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Sculling is the use of oars to propel a boat by moving the oars through the water on both sides of the craft, or moving a single oar over the stern. By extension, the oars themselves are referred to as sculls when used in this manner, the boat itself may be referred to as a scull. Two-oared sculling is a form of rowing in which a boat is propelled by one or more rowers, each of whom operates two oars, one held in the fingers and upper palm of each hand; this contrasts with the other common method of rowing, sweep rowing, in which each rower may use both hands to operate a single oar on either the port or starboard side of the boat. Sculling is considered the more technically complex of the two disciplines. Two-oared sculling can either be competitive or recreational, but the watercraft used will vary between the two as the racing shells of competitive rowing are built for speed rather than stability. Racing shells are far more expensive and fragile than what is suitable for the recreational rower.

Sculling, one of the two major divisions of crew, is composed of races between small, sculled boats manned by various numbers of rowers. One, two, or four athletes row these shells; these shells are classified according to the number of rowers that they can hold: singles have one seat, doubles have two, quads have four. In keeping with this pattern, quads rowed by three people are colloquially referred to as "triples"; the boat manufacturer'Stampflï' has created a triple with only three seats. A rare sculling shell is the octuple, rowed by an eight-man crew, sometimes used by large rowing programs to teach novice rowers how to scull in a balanced, coxed boat; the physical movement of sculling is split into two main parts: the recovery. These two parts are separated by what is called the "catch" and the "finish"; the drive is the section of the rowing stroke where the face of the oars known as blades, are placed in the water and the rower is propelling the boat forwards by pulling against the anchor the oars provide.

The recovery is the section where the rower's blades are not in the water, but instead gliding above it as the rower prepares for the next stroke. The catch is the moment the blades are dropped into the water at the end of the recovery and the start of the drive, while the finish is when the blades are slipping out after the drive is done and the recovery is beginning. In order to improve balance on the recovery, the blades are feathered, or held parallel to the surface of the water, at the finish, squared at the catch. Competitive crew requires an efficient stroke with all rowers matching the cadence and movements of the stroke seat, the rower closest to the shell's stern; the shell may have a coxswain, or "cox," to steer the boat, encourage the crew, monitor the rate, though coxswains are uncommon in competitive sculling shells and the rower in bow seat takes on these responsibilities instead. The bow-most rower may have equipment that attaches the skeg of the shell to one of the bow's shoes to aid with the steering.

A key technical difference between sculling and sweeping in crew is that the sculling oar handles overlap twice during the stroke, while sweep oar handles never overlap during normal rowing. The overlap occurs again during the recovery. To prevent this from impacting the balance of the boat, one oarlock is rigged higher than the other prior to rowing; this prevents the oar handles from causing a crab or other problems. Single-oar sculling is the process of propelling a watercraft by moving a single, stern-mounted oar from side to side while changing the angle of the blade so as to generate forward thrust on both strokes; the technique is old and its origin uncertain, though it is thought to have developed independently in different locations and times. It is known to have been used in ancient China, on the Great Lakes of North America by pre-Columbian Americans. In single-oar sculling, the oar pivots on the boat's stern, the inboard end is pushed to one side with the blade turned so that it generates forward thrust.

Backward thrust can be generated by twisting the oar in the other direction and rowing. Steering, as in moving coxless sculling shells in crew, is accomplished by directing the thrust; the oar pivots in a simple notch cut into—or rowlock mounted on— the stern of the boat, the sculler must angle the blade, by twisting the inboard end of the oar, to generate the thrust that not only pushes the boat forward but holds the oar in its pivot. The operation of the single sculling is unique as turning the blade of the oar in figure 8 motions operates them, it is not hoisted out of the water like any other traditional oars. The objective is to minimize the movement of the operator's hands, the side-to-side movement of the boat, so the boat moves through the water and steadily; this minimal rotation keeps the water moving over the top of the blade and results in forces that transfer to the multi directional ro


Torfhaus is a village in the borough of the mining town of Altenau in the Harz mountains of Germany and lies at a height of about 800 m above sea level. It is the highest settlement in Lower Saxony; this small settlement consists of restaurants, youth hostels, ski huts and large car parks. A resort area with hotel and cabins was built in 2012/2013; the B 4 federal road, a major traffic route, runs from Brunswick to the north via Torfhaus to Braunlage and on into the South and East Harz. Today Torfhaus is a popular start point for walks along the Goethe Way to the Brocken, but to the historic Dreieckiger Pfahl boundary stone and on over the mountains of the Wurmberg or Achtermannshöhe to Braunlage. Torfhaus lies about 7 km east of Altenau and 9 km south of Bad Harzburg in the Upper Harz; the river Radau rises east of Torfhaus on the Torfhaus Moor. Torfhaus lies at the heart of the Harz National Park and has inter alia a national park visitor centre, opened in 2009, as well as a youth hostel run by the German Youth Hostel Association.

Numerous hiking trails, such as the Goethe Way, that runs to the Brocken, is part of the Harz Witches' Trail, mountain biking trails run through Torfhaus. Racing and touring cyclists prefer to cycle to Torfhaus via the Landstraße 504 from Altenau, called the "Steep Face"; the cafe Brockenblick is a popular meeting point for motorcyclists. In winter, Torfhaus has various cross country skiing routes as well as hiking trails. There is a toboggan run with a lift and a ski slope with a drag lift; the Goethe Way runs along the Torfhausmoor. It is accessible on a board walk installed by the national park and enables as good view of the Brocken

Enric Catà i Catà

Enric Catà i Catà was a modernista architect from Barcelona. Enric was born in Sant Feliu de Llobregat, he was the son of Salvador Catà Rossell from Arenys de Munt and Francisca Catà Faura of Sant Feliu de Llobregat. Enric Catà did his first studies in the Escolapis of Terrassa. During 1894–1895 he attained his secondary education in Barcelona and in 1895 began the higher education in architecture, graduating in 1903 with a final project of a school of arts and jobs. Enric Catà's professional career started with a dedication to both teaching and professional practice. At the Higher School of Architecture of Barcelona he spent more than twenty-five years, first as an auxiliary teacher and next as a professor. For twenty years he was municipal architect of Arenys de Munt, his designs for private clients were built in several municipalities in the demarcations of Girona and Barcelona. In October 1917 he was appointed municipal architect of Arenys de Munt, a position retained until his death in 1937.

Commissioned by the city council will project the graduated school, with a first project in 1917 that remained unrealised and, another of 1931–33, inaugurated in 1937. Other municipal works were: the bridge over the riera in 1921, the General Plan of Urbanisation in 1932, the Market and the houses for the teachers in 1936, he had taken part in 1907 in the restoration and extension of the house Can Pau Bernadó, in the project of the chapel of the Holy Sacrament of the parish church, the year 1913, in a project of public laundry designed around 1915. As municipal architect he drafted numerous private projects. Catà collaborated with other architects. After finishing his studies, he worked in the workshop of the modernist architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner. In 1916 with Eusebi Bona i Puig he won the competition to build the Posts and Telegraphs building in Girona. Another success was in collaboration with Pedro Cendoya the winning of the design competition for the Palau Nacional in 1925, completed for the 1929 Barcelona International Exposition.

Collaborating with the architect Adolf Florensa, Catà built the Cultural centre of the Doctor in Barcelona between 1929 and 1933. In Girona projects works known as the distilleries Regàs and the distilleries Gerunda of the Greater Bridge and the Theatre Albéniz. In Portbou, the renovation of the Casino España. In Palamós, the School Group. In Reus, the Farm Soldevila, and in Barcelona, diverse bourgeois mansions missing. Enric Catà died in Barcelona in January 1937, killed by a car when crossing Passeig de Gràcia

Tushiyah United Hebrew School – Scott Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church

The Tushiyah United Hebrew School known as the Scott Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church, is an educational building located at 609 East Kirby Street in Detroit, Michigan. This building, an important work of architect Isadore M. Lewis, was constructed as the Tushiyah United Hebrew School and served as the headquarters of the United Hebrew Schools of Detroit, it served as the Scott Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church, the first mainline African-American Methodist Episcopal church in Detroit. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011; the building now houses the Kirby Center Lofts. In the early 1920s, the number of people of Detroit increased and with it, the city's Jewish population grew; the new wave of Jewish arrivals those emigrating from Eastern Europe, spread north along what was the Hastings Street corridor. Between 1919 and 1924, the new population built a series of Talmud Torah schools, which emphasized community-based education; the locations of these schools spread northward along Hastings Street, following the Jewish population.

The Tushiyah United Hebrew School, built in 1922 on Kirby and St. Antoine, was one of these schools. Known as the Kirby Center, it was constructed as the headquarters of the United Hebrew Schools; the building contained classrooms for an auditorium for 2000 people. It served not only as a school for children, but hosted adult education classes and community group functions; the school was designed by Isadore M. Lewis, a Jewish architect who designed a wide array of commercial and residential buildings for Jewish clients. Lewis was born in Appleton, Wisconsin in 1888, in 1916 moved to Detroit to open his own architectural firm, he practiced in Detroit until at least 1960, died in 1968. As the 1920s wound down, the Jewish population began shifting northward and westward away from the Tushiyah United Hebrew School, building homes and schools in the Dexter-Davidson neighborhood. New African-American residents began moving into the Hastings Street neighborhood as the earlier Jewish residents moved out.

The shift in population, combined with the decline in popularity of the Talmud Torah schools, lead to the closure of the Tushiyah United Hebrew School in 1929. In 1929, after the closure of the school, the building was sold to the Scott Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church; the Scott Memorial ME church was founded in 1909. The congregation started small, meeting in homes and storefronts and sharing a pastor with a congregation in Toledo, Ohio. In 1914, the church constructed its first building; the congregation continued to grow, by 1924, Scott was planning on the construction of a second building. The church instead purchased the Tushiyah United Hebrew School in 1929 because the cost, $92,500, was less than that for a new building; the congregation worked hard to retire the mortgage, by 1943, the building was paid off. This freed funding for building improvements, the congregation put in new pews and a new roof in 1943, remodeled part of the first floor into a youth center in 1948. Scott Memorial was instrumental in the eventual unification of the white and African-American Methodist Episcopal churches.

In 1957, Scott Memorial co-hosted an inter-racial leadership conference with the white Detroit Metropolitan Methodist Church, featuring an address by Thurgood Marshall an attorney for the NAACP. However, the Scott Memorial ME church continued to grow, with over 2000 members in the mid-1960s. In 1968, the congregation began once more to look for a larger building. In 1970, the predominantly white Grace United Methodist Church merged with another congregation and offered their building, located on West Boston, to Scott Memorial for $1.00. Scott Memorial accepted the offer, moved from the Kirby building. In 1984, Scott Memorial sold the Kirby building to the Wild Life Stream Club. In 1997, the building was sold again to the Most Worshipful Unity Grand Lodge of Michigan and Accepted Masons; this organization owned the building as of 2011, but planned to sell it to a developer for conversion into apartments. The building was sold, conversion into loft space was underway by 2015. Renovation was completed in 2016, as of 2018, the building housed 3 two-bedroom, 21 one-bedroom and 2 studio apartments.

The Tushiyah United Hebrew School – Scott Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church is a two-story commercial-style building with a concrete foundation, masonry walls, steel framing. The building is clad with tan brick, features decorative brickwork with cast stone trim and reliefs; the original building was constructed in 102 feet by 134 feet. An arched roof, obscured by the parapet walls, covers the main section while the east-west section of the building has a flat roof. A single-story addition of concrete block and brick was built in 1950 across the rear, making a C-shape; the front facade, facing Kirby Street, has five bays. The center bay has an urn at the top; each floor has a pair of one-over-one double-hung windows with transoms. The bay to the left of the center contains the entrance, with two glass doors. Two one-over-one double-hung windows with transoms hang on the second floor, surmounted by a weathered plaque reading "Tushiyah United Hebrew Schools of Detroit." The parapet wall has a brick relief in the center.

The bay to the right of the center is identical to the entrance bay, but with two one-over-one double-hung windows with transoms on the first floor in place of the entrance doors. The two end bays have two pairs of one-over-one double-hung windows with transoms on each floor. A cla

Houghton High School

Houghton High School is a high school located in Houghton, Michigan, in the Upper Peninsula. It shares the same building as Houghton Middle School. Three high schools predate all located on the same site in downtown Houghton; the Houghton School called the Rock School for its external appearance, was built before 1881. The Portage Lake High School was built to replace the undersized Rock School, but was gutted by fire in 1921. A replacement, Houghton High School, was completed in 1924; the current building was constructed in 1989 up the hill from the previous site. The Portage Lake High School was demolished in 1999. An addition was approved in 2008 and completed by 2010 that included a second gym, band room, various energy efficiency upgrades; the Houghton Gremlins compete in the West-PAC conference. The school colors are black; the following Michigan High School Athletic Association sanctioned sports are offered: Official website


Plymtree is a small village and civil parish about 3.5 miles south of the town of Cullompton in the county of Devon, England. The parish is surrounded, clockwise from the north, by the parishes of Broadhembury, Clyst Hydon and Cullompton. In 2001 it had a population of 605, compared to 359 in 1901; the village website provides up to date information about local events The village has a public house called The Blacksmith Arms and a Church of England primary school, part of the Culm Valley Federation with Kentisbeare and Culmstock Schools. There is a small community run village shop and post office, a village hall and recreation field; the yearly country fayre is held on the August Bank Holiday which raises funds for the Village Hall and local Riding for the Disabled Group. It has a cricket tennis court. St John the Baptist's church is medieval; the rood screen is a splendid example and exceptionally well preserved. It incorporates emblems which indicate that it was given by Isabel widow of Humphrey Stafford, Earl of Devon, beheaded in 1469.

The wainscoting is painted with figures but they are not of high aesthetic value. There is a small alabaster relief of the Resurrection of Christ, Flemish work of about 1600. In the churchyard of St John the Baptist's church is a historic yew tree; the first known English personification of Christmas was associated with merry-making and drinking. A carol attributed to Richard Smart, Rector of Plymtree from 1435 to 1477, has'Sir Christemas' announcing the news of Christ's birth and encouraging his listeners to drink: "Buvez bien par toute la compagnie, / Make good cheer and be right merry, / And sing with us now joyfully: Nowell, nowell." In 1832 Joseph Dornford was presented by his Oxford college to the rectory of Plymtree, in 1847 he was collated by Henry Phillpotts a prebendary of Exeter Cathedral. He died at Plymtree on 18 January 1868, aged 74; the parish of Plymtree contains various historic estates including: Fordmore, anciently Ford's Moore, from before 1161 to 1702 the seat of the at Ford family.

Plymtree Manor. Woodbeer Court. Media related to Plymtree at Wikimedia Commons