Irish National Liberation Army
The Irish National Liberation Army is an Irish republican socialist paramilitary group formed on 10 December 1974, during "the Troubles". It seeks to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and create a socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland, it is the paramilitary wing of the Irish Republican Socialist Party. The INLA was founded by former members of the Official Irish Republican Army who opposed that group's ceasefire, it was known as the "People's Liberation Army" or "People's Republican Army". The INLA waged a paramilitary campaign against the British Army and Royal Ulster Constabulary in Northern Ireland, it was active to a lesser extent in the Republic of Ireland and Great Britain. High-profile attacks carried out by the INLA include the Droppin Well bombing, the 1994 Shankill Road killings and the assassinations of Airey Neave in 1979 and Billy Wright in 1997. However, it was smaller and less active than the main republican paramilitary group, the Provisional IRA, it was weakened by feuds and internal tensions.
Members of the group used the covernames People's Liberation Army, People's Republican Army and Catholic Reaction Force for attacks its volunteers carried out but the INLA didn't want to claim responsibility for. The INLA became a proscribed group in the United Kingdom on the 3 July 1979 under the 1974 Prevention of Terrorism Act. After a 24-year armed campaign, the INLA declared a ceasefire on 22 August 1998. In August 1999, it stated that "There is no political or moral argument to justify a resumption of the campaign". In October 2009, the INLA formally vowed to pursue its aims through peaceful political means and began decommissioning its weapons; the party supports a'No First Strike' policy, allowing people to see the perceived failure of the peace process for themselves without military actions. The INLA is a Proscribed Organisation in the United Kingdom under the Terrorism Act 2000 and an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland; the INLA was founded on 8 December 1974 in the Spa Hotel in Lucan, Dublin by former members of the Official IRA.
The group's political wing, the IRSP was founded on the same day. The IRSP's foundation was made public but the INLA's was kept a secret until the group could operate effectively; the group was formed due to dissatisfaction with the Official IRA ceasefire in 1972 and the supposed refusal to implement the democratic will of the members. Shortly after it was founded, the INLA came under attack from their former comrades in the OIRA, who wanted to destroy the new grouping before it could get off the ground. On 20 February 1975, Hugh Ferguson, an INLA member and an Irish Republican Socialist Party branch chairperson, was the first person to be killed in the feud. One of the first military operations of the INLA was the shooting of OIRA leader Sean Garland in Dublin on 1 March. Although shot six times, he survived. After several more shootings a truce was arranged; the most prominent victim of the restarted feud was Billy McMillen, the commander of the OIRA in Belfast, shot by INLA member Gerard Steenson.
His murder was condemned by Costello. This was followed by several more assassinations on both sides, the most prominent victim being Seamus Costello, shot dead on the North Strand Road in Dublin on 5 October 1977. Costello's death was a severe blow to the INLA, as he was their most able political and military leader, it has recently been claimed by some in the Republican Socialist Movement that one of their members killed in 1975, Brendan McNamee, was killed by Provisional Irish Republican Army members. The Officials had denied involvement at the time of the killing and had instead blamed it on the Provisionals, who denied involvement. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the INLA developed into a modest organisation in Northern Ireland, operating from the Divis Flats in west Belfast, which, as a result, became colloquially known as "the planet of the Irps", they had a large presence in Derry and the surrounding area, all three of the INLA prisoners who died in the 1981 Irish hunger strike were from County Londonderry.
During this period, the INLA competed with the Provisional IRA for members, with both groups in conflict with the British Army and the Royal Ulster Constabulary. The first action to bring the INLA to international notice was its assassination on 30 March 1979 of Airey Neave, the British Conservative Party's spokesman on Northern Ireland and one of Margaret Thatcher's closest political supporters; the INLA lost another of its founding leadership in 1980, when Ronnie Bunting, a Protestant nationalist, was assassinated at his home. Noel Little, another Protestant member of the INLA, was killed in the same incident. Another leading INLA member, Miriam Daly, was killed by loyalist assassins in the same year. Although no group claimed responsibility, the INLA claimed that the Special Air Service was involved in the killings of Bunting and Little. Offensive INLA actions at this time included the 1982 bombing of the Mount Gabriel radar station in County Cork, which the INLA believed was providing assistance to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation in violation of Irish neutrality, although this was disputed by the Irish government.
Their most bloody attack came on 6 December 1982 – the Ballykelly disco bombing of the Droppin' Well Bar in Ballykelly, County Londonderry, which catered to British military personnel, in which 11 soldiers on leave and 6 civilians were killed. Members of the INLA participated in the 1980 and 1981 hunger strikes for the recognition of the political status of
The KGB, translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991. As a direct successor of preceding agencies such as Cheka, NKGB, NKVD and MGB, the committee was attached to the Council of Ministers, it was the chief government agency of "union-republican jurisdiction", acting as internal security and secret police. Similar agencies were constituted in each of the republics of the Soviet Union aside from Russia, consisted of many ministries, state committees and state commissions; the agency was a military service governed by army laws and regulations, in the same fashion as the Soviet Army or MVD Internal Troops. While most of the KGB archives remain classified, two online documentary sources are available, its main functions were foreign intelligence, counter-intelligence, operative-investigatory activities, guarding the State Border of the USSR, guarding the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Soviet Government and ensuring of government communications as well as combating nationalism and anti-Soviet activities.
In 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the KGB was split into the Federal Security Service and the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation. After breaking away from Georgia in the early 1990s with Russian help, the self-proclaimed Republic of South Ossetia established its own KGB. A Time magazine article in 1983 reported that the KGB was the world's most effective information-gathering organization, it operated legal and illegal espionage residencies in target countries where a legal resident gathered intelligence while based at the Soviet embassy or consulate, and, if caught, was protected from prosecution by diplomatic immunity. At best, the compromised spy was either returned to the Soviet Union or was declared persona non grata and expelled by the government of the target country; the illegal resident spied, unprotected by diplomatic immunity, worked independently of Soviet diplomatic and trade missions. In its early history, the KGB valued illegal spies more than legal spies, because illegal spies infiltrated their targets with greater ease.
The KGB residency executed four types of espionage: political, military-strategic, disinformation, effected with "active measures", counter-intelligence and security, scientific–technological intelligence. The KGB classified its spies as controllers; the false-identity or legend assumed by a USSR-born illegal spy was elaborate, using the life of either a "live double" or a "dead double". The agent substantiated his or her legend by living it in a foreign country, before emigrating to the target country, thus the sending of US-bound illegal residents via the Soviet embassy in Ottawa, Canada. Tradecraft included stealing and photographing documents, code-names, contacts and dead letter boxes, working as a "friend of the cause" or as agents provocateurs, who would infiltrate the target group to sow dissension, influence policy, arrange kidnappings and assassinations. Mindful of ambitious spy chiefs—and after deposing Premier Nikita Khrushchev—Secretary Leonid Brezhnev and the CPSU knew to manage the next over-ambitious KGB Chairman, Aleksandr Shelepin, who facilitated Brezhnev's palace coup d'état against Khrushchev in 1964.
With political reassignments, Shelepin protégé Vladimir Semichastny was sacked as KGB Chairman, Shelepin himself was demoted from chairman of the Committee of Party and State Control to Trade Union Council chairman. In the 1980s, the glasnost liberalisation of Soviet society provoked KGB Chairman Vladimir Kryuchkov to lead the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt to depose President Mikhail Gorbachev; the thwarted coup d'état ended the KGB on 6 November 1991. The KGB's main successors are the FSB and the SVR; the GRU recruited the ideological agent Julian Wadleigh, who became a State Department diplomat in 1936. The NKVD's first US operation was establishing the legal residency of Boris Bazarov and the illegal residency of Iskhak Akhmerov in 1934. Throughout, the Communist Party USA and its General Secretary Earl Browder, helped NKVD recruit Americans, working in government and industry. Other important, low-level and high-level ideological agents were the diplomats Laurence Duggan and Michael Whitney Straight in the State Department, the statistician Harry Dexter White in the Treasury Department, the economist Lauchlin Currie, the "Silvermaster Group", headed by statistician Greg Silvermaster, in the Farm Security Administration and the Board of Economic Warfare.
Moreover, when Whittaker Chambers Alger Hiss's courier, approached the Roosevelt Government—to identify the Soviet spies Duggan and others—he was ignored. Hence, during the Second World War —at the Tehran and Potsdam conferences—Big Three Ally Joseph Stalin of the USSR, was better informed about the war affairs of his US and UK allies than they were about his. Soviet espionage was at its most successful in collecting scientific and technological intelligence about advan
Ballymun is an area on Dublin's Northside in Ireland, the modern development of which began in the 1960s to accommodate a housing crisis in inner city areas of Dublin. The area became well known for flat complexes, it has several sub-districts such as Sillogue and Poppintree, is in close proximity to Dublin Airport. In 1997, a regeneration plan was announced, which led to demolition of the flats and their replacement by new low-rise housing and some civic amenities, but saw the loss of most of the area's shops; the regeneration has cost about one billion euro to date. Ballymun lies on the plains of southern Fingal, sloping from northwest to southeast, from the catchment of the Santry River through that of the Wad River; the Santry rises in Harristown and Dubber, northwest of Ballymun, crosses and drains the northern parts of the district. The Wad is the area's main watershed, with branches most notably around Poppintree. Ballymun was a rural area; the nearest village was Santry, dependent on the Domville family.
By the 1960s Dublin's housing stock was not only under pressure from a rising population but was poorly maintained. House collapses in Bolton Street and Fenian Street in 1963 led to the death of four people, forcing Dublin Corporation to adopt ‘emergency measures’ to deal with the crisis. In 1964, in a response to this housing crisis in inner city areas of the capital, plans were made to build high-rise flat complexes; the seven 15-storey towers were named after Irish Republican revolutionaries, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the 1916 Easter Rising. The flat complexes consisted of five 8-storey "districts" and three 4-storey "districts," two of which were part of Shangan and Sillogue, the third being located in Sandyhill; the Poppintree area of Ballymun was constructed in the late 1970s. Some social problems occurred in the early years, as families which had grown up in dense city terraces close to Dublin's retail core, found themselves at the edge of the city, with few amenities beyond a travelling shop.
Over time, Ballymun became notorious for a number of social problems, such as drug abuse and unemployment, was impacted by negative media coverage of the area. The current Ballymun district is not in the townland called "Ballymun"—instead, it occupies several nearby townlands, the most significant of, Stormanstown. Due to what were seen to be undesirable associations, some say that the area has shrunk since the completion of the tower blocks. For instance, in the early days of Dublin City University called NIHE, this institution was sometimes referred to as being in Ballymun, or sometimes in Whitehall, while today it is referred to and has a postal address in Glasnevin though it has not changed location. Indeed, much of the present day central Ballymun lies on lands once in the northern reaches of the Albert Agricultural College estate, the forerunner of the present-day DCU. Streets have been renamed—for example, Ballymun Avenue was renamed Glasnevin Avenue after a local plebiscite in the 1970s.
Among the opprobrium heaped on Ballymun, the deployment of the flats has been described by the environmental journalist Frank McDonald, in his book The Construction of Dublin, as the Irish state's'worst planning disaster'. However, at the time of its construction, Ballymun was a sought after location and prospective tenants had to pass an interview to get housing there. There were three types of flats: seven fifteen-storey towers; the flats were built in the 1960s under the authority of Neil Blaney, the Fianna Fáil Minister for Local Government. According to geographer Joe Brady of University College Dublin, Dublin Corporation were skeptical about the Ballymun scheme: They were made an offer by... Blaney which they couldn't refuse, he offered to build them 2,500 housing units at a time when their own housing development program had to be ramped up and when you had the additional misfortune of the collapse of the tenement blocks in Fenian Street which meant that Dublin Corporation was bounced into dealing with all of its condemned houses at once...
They would have taken anything from anybody at that point. The first tenants moved in between August 1966 and December 1966. By February 1969, when the National Building Agency's contract for Ballymun ceased and control of Ballymun was handed to Dublin Corporation, there was a total of 3,021 dwellings, all of, publicly owned social housing. In 2007, the now vacant, Thomas Clarke Tower was temporarily transformed into a hotel as part of an art project; the creation of Ballymun Regeneration Limited as a limited company controlled by Dublin City Council initiated the beginning of the demolition of the Ballymun flats and the emergence of a "new town" of Ballymun. As of 2008, six of the seven towers as well as three eight-storey blocks and seven four-storey blocks have been demolished by DSM, with the residents rehoused in new "state of the art" housing in Ballymun; the new housing is a mixture of public, voluntary and co-operative housing. The residential aspects of the "new Ballymun" were completed by 2013.
A documentary film entitled Ballymun Lullaby was released in February 2011 and includes scenes detailing the regeneration of Ballymun as well as its impact
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
HM Prison Crumlin Road
HMP Belfast known as Crumlin Road Gaol, is a former prison situated on the Crumlin Road in north Belfast, Northern Ireland. It is the only Victorian era prison remaining in Northern Ireland since 1996, it is affectionately known as the Crum. The Northern Ireland Environment Agency has given it a grade A listed building status because of its architectural and historical significance; the Crumlin Road Courthouse, derelict, stands opposite the Gaol. A tunnel under the main road connects the two buildings and was used to transport the prisoners to the courthouse. Designed by Sir Charles Lanyon, the prison was built between 1843 and 1845 and cost £60,000. Built as a replacement for the County Gaol on Antrim Street in Carrickfergus, known as the County Gaol for Antrim, it was constructed of black basalt rock on ten acres at the bottom of the Crumlin Road. Based on HM Prison Pentonville, it was one of the most advanced prisons of its day. Built within a five-sided wall, the four wings are up to four storeys in height and fan off from the central area, known as The Circle.
The prison was built to hold between 500 and 550 prisoners in cells that measured 12 x 7 feet. It was the first prison in Ireland to be built according to "The Separate System", intended to separate prisoners from each other with no communication between them. In the early 1970s, as many as three prisoners were placed in each cell; the first 106 inmates, who were forced to walk from Carrickfergus Prison in chains, arrived in 1846. These inmates, who were men and children, completed the changeover of the two prisons. Children from impoverished working-class families were imprisoned at the gaol in the early years for offences such as stealing food or clothing. Thirteen-year-old Patrick Magee, sentenced to three months in prison, hanged himself in his cell in 1858. Women inmates were kept in the prison block house until the early 1900s. Ulster suffragettes, among them Dorothy Evans and Madge Muir, were imprisoned in the gaol during 1914; when designed by Lanyon, the prison did not contain a gallows and the executions were carried out in public view until 1901, when an execution chamber was constructed within the prison walls and used until the last of the hangings in 1961.
Seventeen prisoners were executed in the prison, the last being Robert McGladdery, hanged in 1961 for the murder of Pearl Gamble. The condemned would live in a cell, large enough for two guards to live in as well; the bodies of the executed were buried inside the prison in unconsecrated ground, against the back wall beside the prison hospital. The execution of Tom Williams, a nineteen-year-old member of the IRA, took place on 2 September 1942; the hangman in charge was Thomas Pierrepoint, the gaol's most regular hangman, who carried out six executions in the gaol between 1928 and 1942. Williams was one of two executed prisoners whose remains were buried elsewhere. Despite being known as Europe's Alcatraz, there were a number of successful escape attempts at the Gaol; the first recorded escape was in 1866. During its 150-year history the gaol had many prisoners pass through its doors; some of the more well known prisoners included Éamon de Valera, Martin McGuinness, Michael Stone and Bobby Sands.
On 24 November 1991, during the last stages of the Troubles, the Loyalist wing of the prison became the target of a Provisional IRA bomb that killed a UVF and a UDA volunteer. The gaol closed its doors as a prison in 1996 and it was empty for many years. A restoration project was announced in August 2010. In November 2012, the prison opened as a tourist attraction and conference centre and now hosts concerts; the museum welcomed a visit by Queen Elizabeth II in 2014. Crumlin Road Gaol Northern Ireland Prison Service North Belfast Community Action Unit website A Brief History of the Crumlin Road Gaol at CultureNorthernIreland.org
A ceasefire called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces. A ceasefire is more limited than a broader armistice, a formal agreement to end fighting. Successful ceasefires may be followed by armistices, by peace treaties. During World War I, on December 24, 1914, there was an unofficial ceasefire on the Western Front as France, the United Kingdom, Germany observed Christmas. There are accounts that claimed the unofficial ceasefire took place through the week leading to Christmas and British and German troops exchanged seasonal greetings and songs between their trenches, it was brief but spontaneous, beginning when German soldiers lit Christmas trees, it spread up and down the Western Front. One account described this development in the following words:It was good to see the human spirit prevailed amongst all sides at the front, the sharing and fraternity.
All was well until the higher echelons of command got to hear about the effect of the ceasefire, whereby their wrath ensured a return to hostilities. There was the war resumed after a few days. On November 29, 1952, the newly U. S. president-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower, went to Korea to learn. With the United Nations' acceptance of India's proposed Korean War armistice, the Korean People's Army, the People's Volunteer Army, the UN Command ceased fire with the battle line at the 38th parallel. Upon agreeing to the ceasefire agreement, the belligerents established the Korean Demilitarized Zone, which has since been patrolled by the KPA and the joint ROKA, US, UN Command; the Korean Demilitarized Zone runs northeast of the 38th parallel. The old Korean capital city of Kaesong, site of the armistice negotiations lay in the pre-war ROK, but now is in the DPRK; the United Nations Command, the North Korean Korean People's Army, the Chinese People's Volunteer Army, signed the Armistice Agreement on July 27, 1953, to end the fighting.
The Armistice called upon the governments of South Korea, North Korea and the United States to participate in continued peace talks. For his part, ROK President Syngman Rhee attacked the peace proceedings; the war is considered to have ended at this point though there was no peace treaty. On January 15, 1973, President Richard Nixon of the USA ordered a ceasefire of the aerial bombings in North Vietnam; the decision came after Dr. Henry Kissinger, the National Security Affairs advisor to the president, returned to Washington from Paris, France with a draft peace proposal. Combat missions continued in South Vietnam. By January 27, 1973, all warring parties in the Vietnam War signed a ceasefire as a prelude to the Paris Peace Accord. After Iraq was driven by U. S.-led coalition forces out of Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm and the U. N. Security Council signed a ceasefire agreement on March 3, 1991. Throughout the 1990s, the U. N. Security Council passed 16 Resolutions calling for Iraq to disarm the WMDs program unconditionally and immediately.
Because no peace treaty was signed after the Gulf War, the war still remained in effect, such as an assassination attempt of former U. S. President George H. W. Bush by Iraqi agents while on a visit to Kuwait and Iraq was bombed in June 1993 as a response, Iraqi forces firing on coalition aircraft patrolling the Iraqi no-fly zones, U. S. President Bill Clinton's bombing of Baghdad in 1998 during Operation Desert Fox, an earlier 1996 bombing of Iraq by the U. S. during Operation Desert Strike. The war remained in effect until 2003 when U. S. and United Kingdom forces toppled Saddam Hussein's regime from power. A United Nations-mediated ceasefire was agreed between India and Pakistan on 1 January 1949, ending the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Fighting broke out between the two newly independent countries in Kashmir in October 1947, with India intervening on behalf of the princely ruler of Kashmir who had joined India and the rebels, who were supported by Pakistan; the fighting was limited to Kashmir but, apprehensive that it might develop into a full-scale international war, India referred the matter to the UN Security Council under Article 35 of the UN Charter, which addresses situations `likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace'.
The Security Council set up a dedicated United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, which mediated for an entire year as the fighting continued. After several UN resolutions outlining a procedure for resolving the dispute via a plebiscite, a ceasefire agreement was reached between the countries towards the end of December 1948, which came into effect in the New Year; the Security Council set up a United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan to monitor the ceasefire line. India has declared a ceasefire in Kashmir Valley during Ramadan 2018. During World War I, an ally of Germany, had its troops stationed both in the Balkan States in the west and at the Russian-Iranian border in the north and east; the Russian army was holding its positions against Turkey in the Caucasus mountains on the north and at the Turkish-Iranian border on the east, but when the Russian army withdrew from the war zone in this area due to Lenin's Revolution, its army stationed in the Caucasus was no longer there to protect the Assyrian and Armenian minorities.
The Turkish government, who were angry at the Christians, had been kept under pressure by the Russian A
Mountjoy Prison, founded as Mountjoy Gaol and nicknamed The Joy, is a medium security prison located in Phibsborough in the centre of Dublin, Ireland. It has the largest prison population in Ireland; the current prison warden is Brian Murphy. Mountjoy was designed by the British military engineering officer, Captain Joshua Jebb, Royal Engineers and opened in 1850, based on the design of London's Pentonville Prison designed by Jebb. Intended as the first stop for men sentenced to transportation, they would spend a period in separate confinement before being transferred to Spike Island and transported from there to Van Diemen's Land. A total of 46 prisoners were executed within the walls of the prison, prior to the abolition of capital punishment. Executions were done by hanging, after which the bodies of the dead were taken down from the gallows and buried within the prison grounds in unmarked graves; the list of prisoners executed at Mountjoy Prison includes: Kevin Barry Patrick Moran Frank Flood Thomas Whelan Thomas Traynor Patrick Doyle Thomas Bryan Bernard Ryan Edmond Foley Patrick Maher.
Rory O'Connor Joe McKelvey Liam Mellows Richard BarrettAnnie Walsh from Limerick, found guilty of murdering her husband, was executed in Mountjoy prison on 5 August 1925. She remains the only woman executed by the Irish State, founded in 1922. After being convicted of murdering a Garda officer, Charlie Kerins, former Chief of Staff to the Anti-Treaty IRA, was hanged at Mountjoy Prison on 1 December 1944; the last execution carried out in the Republic of Ireland, that of Michael Manning, took place in Mountjoy Prison on 20 April 1954. Some Irish leaders involved with the Irish War of Independence and Irish Civil War were held there. On 14 May 1921, an IRA team led by Paddy Daly and Emmet Dalton mounted an attempt to rescue Sean McEoin from the prison, they used a captured armoured car to gain access to Mountjoy, but were discovered and had to shoot their way out. The Fenian poet, author of the popular song "Rising of the Moon", John Keegan'Leo' Casey was imprisoned here during the 1860s. On 31 October 1973, it was the scene of a spectacular escape by a hijacked helicopter by three Provisional Irish Republican Army prisoners, including Seamus Twomey and J.
B O'Hagan. By 2006, a 60-hectare site had been acquired for €30 million at Thornton Hall, where a replacement for Mountjoy was to be constructed; the new facility was intended to accommodate 1,400 prisoners. The site was planned to include court facilities, video-conference links and therapeutic facilities, but due to government cutbacks these plans have now been sidelined. In August 2006, prisoners who were separated from the rest of the population for safety were mixed together for a night with mentally ill inmate Stephen Egan. Prisoner Gary Douche was killed by Egan, found not guilty of murder due to a lack of responsibility; this prompted the Minister of Justice to seek a limit of 520 inmates on the capacity of the prison. In October 2010, the prison was placed under lockdown after a night of violence and rioting involving more than 70 inmates, it started when a number of prisoners attacked three prison officers with pool cues and balls during recreation. Reinforcements were brought in from around Dublin to quell the riot and a number of Alsatians from the riot unit were deployed.
In 2016, figures were released showing that Mountjoy Prison saw a disproportionate number of prisoners hospitalised due to assaults and self-harm. In response, the Irish Penal Reform Trust said the "ongoing levels of violence and intimidation in Irish prisons in Mountjoy Prison, must be addressed". Mountjoy Prison is constructed along a radial design with four main wings, A through D, each of which have three landings, as well as an underground basement landing; the wings are connected to a central circle, known as'the circle'. When built in 1850 it had 500 cells each of, designed for single capacity. Many parts of the original building have either been destroyed. At the time of the 2009 inspection, there were 371 cells in the main unit of the prison; these are the original cells. Their size varies from 3.91m x 2.06m to 3.43m x 2.06m. The prison was built with in-cell sanitation but this was removed in 1939 when it was deemed that'prisoners were using too much water'. However, all cells in the main jail have in-cell sanitation following refurbishment in the period 2010 to 2015.
These cells contain a sink, a television and a small kettle. Facilities in the prison include gymnasiums, computer classes, masonry and a wide variety of school activities such as music and cookery. Prisoners can undertake to complete academic exams in the school such as Junior Certificate, Leaving Certificate and Open University. Additionally, there is an on-site kitchen and bakery where trusted inmates are given employment under supervision; the Medical Unit, otherwise referred to as the drug detoxification unit, is a three storied structure. It provides accommodation for sixty prisoners in forty-eight single person cells and three cells that can accommodate up to four people. All the cells in this unit have in-cell sanitation facilities, it is equipped with medical facilities and kitchen facilities. The Inspector of Prisons reported in 2009 that this unit was bright and clean and did not suffer from overcrowding; the Controlled Behavioural Unit, known as the CBU or the Block, is used for unruly prisoners or those on punishment and is located in the'D' Base, underneath the D wing.
This includes 24-hour lock-up, with th