Texas's 19th congressional district
Texas' Nineteenth Congressional District of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the upper midwestern portion of the state of Texas The district includes portions of the State from Lubbock to Abilene. The current Representative from the 19th District is Republican Jodey Arrington. District 19's current boundaries were drawn up during the controversial 2003 Texas State Legislature Redistricting made famous by the Texas Eleven; the district was redrawn in such a way that two Congressional incumbents and Democrat Charlie Stenholm, were pitted against one another in the 2004 Congressional elections. Neugebauer won with over 58% of the vote; the border runs along the western boundary with New Mexico, runs along county borders to include far reaching cities. The area is predominantly rural, with the exceptions of Abilene and Lubbock, includes many state parks and farms; this is one of the most conservative districts in the nation. It has not supported a Democratic presidential candidate since 1964.
Republicans have held the seat since 1985. In the last three decades, a Democrat has only won 40 percent of the vote in this district twice, in 1984 and 2004. Much of this region continued to elect conservative Democrats to local offices and the Texas Legislature until 1994. Since the mid-1990s, Republicans have dominated every level of government. There are no elected Democrats left above the county level, Republicans win most races by 70 percent or more of the vote; the district voted 77% for George W. Bush in 2004 and 71% for John McCain in 2008. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present "Current Election History". Office of the Secretary of State of Texas. Archived from the original on November 8, 2006.
Retrieved November 20, 2012
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
William Read Scurry
William Read Scurry was a general in the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Scurry was born in Tennessee, he became a lawyer and district attorney. Scurry had seven children, he represented Red River County in the Ninth Congress of the Republic of Texas in 1844 and 1845 and served in the House of Representatives in 1845, promoting the annexation of Texas to the United States. Enlisting as a private in the Mexican–American War, Scurry rose to the rank of major by July 1846. Afterward, he practiced law in Clinton and was co-owner and editor of the Austin State Gazette. In 1856 Scurry became a delegate to the state Democratic nominating convention, in 1861 he was a delegate to the Secession Convention. In July 1861, he became a lieutenant colonel in the Fourth Texas Cavalry, part of the Sibley Brigade which launched the New Mexico Campaign at the outset of 1862, he distinguished himself as an officer at the Battle of Valverde, February 21–22, 1862, as well by commanding the Confederate forces in the Battle of Glorieta Pass, March 26–28, 1862.
He was promoted to full colonel on March 28, 1862, subsequently played a key role in leading the Confederate retreat from New Mexico. He was promoted to brigadier general on September 12, 1862. Along with fellow New Mexico Campaign veterans, he helped recapture Galveston, Texas on January 1, 1863. Scurry took command of the Third Brigade of Walker's Texas Division in October 1863 and led them into the Battle of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill, April 1864; the Third Brigade transferred to Arkansas to fight against Gen. Frederick Steele, about to invade Texas. Scurry was killed at the Battle of Jenkins' Ferry on April 30, 1864, was buried in the State Cemetery at Austin, Texas in May 1864. Texas erected a thirteen-foot-high white marble shaft over his grave. Scurry County, Texas, is named in his honor. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War.
New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9. "William Read Scurry". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-02-13. Handbook of Texas Online
Hermleigh is a census-designated place in Scurry County, United States. Hermleigh lies on U. S. Route 84, ninety-six miles southeast of Lubbock, has population of 345 people at the 2010 census. Hermleigh is located at 32°38′5″N 100°45′34″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 9.1 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 393 people, 151 households, 104 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 43.4 people per square mile. There were 183 housing units at an average density of 20.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.08% White, 2.29% African American, 0.25% Asian, 5.34% from other races, 2.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.66% of the population. There were 151 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.1% were non-families. 28.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.24. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 28.2% under the age of 18, 12.2% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,111, the median income for a family was $30,417. Males had a median income of $27,222 versus $21,000 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $11,843. About 13.1% of families and 23.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.7% of those under age 18 and 25.3% of those age 65 or over. Hermleigh's history begins in 1907 when a townsite was surveyed on land donated by two men named R. C. Herm and Harry W. Harlin near the small community of Wheat. Citizens chose to name their new community "Hermlin" but this name was rejected by postal officials as being too close to the nearby town of Hamlin causing confusion between the two communities.
The compromise of "Hermleigh" was settled upon, the post office opened shortly thereafter. The Roscoe and Pacific Railway built through the new community, residents of Wheat began to relocate to Hermleigh. In 1911 the Santa Fe Railroad reached the community, Hermleigh developed into a shipping point and trading center for local ranchers and cotton farmers. A school opened to serve area students in 1913, by the late 1910s the community had its own newspaper. Hermleigh changed its name in the late 1910s to Foch to honor the French field marshal and World War I hero Ferdinand Foch, but reverted to the original name shortly thereafter and continued to flourish until the early 1930s, when the effects of the Great Depression brought an end to Hermleigh's growth. Though adversely effected by the Depression, Hermleigh remained stable throughout most of the twentieth century and by 1980 was home to over 700 residents. By 1990, the population had fallen to 200 and some of the remaining businesses closed down.
The community inexplicably rebounded during the 1990s, with the population reaching 393 by the 2000 Census. Hermleigh is the hometown of former head coach of Grant Teaff; the most expensive pig sold was owned by a Hermleigh resident. Jefferey Roemisch of Hermleigh sold his cross-breed barrow named "Bud" for a record breaking $56,000 in 1983 to a man named Bud Olson and his partner, Phil Bonzio; the community of Hermleigh is served by the Hermleigh Independent School District. Handbook of Texas Online entry for Hermleigh
Beer is one of the oldest and most consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most from malted barley, though wheat and rice are used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation; some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.
Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is commonly available on draught in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries; the strength of modern beer is around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume, although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above. Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared drinks; the earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000 year old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. There is evidence; the earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.
It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back further — to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed. Beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt, archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations. 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer. During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment, crucial to the pyramids' construction; some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer. The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC. A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice. Any substance containing sugar can undergo alcoholic fermentation, it is that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer.
Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. Xenophon noted. Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, it was brewed on a domestic scale; the product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, numerous types of plants and other substances such as narcotic herbs. What they did not contain was hops, as, a addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen. In 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water and barley-malt. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries.
During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. In 1912, the use of brown bottles began to be used by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States; this innovation has since been accepted worldwide and prevents harmful rays from destroying the quality and stability of beer. As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ran
Colorado City, Texas
Colorado City is a city in and the county seat of Mitchell County, United States. The population was 4,146 at the 2010 census. Colorado City is located at 32°23′46″N 100°51′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.3 square miles, all of it land. Colorado City is situated along the Colorado River to Lone Wolf Creek to the east. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Colorado City has a semiarid climate, BSk on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, 4,281 people, 1,646 households, 1,124 families resided in the city. The population density was 809.2 people per square mile. There were 2,076 housing units at an average density of 392.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 76.71% White, 5.09% African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 14.62% from other races, 2.59% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latino of any race were 36.25% of the population. Of the 1,646 households, 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were not families.
About 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals, 16.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.12. In the city, the population was distributed as 28.5% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,842, for a family was $27,363. Males had a median income of $22,272 versus $20,037 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,591. About 18.7% of families and 20.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.2% of those under age 18 and 23.9% of those age 65 or over. Colorado City is served by the Colorado Independent School District. Hollis Gainey, a member of the University of Texas Hall of Honor for track and field, ran on two world record-setting relay teams at the University of Texas.
He is a member of the Texas Sports Hall of Fame. Don Maynard, a Pro Football Hall of Fame member, graduated from Colorado High School. Former U. S. Representative George Mahon of Lubbock was raised in Mitchell County and is honored with a statue in front of the courthouse; the Texas radio pioneer Clint Formby and his wife Margaret Clark Formby, founder of the National Cowgirl Hall of Fame in Fort Worth, lived for a time early in their marriage in Colorado City and rented their residence from the Mahons. Colorado City - Official website "Colorado. A town and the county-seat of Mitchell County, Tex". New International Encyclopedia. 1905