, the term'front row forward' is rarely used, a team has two props. The scrum half is known as the half back in Australasia, the lock forward is known as loose forward in England. There are seven backs, numbered 1 to 7. For these positions, the emphasis is on ball-handling skills; the "back-line" consists of smaller, more agile players. Numbered 1, the fullback's primary role is the last line of defence, standing behind the main line of defenders.
Defensively, fullbacks must be able to chase and tackle any player who breaks the first line of defence, must be able to catch and return kicks made by the attacking side. Their role in attack is as a support player, they are used to come into the line to create an overlap in attack. Fullbacks that feature in their respective nations' rugby league halls of fame are France's Puig Aubert, Australia's Clive Churchill and Billy Slater, Charles Fraser, Graeme Langlands and Graham Eadie, Great Britain/Wales' Jim Sullivan and New Zealand's Des White. There are four threequarters: two wingers and two centres - right wing, right centre, left centre and left wing; these players work in pairs, with one winger and one centre occupying each side of the field. Known as wingers. There are two wings in a rugby league team, numbered 2 and 5, they are positioned closest to the touch-line on each side of the field. They are among the fastest players in a team, with the speed to exploit space, created for them and finish an attacking move.
In defence their primary role is to mark their opposing wingers, they are usually required to catch and return kicks made by an attacking team dropping behind the defensive line to help the fullback. Wingers that feature in their nations' rugby league halls of fame are Great Britain's Billy Batten, Billy Boston and Clive Sullivan, Australia's Brian Bevan, John Ferguson, Ken Irvine, Harold Horder and Brian Carlson, South African Tom van Vollenhoven and France's Raymond Contrastin There are two centres and left, numbered 3 and 4 respectively, they are positioned just inside the wingers and are the second-closest players to the touch-line on each side of the field. In attack their primary role is to provide an attacking threat out wide and as such they need to be some of the fastest players on the pitch providing the pass for their winger to finish off a move. In defence, they are expected to mark their opposite centre. Centres that feature in their countries' halls of fame are France's Max Rousié, England's Eric Ashton, Harold Wagstaff and Neil Fox, Wales' Gus Risman and Australia's Reg Gasnier, H "Dally" Messenger, Dave Brown, Jim Craig, Bob Fulton and Mal Meninga.
There are two halves. Positioned more centrally in attack, beside or behind the forwards, they direct the ball and are the team's main play-makers, as such are required to be the most skillful and intelligent players on the team; these players usually perform most tactical kicking for their team. Numbered 6, the stand off or five-eighth is a strong passer and runner, while being agile; this player is referred to as "second receiver", as in attacking situations they are the second player to receive the ball and are able to initiate an attacking move. Star players of this position include Wally Lewis, Darren Lockyer, Bob Fulton, Brad Fittler, Laurie Daley and Terry Lamb Numbered 7, the scrum-half or half back is involved in directing the team's play; the position is sometimes referred to as "first receiver", as half backs are the first to receive the ball from the dummy-half after a play-the-ball. This makes them important decision-makers in attack. A rugby league forward pack consists of six players who tend to be bigger and stronger than backs, rely more on their strength and size to fulfill their roles than play-making skills.
The forwards traditionally formed and contested scrums, however in the modern game
Flanker (rugby union)
Flanker is a position in the sport of rugby union. Each team of 15 players includes two flankers, who play in the forwards, are classified as either blindside or openside flankers, numbers 6 and 7 respectively; the name comes from their position in a scrum. They compete for the ball – most in rucks and mauls. Flankers assist in pushing in a scrum, but are expected to detach from the scrum as soon as the ball is out to get to the play before the opposition's forwards. Flankers participate in line-outs, either being lifted to contest or win possession, or to lift other players. Flankers are the key participants in the tackling process; the flankers the openside, are the fastest forwards on the team but still relied upon for tackling. Flankers can be known by several different names, they were called wing-forwards, although this name had a more specific meaning in New Zealand when they used a now-archaic scrum formation. This term is used any more, but the terms breakaway and flank forward are sometimes used.
Collectively, the flankers and the number eight can be known as the back-row forwards – referring to their scrum positions – or as loose forwards because they are loosely bound to the scrum. Flankers are the position where the player should have all-round attributes: speed, fitness and handling skills. Flankers are always involved in the game, as they are the players most involved in winning the ball in open play the openside flanker. Blindside flankers tend to be not as fast as their partners on the openside. In open play, flankers will stand behind the backs, supporting them. If any ball is dropped by the backs, the flankers' job is to clear up messy ball and start a new phase of play; because they are always close to the ball, they are first to the breakdown. Flankers do less pushing in the scrum than the tight five, but need to be fast as their task is to break and cover the opposing half-backs if the opponents win the scrum. At one time, flankers were allowed to break away from the scrum with the ball but this is no longer allowed and they must remain bound to the scrum until the ball is out.
Flankers have to defend at the back of the scrum if the opposition wins the ball and the opposing number 8 decides to pick and go. New Zealand openside flanker Richie McCaw, nominated for World Rugby Player of the Year a record eight times from 2002–2012, described three key roles for the flanker: "My main role as a flanker is, defensively, to tie in with the back line to ensure that the defence works well. On attack I think. You attack the back line and I'm the first person there to make sure we secure that ball. Thirdly I put pressure on break downs and make sure I disturb their ball and try to turn their ball over." The two flankers do not bind to the scrum in a fixed position. Instead, the openside flanker attaches to the scrum on whichever side is further from the nearer touchline, while the blind-side flanker attaches himself/herself to the scrum on the side closer to the touchline. Since most of the back play is on the open side, where there is more space, it is the openside flanker's job to be the first to any breakdown of play and to get his/her hands on any loose ball.
At a scrum where the ball has been won by the opposition, the openside flanker has the best view of when the ball is out and is able to break away and close down the opposing ball-carrier, reducing the time available for a pass or kick. Openside flankers are smaller and quicker than their blindside counterparts; the blindside flanker has the job of stopping any move by the opponents on the blind side from a scrum. Blindside flankers are responsible for cover defence from set pieces and may play a more physical role at the line-out, where they may well be used as a jumper, they can be used for breaking their opposition line in open play using their speed and strength to break tackles. Most countries prefer a quicker openside flanker with the ability to get off the scrum so that he can scavenge for the ball. In South Africa, however, it is preferred for the blindside flanker to be quicker as it is their duty to carry the ball, meaning they prefer the person running with the ball being quicker rather than the person trying steal it.
Flankers are not always assigned specific roles as blindsides. For example, Scotland flankers Finlay Calder and John Jeffrey played left and right, rather than open and blind. French teams tend not to make a distinction between the two roles, their flankers usually play left and right rather than open and blind: thus, Serge Betsen wore the number 6 but would pack down on either the open or blind sides of the scrum, will harass the opposition fly-half in the manner of an openside. Rugby union positions Scrum Playing Zinzan. "Position guide: blind-side flanker". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 18 December 2007. Brooke, Zinzan. "Position guide: open-side flanker". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 18 December 2007
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
Rugby refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union. Legend claims that rugby football was started about 1845 in Rugby School, Warwickshire, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby split into two sports in 1895 when twenty-one clubs split from the original Rugby Football Union, to form the Northern Union in the George Hotel, Northern England over the issue of payment to players, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay its players, rugby union turned professional in 1995. Both sports are run by their respective world governing bodies World Rugby and the Rugby League International Federation. Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. Although rugby league used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two forms rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only.
Soon the rules of rugby league were modified. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league and most other forms of football as an professional sport; the Olympic form of rugby is known as Rugby 7s. In this form of the game, each team has 7 players on the field at one time playing 7 minute halves; the rules and pitch size are the same as rugby union. The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet; the Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" or "φαινίνδα", mentioned by a Greek playwright and referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria. These games appear to have resembled rugby football; the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man, killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games knew the air-filled ball, the follis. Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union.
In 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union called the Northern Union, was formed. The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs and officials involved in the new organization. After the schism, the separate clubs were named "rugby league" and "rugby union". Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, is dominated by the first tier unions: New Zealand, Wales, South Africa, Argentina, Scotland and France. Second and third tier unions include Belgium, Canada, Fiji, Germany, Hong Kong, Kenya, the Netherlands, Romania, Samoa, Tonga, the United States and Uruguay. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Ireland, it is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and Madagascar, is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, into the programme from Rio de Janeiro in 2016 onwards.
There was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football. During the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart, introduced by Walter Camp in the United States and John Thrift Meldrum Burnside in Canada. Among unique features of the North American game are the separation of play into downs instead of releasing the ball upon tackling, the requirement that the team with the ball set into a set formation for at least one second before resuming play after a tackle, the allowance for one forward pass from behind the site of the last tackle on each down, the evolution of hard plastic equipment, a smaller and pointier ball, favorable to being passed but makes drop kicks impractical, a smaller and narrower field measured in customary units instead of metric, a distinctive field with lines marked in five-yard intervals.
Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a global level by the Rugby League International Federation. In addition to amateur and semi-professional competitions in the United States, Lebanon, Serbia and Australasia, there are two major professional competitions—the Australasian National Rugby League and the Super League. International Rugby League is dominated by Australia and New Zealand. In Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe play in the Pacific Cup and European Cup respectively. Distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed so that players can gain ground only
Rugby league gameplay
Like most forms of modern football, rugby league football is played outdoors on a rectangular grass field with goals at each end that are to be attacked and defended by two opposing teams. The rules of rugby league have changed over the decades since rugby football split into the league and union codes; this article details the modern form of the game and how it is played today, however rules do vary between specific competitions. A game of rugby league consists of two forty-minute halves, played by two teams on a rectangular grass field of 120 metres in length and 58–68 metres in width depending on the individual ground. In the middle of the field is the 50-metre "halfway" line; each side of the field, on either side of the 50-metre line, is identical. 10 metres from the 50-metre line is the 40-metre line, followed by the 30, 20, 10-metre and goal or'try' lines. This makes up 100 metres of field, used for general play. At the middle of each goal line is a set of goal posts in the shape of the letter'H', used for point scoring from kicks.
Six to twelve metres beyond each goal-line is the dead ball line. The area between these two lines is called the in-goal area, varies from field to field; the dead ball lines and the touch-lines make up the boundary of the field of play. If the ball touches the ground on or beyond any of these lines, the ball is said to be dead and play must be restarted; this is done by one of two ways - if the ball goes dead play restarts at the 20 metre line. If it goes into touch, a scrum is played. Players of rugby league all need to be physically fit and tough because of the game's fast pace and the expansive size of the playing-field as well as the inherently rough physical contact involved. Depending on their exact role or position, a player's size, strength and/or speed can provide different advantages. Effective teamwork is extremely important as all players must work in concert with each other if they are to be successful. After a coin toss with the two captains and referee, the winner elects to either kick off or receive the kick off and chooses which end of the field to attack for the first half.
Play commences once the ball has been kicked off from the ground in the centre of the field by one team to the other. The longer and higher the kick, the more advantageous, as this forces the team receiving the ball to return it from deeper within their own territory; however a kick, too long or misdirected and goes out of the field of play without first bouncing in it results in a penalty being awarded to the non-kicking team from the halfway line. Conversely though if the kickoff exits the field of play after a bounce or more, the kicking team receives possession at the point of entry. A short kick off may be employed to regain possession, but it must travel at least beyond the 10 metre line; each team is responsible for defending their end of the field, they take turns throughout a game at defending and attacking. At half-time, the teams have a 10-minute break swap ends before resuming play; the team with possession of the football is the team in attack. The primary aim of this team is to'work' the ball out from their own end of the field, into a more favourable position towards the opposition's end, score a try by grounding the ball in the opposition's in-goal area or on the goal line.
In some circumstances the team in attack may opt to kick a one-point drop goal instead of attempting to score a try. Scoring will at least involve first gaining field position and, in the case of scoring a try, will certainly involve breaking the opposition's defensive line; the objective of the defensive side is to prevent the team in possession from scoring and obtaining their shorter term objectives. The defensive team carries out these objectives by: maintaining the defensive line providing last-ditch defenders preventing a tryFavourable field position is an important aim in rugby league, a goal present in the minds of players at all times. Possession of the ball is the primary aim of each team; when in possession the aim is to maintain possession and score by running in packs and trying to minimise ball-handling errors and penalties conceded. When not in possession the aim is to prevent the opposition from scoring, prevent or reduce the incidence of the opposition carrying the ball forward, to gain possession of the ball.
There are four ways to score points in rugby league: tries and conversions, penalty goals and drop goals. The try is the primary means of scoring in rugby league. To score a try, the ball must be placed with controlled downward pressure on the goal line or in the in-goal area between the goal line and the dead ball line using the hand, forearm or torso area; this is referred to as grounding the football. If the player scoring the try is being tackled at the same time, the try must be completed before or at the moment the tackle is completed; when it is deemed that a try would have been scored were it not for a rule infringement of a defending player, a penalty try can be awarded directly under the goal posts regardless of where the offence took place. Because of the certainty the referee must have that the try "would have" been scored, penalty tries are uncommon. More uncommon are 8-Point tries
New South Wales Rugby League
The New South Wales Rugby League is the governing body of rugby league in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory and is a member of the Australian Rugby League Commission. It was formed in Sydney on 8 August 1907 and was known as the New South Wales Rugby Football League until 1984. From 1908 to 1994, the NSWRL ran Sydney's New South Wales', Australia's top-level rugby league club competition from their headquarters on Phillip Street, Sydney; the organisation is responsible for administering the New South Wales rugby league team. The following clubs are the member clubs of the NSWRL; the New South Wales Rugby Football League was responsible for the introduction of rugby league into New South Wales in 1907. Since that time the NSWRFL has built a rich tradition at all levels of the game. Great names and great games illuminate the League's growth since 1907 up to the present day; the NSWRFL was formed in August 1907, when player discontent with the administration of the New South Wales Rugby Union, over rejection of compensation payments for injuries and lost wages, led to a breakaway movement.
Key figures in the new movement were James Joseph Giltinan, legendary cricketer Victor Trumper, Alex Burdon, Peter Moir, Labor politician Henry Hoyle, George Brackenreg and Jack Feneley. The first rugby league game in New South Wales was played on 17 August 1907, in which New Zealand defeated New South Wales Rugby League team 12–8; the Sydney premiership was started on 20 April 1908. Nine teams contested the initial season, they were: Balmain Tigers Cumberland Fruitpickers Eastern Suburbs Roosters Glebe Dirty Reds Newcastle Rebels Newtown Jets North Sydney Bears Western Suburbs Magpies South Sydney RabbitohsThe NSWRFL premiership was continued on the successful basis of the first competition in 1908. In 1929 Jersey Flegg was appointed to the position of president of the NSWRFL and in 1941 he became chairman of the Australian Rugby League Board of Control. At the time of his death in 1960, aged 82, he was still serving in these roles; when NSWRFL president Flegg died in 1960, Bill Buckley replaced him and became boss of the Australian Rugby League, a position he remained in from 1960 until his death in 1973.
In 1973 Kevin Humphreys was appointed President of New South Wales Rugby League and Chairman of Australian Rugby League. Under him State of Origin was introduced. In 1983 Humphreys was succeeded in these positions by Ken Arthurson. Under Arthurson the clubs in the NSWRL expanded outside the borders of the state and the country until in 1994, after administering its 87th consecutive premiership season, the NSWRL was replaced by the Australian Rugby League as club football's peak administrative body. Notwithstanding the hand over of control of the game at the elite level across Australia to the Commission, the NSWRL did retain responsibility for both the administration of the New South Wales rugby league team in State of Origin series, as well as day-to-day management of the state-based New South Wales Cup second-tier premiership, as well as junior representative competitions and divisional leagues throughout NSW and the ACT, it does so in conjunction with the NSW Country Rugby League. In a similar way, the rival Queensland Rugby League retained responsibility for that state's Origin team and lower tier competitions.
The Royal Agricultural Society Shield, or RAS Shield was the New South Wales Rugby League's first premiership trophy. It was presented to each year's premiership winning rugby league team; the Eastern Suburbs club achieved this feat winning premierships in 1911, 1912 and 1913. The hand crafted silver and oak designed shield was donated to the NSWRL by the Royal Agricultural Society of New South Wales in its first year of competition. Leading journalist Claude Corbett wrote in Sydney, newspaper on, 1 May 1914, "The Royal Agricultural Society Shield, presented at the inception of the League's first grade competition has been won outright by Eastern Suburbs, who upset all calculations by winning the premiership three years in succession; the club has presented the shield to their captain, Dally Messenger,'as a token of appreciation of his captaincy." In 1929 Jersey Flegg was appointed to the position of president of the NSWRFL. Midway through the 1909 season, Edward Larkin was appointed full-time secretary of the NSWRFL.
In 1951, the NSWRFL originated the J. J. Giltinan Shield, following his death in 1950; this trophy was awarded to the premiers of the NSWRFL competition, being named after one of the founding fathers of the NSWRFL and rugby league in Australia. The trophy remains today, being awarded to the minor premiers of the National Rugby League competition. Following Jersey Flegg's death in 1960, Bill Buckley was made the NSWRFL's new president. In 1967 the NSWRFL grand final became the first football grand final of any code to be televised live in Australia; the Nine Network had paid $5,000 for the broadcasting rights. In 1973 NSWRFL boss Kevin Humphreys negotiated rugby league's first television deal with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation; the NSWRFL had commenced a popular and successful mid-week competition in 1974 known as the Amco Cup, but as the Tooth Cup and the National Panasonic Cup. The success of this competition, which included teams from both Brisbane and New Zealand created pressure for further expansion in the NSWRFL competition.
In 1980, the NSWRFL President Kevin Humphries, chairman of the League since 1973, was instrumental in the establishment of the State of Origin series between teams representing the NSWRFL and Queensland Rugby League. The immediate success o
A scrum machine, or scrummaging machine, is a padded, weighty device against which a pack of rugby football forwards can practice scrummaging and rucking. The purpose of the scrum machine is to provide teams with a safe tool with which to improve the strength and skills of their players; the ideal engagement of a pack into a scrum is a simultaneous movement in the hit and drive. It is the instantaneous force exerted that makes the difference, not the sum of all the forces over time. Small packs that coordinate in this fashion and hit'on the beat' can control their scrums consistently. A similar piece of equipment called; the most common types are either the roller. However, there are others for specific purposes or needs. Roller Machine - The Predator! PR65 is arguably the worlds best selling Scrum Machine. Bespoke - numerous homemade scrum machines are in use. Indoor Junior - For training children. One-man - Against which forwards, rather than a pack, can practice their scrum skills. Portable - abled to be folded down, with a container on the back which can be filled with sand or water to bolster weight.
Trailer - which can be attached and detached from a vehicle. Skid Mounted - Timber or galvanised steel skids on the base with push back pads. An example of this is the Predator! Kiwi Reactive. Rugby union equipment Fiji Rugby Scrum Machines The Agile Scrum machine The Hurricanes' forwards hit the scrum machine Assessment of Scrummaging Performance