The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Malcolm Purcell McLean was an American businessman. He was a transport entrepreneur who developed the modern intermodal shipping container, which revolutionized transport and international trade in the second half of the twentieth century. Containerization led to a significant reduction in the cost of freight transportation by eliminating the need for repeated handling of individual pieces of cargo, improved reliability, reduced cargo theft, cut inventory costs by shortening transit time. McLean was born in Maxton, North Carolina in 1913, his first name was spelled Malcolm, though he used Malcom in life. In 1935, when he finished high school at Winston-Salem, his family did not have enough money to send him to college, but there was enough for Malcolm to buy a used truck; the same year, McLean, his sister, Clara McLean, his brother, Jim McLean, founded McLean Trucking Co. Based out of Red Springs, North Carolina, McLean Trucking started out hauling empty tobacco barrels – with Malcolm as one of the drivers.
The idea of transporting trucks on ships was put into practice before World War II. In 1926 regular connection of the luxury passenger train from London to Paris, Golden Arrow/Fleche d'Or, by Southern Railway and French Northern Railway began. For transport of passengers' baggage, four containers were used; these containers were loaded in London or Paris and carried to ports, Dover or Calais, on flat cars in the UK and “CIWL Pullman Golden Arrow Fourgon of CIWL” in France. In the early 1950s, McLean decided to attempt use of the containers commercially. By 1952, he was developing plans to carry his company's trucks on ships along the U. S. Atlantic coast, from North Carolina to New York, it soon became apparent that "trailerships", as they were called, would be inefficient because of the large waste in potential cargo space on board the vessel, known as broken stowage. The original concept was modified into loading just the containers, not the chassis, onto the ships, hence the designation container ship or "box" ship.
At the time, U. S. regulations would not allow a trucking company to own a shipping line. McLean secured a bank loan for $22 million and in January 1956 bought two World War II T-2 tankers, which he converted to carry containers on and under deck. McLean oversaw the construction of wooden shelter decks, known as Mechano decking; this was a common practice in World War II for the carriage such as aircraft. It took several months to refit the ships, construct containers to carry on and below the vessels' decks and design trailer chassis to allow removable containers. On April 26, 1956, with 100 invited dignitaries on hand, one of the converted tankers, the SS Ideal-X, was loaded and sailed from the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, New Jersey, for the Port of Houston, carrying fifty-eight 35-foot Trailer Vans called containers, along with a regular load of liquid tank cargo; as the Ideal-X left the Port of Newark, Freddy Fields, a top official of the International Longshoremen's Association, was asked what he thought of the newly fitted container ship.
Fields replied, "I'd like to sink that son of a bitch." McLean flew to Houston to be on hand. In 1956, most cargoes were unloaded by hand by longshoremen. Hand-loading a ship cost $5.86 a ton at that time. Using containers, it cost only 16 cents a ton to load 36-fold savings. Containerization greatly reduced the time to load and unload ships. McLean knew "A ship earns money only when she's at sea", based his business on that efficiency. In April 1957, the first container ship, the Gateway City, began regular service between New York and Texas. During the summer of 1958 McLean Industries, still using the name Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation, inaugurated container service between the U. S. and San Juan, Puerto Rico with the vessel Fairland. The name was changed from Pan-Atlantic Steamship Corporation to Sea-Land Service, Inc. in April 1960. McLean's operation was profitable by 1961 and he kept adding routes and buying bigger ships. In August 1963, McLean opened a new 101-acre port facility in Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal, to handle more container traffic.
The development of the container market was slow until the late 1960s. Many ports did not have the cranes to lift containers on and off ships, change was slow to come to an industry steeped in tradition. Moreover, unions resisted an idea that threatened their livelihood. In April 1966, Sea-Land commenced service between New York and Rotterdam and Grangemouth; the following year, they were invited by the U. S. Government to start a container service to South Vietnam; the service to Vietnam produced 40% of the company's revenue in 1968/69. In late 1968, commercial container ship service was inaugurated from the Far East to the United States; this service was expanded to Hong Kong and Taiwan in 1969, to Singapore and the Philippines in 1971. To achieve reductions in labor and dock servicing time, McLean followed Roy Fruehauf's lead and became vigilant about standardization, his efforts to increase efficiency resulted in standardized container designs that were awarded patent protection. McLean made his patents available by issuing a royalty-free lease to the International Organization for Standardization.
By the end of the 1960s, Sea-Land Industries had 27,000 trailer-type containers, manufactured by Fruehauf, 36 trailer ships and access to over 30 port cities. As the advantages to McLean's container system became apparent, competitors developed, they built bigger ships, larger gantry cranes and
Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They are a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport and now carry most seagoing non-bulk cargo. Container ship capacity is measured in twenty-foot equivalent units. Typical loads are a mix of 40-foot ISO-standard containers, with the latter predominant. Today, about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container ships, the largest modern container ships can carry over 21,000 TEU. Container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the largest commercial seaborne vessels. There are two main types of dry cargo: bulk break bulk cargo. Bulk cargoes, like grain or coal, are transported unpackaged in the hull of the ship in large volume. Break-bulk cargoes, on the other hand, are transported in packages, are manufactured goods. Before the advent of containerization in the 1950s, break-bulk items were loaded, lashed and unloaded from the ship one piece at a time.
However, by grouping cargo into containers, 1,000 to 3,000 cubic feet of cargo, or up to about 64,000 pounds, is moved at once and each container is secured to the ship once in a standardized way. Containerization has increased the efficiency of moving traditional break-bulk cargoes reducing shipping time by 84% and costs by 35%. In 2001, more than 90% of world trade in non-bulk goods was transported in ISO containers. In 2009 one quarter of the world's dry cargo was shipped by container, an estimated 125 million TEU or 1.19 billion metric tons worth of cargo. The first ships designed to carrying standardized load units were used in the late 18th century in England. In 1766 James Brindley designed the box boat "Starvationer" with 10 wooden containers, to transport coal from Worsley Delph to Manchester by Bridgewater Canal. Before the Second World War first container ships were used to carrying baggages of the luxury passenger train from London to Paris, Golden Arrow / Flèche d'Or, in 1926 by Southern Railway.
These containers were loaded in London or Paris and carried to ports, Dover or Calais, on flat cars in the UK and "CIWL Pullman Golden Arrow Fourgon of CIWL" in France. The earliest container ships after the Second World War were converted oil tankers, built up from surplus T2 tankers after World War II. In 1951, the first purpose-built container vessels began operating in Denmark, between Seattle and Alaska; the first commercially successful container ship was Ideal X, a T2 tanker, owned by Malcom McLean, which carried 58 metal containers between Newark, New Jersey and Houston, Texas, on its first voyage. In 1955, McLean built his company, McLean Trucking into one of United States' biggest freighter fleets. In 1955, he purchased the small Pan Atlantic Steamship Company from Waterman Steamship and adapted its ships to carry cargo in large uniform metal containers. On April 26, 1956, the first of these rebuilt container vessels, Ideal X, left the Port Newark in New Jersey and a new revolution in modern shipping resulted.
MV Kooringa was the world's first cellular purpose-built container ship and was built by Australian company, Associated Steamships Pty. Ltd. in partnership with McIlwraith, McEacharn & Co and commissioned in May 1964. Container vessels eliminate the individual hatches and dividers of the traditional general cargo vessels; the hull of a typical container ship is a huge warehouse divided into cells by vertical guide rails. These cells are designed to hold cargo in pre-packed units – containers. Shipping containers are made of steel, but other materials like aluminum, fiberglass or plywood are used, they are designed to be transferred to and from smaller coastal carriers, trucks or semi-trailers. There are several types of containers and they are categorized according to their size and functions. Today, about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container, modern container ships can carry over 21,000 TEU; as a class, container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the largest commercial vessels on the ocean.
Although containerization caused a revolution in the world of shipping, its introduction did not have an easy passage. Ports, railway companies, shippers were concerned about the huge costs of developing the ports and railway infrastructure needed to handle container ships, for the movement of containers on land by rail and road. Trade unions were concerned about massive job loss among port and dock workers at ports, as containers were sure to eliminate several manual jobs of cargo handling at ports, it took ten years of legal battles before container ships would be pressed into international service. In 1966, a container liner service from the US to the Dutch city of Rotterdam commenced. Containerization changed not only the face of shipping, but it revolutionized world trade as well. A container ship can be loaded and unloaded in a few hours compared to days in a traditional cargo vessel. This, besides cutting labor costs, has reduced shipping times between ports to a great extent, it has resulted in less breakage due to less handling.
As containers are sealed and only opened at the destination and theft levels have been reduced. Containerization has lowered shipping expense and decreased shipping time, this has in turn help
SS Ideal X
SS Ideal X, a converted World War II T-2 oil tanker, was the first commercially successful container ship. Built by The Marinship Corporation during World War II as Potrero Hills, she was purchased by Malcom McLean's Pan-Atlantic Steamship Company. In 1955, the ship was modified to carry shipping containers and rechristened Ideal X. During her first voyage in her new configuration, on April 26, 1956, the Ideal X carried 58 containers from Port Newark, New Jersey, to Port of Houston, where 58 trucks were waiting to be loaded with the containers, it was not the first container ship, however. The Clifford J. Rodgers, operated by the White Pass and Yukon Route, made its debut in 1955. In 1959, the vessel was acquired by Bulgarian owners; the Elemir suffered extensive damage during heavy weather on February 8, 1964, was sold in turn to Japanese breakers. She was scrapped on October 20, 1964, in Hirao, Japan. Cudahy, Brian J.. Box boats: how container ships changed the world. New York: Fordham University Press.
ISBN 0-8232-2568-2. Cudahy, Brian J.. "The Containership Revolution: Malcom McLean's 1956 Innovation Goes Global". TR News. Washington, D. C.: Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. 246: 5–9. Retrieved 2011-03-01.. Levinson, Marc; the Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. Princeton, N. J: Princeton University Press. P. 1. ISBN 0-691-12324-1. Vessel data at Dept. of Transportation April 26, 1956: The Container Ship's Maiden Voyage
The Carlyle Group
The Carlyle Group is an American multinational private equity, alternative asset management and financial services corporation. It specializes in corporate private equity, real assets, global credit, investments. In 2015, Carlyle was the world's largest private equity firm by capital raised over the last five years, according to the PEI 300 index. Founded in 1987 in Washington, D. C. by William E. Conway Jr. Daniel A. D'Aniello, David Rubenstein, the company today has more than 1,575 employees in 31 offices on six continents. On May 3, 2012, Carlyle completed a $700 million initial public offering and began trading on the NASDAQ stock exchange. Carlyle's corporate private equity business has been one of the largest investors in leveraged buyout transactions over the decade 2004–2014, Carlyle has invested in Booz Allen Hamilton, Dex Media, Dunkin' Brands, Freescale Semiconductor, Getty Images, HCR Manor Care, Kinder Morgan, United Defense, other companies; the firm is organized into four business segments: Corporate Private Equity – Management of Carlyle's family of private equity funds investing in leveraged buyout and growth capital transactions through a range of geographically focused investment funds.
Carlyle's Corporate Private Equity division manages a series of leveraged buyout and growth capital investment funds with specific geographic or industry focuses. Carlyle invests in the following industries: aerospace, defense & government services, consumer & retail, financial services, health care, real estate and business services, telecommunications & media, transportation. Carlyle’s Corporate Private Equity segment advises 23 buyout and 10 growth capital funds, with $75 billion in Assets Under Management as of March 31, 2018. Carlyle's Real Assets segment advises 11 U. S. and internationally- focused real estate funds, two infrastructure funds, two power funds, an international energy fund, four Legacy Energy funds. The segment includes nine funds advised by NGP; the Real Assets segment had about $44 billion in AUM as of March 31, 2018. Carlyle’s Global Credit segment advises 53 funds that pursue investment opportunities across distressed & special situations, direct lending, energy credit, loans & structured credit and opportunistic credit.
The Global Credit segment had about $34 billion in AUM as of March 31, 2018. Carlyle’s Investment Solutions segment advises global private equity and real estate fund of funds programs and related co-investment and secondary activities across 209 fund vehicles; the Investment Solutions segment had about $49 billion AUM as of March 31, 2018. AlpInvest Partners is one of the largest private equity investment managers globally with over €38 billion under management as of March 31, 2018, invested alongside more than 250 private equity firms. Founded in 1999, AlpInvest has been the exclusive manager of private equity investments for the investment managers of two of the world's largest pension funds Stichting Pensioenfonds ABP and Stichting Pensioenfonds Zorg en Welzijn, both based in the Netherlands. In 2011, Carlyle acquired AlpInvest and has integrated the business, including its leading fund-of-funds and secondary platforms expanding Carlyle's global asset management business. AlpInvest pursues investment opportunities across the entire spectrum of private equity including: large buyout, middle-market buyout, venture capital, growth capital, mezzanine and sustainable energy investments.
AlpInvest has offices in New York City and Hong Kong with about 150 people, of whom more than 80 are investment professionals. Carlyle's real estate fund of funds group is called Metropolitan, which provides investors with access to multi-manager real estate funds and solutions with more than 85 fund managers in the United States, Europe and Latin America. Metropolitan constructs and manages U. S. non-U. S. and global real estate portfolios, which include primary and secondary fund interests as well as co-investments. Carlyle was founded in 1987 as an investment banking boutique by five partners with backgrounds in finance and government: William E. Conway, Jr. Stephen L. Norris, David M. Rubenstein, Daniel A. D'Aniello and Greg Rosenbaum; the founding partners named the firm after the Carlyle Hotel in New York City where Norris and Rubenstein had planned the new investment business. Rubenstein, a Washington-based lawyer, had worked in the Carter Administration. Norris and D'Aneillo had worked together at Marriott Corporation.
Rosenbaum left in the first year and Norris departed in 1995. Rubenstein, Conway and D'Aneillo remain active in the business. Carlyle was founded with $5 million of financial backing from T. Rowe Price, Alex. Brown & Sons, First Interstate Equities, the Richard King Mellon family. In the late 1980s, Carlyle raised capital deal-by-deal to pursue leveraged buyout investments, including a failed takeover battle for Chi-Chi's; the firm raised its first dedicated buyout fund with $100 million of investor commitments in 1990. In its early years, Carlyle advised in transactions including, in 1991, a $500 million investment in Citigroup by Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal
A. P. Møller – Mærsk A/S known as Maersk, is a Danish business conglomerate with activities in the transport and energy sectors. Maersk has been the largest container ship and supply vessel operator in the world since 1996; the company is based in Copenhagen, with subsidiaries and offices across 130 countries and around 88,000 employees. In September 2016, Maersk Group announced splitting into two separate divisions: transport & logistics and energy; the company's 2017 annual revenue was US$35 billion. Dampskibsselskabet Svendborg was founded in Svendborg in April 1904 by captain Peter Mærsk Møller and his son Arnold Peter Møller. A. P. Møller had all by his first wife Chastine Estelle Roberta Mc-Kinney, their second child was Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller, who became a partner in 1939 and head of the firm upon his father's death. In 1993, he was succeeded as CEO by Jess Søderberg, he continued as chairman until December 2003, at which point he was 90 years of age and Michael Pram Rasmussen took over. Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller was until his death one of the "managing owners" of the company and was chairman of Odense Steel Shipyard until 2 May 2006.
In 2017, the company was one of the main victims of the NotPetya ransom malware attack, which disrupted its operation for several months. P. M. Møller, a religious Christian, attached a blue banner with a white seven pointed star on both sides of the black chimney on the steamship Laura when his wife recovered from illness. In a letter to his wife, P. M. Møller explained in October 1886, "The little star on the chimney is a memory of the night when I prayed for you and asked for a sign: If a star would appear in the gray and cloudy sky, it would mean that the Lord answers prayers." The same star became the emblem of the Maersk Group. A. P. Moller–Maersk is structured into two main business segments: transport & logistics and energy; these two branches include several subsidiaries such as related activities. P. Moller–Maersk, providing half of the group's revenue in 2008, it comprises worldwide container services and forwarding and terminal activities under the brand names: Maersk Line and Damco.
Since 1996, Mærsk has been the largest container shipping company in the world. The largest operating unit in A. P. Moller–Maersk by revenue and staff is Maersk Line. In 2013, the company described itself as the world's largest overseas cargo carrier and operated over 600 vessels with 3.8 million twenty-foot equivalent unit container capacity. As of September 2015, as the largest container fleet, it held 15.1% of the global TEU. In 2006, the largest container ship in the world to that date, the E-class vessel Emma Maersk, was delivered to Maersk Line from Odense Steel Shipyard. Since, seven other sister ships have since been built, on February 21, 2011 Maersk ordered 10 larger container ships from Daewoo, the Triple E class, each with a capacity of 18,000 containers; the first were delivered in 2013. There was an option for 10–20 more, in June 2011, Maersk placed a follow-on order for a second batch of ten sisterships but cancelled its option for a third batch of ten; as of February 2010, Maersk had an order book for new ships totalling 857000TEU.
Maersk Line cooperated with the US Navy on testing 7–100% algae biofuel on the Maersk Kalmar in December 2011. In January 2012, Søren Skou took over as CEO of Maersk Line from Eivind Kolding; that year, the company ceased its business in Iran in order to prevent potential damage to the company's business with Western countries the US, due to the sanctions regime led by those countries. A. P. Moller–Maersk's independent APM Terminals business unit with its separate headquarters in The Hague, operates a Global Port and Inland Services Network with interests in 57 ports and container terminals in 36 countries on five continents, as well as 155 Inland Services operations in 48 countries. Port and Terminal Operations include: Europe: Algeciras, Barcelona, Gothenburg, Port of Poti, Rotterdam-Maasvlakte, Rotterdam-Maasvlakte 2, Wilhelmshaven-JadeWeserPort, Gijon, Zeebrugge. North America: Los Angeles, Mobile, Port Elizabeth, Tacoma. Latin America: Buenos Aires, Itajaí, Pecém, Santos, Lázaro Cárdenas, Puerto Quetzal, Buenaventura, Cartagena Middle East: Aqaba, Bahrain, Port Said Asia: Cai Mep, Dalian, Kobe, Laem Chabang, Pipavav, Tanjung Pelepas, Shanghai, Yokohama, Dhaka.
Africa: Abidjan, Cotonou, Luanda, Onne, Pointe Noire, Port Elizabeth, Tema. New projects under construction: Limón, Savona, [[Temaa} amet is ine of the maersk company Maersk Container Industry A/S: Container manufacturing with factories in China and headquarters in Denmark. Container Inland Services: Includes: depots, equipment repair, container sales and related activity. Svitzer has a fleet of over 400 tugs, line handlers and other vessels; the company provides harbour and terminal towage services in
Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using intermodal containers. The containers have standardized dimensions, they can be loaded and unloaded, transported efficiently over long distances, transferred from one mode of transport to another—container ships, rail transport flatcars, semi-trailer trucks—without being opened. The handling system is mechanized so that all handling is done with cranes and special forklift trucks. All containers are tracked using computerized systems. Containerization originated several centuries ago but was not well developed or applied until after World War II, when it reduced the costs of transport, supported the post-war boom in international trade, was a major element in globalization. Containerization did away with the need for warehousing, it displaced many thousands of dock workers who handled break bulk cargo. Containerization reduced congestion in ports shortened shipping time and reduced losses from damage and theft. Containers can be made of weathering steel to minimize maintenance needs.
Before containerization, goods were handled manually as break bulk cargo. Goods would be loaded onto a vehicle from the factory and taken to a port warehouse where they would be offloaded and stored awaiting the next vessel; when the vessel arrived, they would be moved to the side of the ship along with other cargo to be lowered or carried into the hold and packed by dock workers. The ship might call at several other ports before off-loading a given consignment of cargo; each port visit would delay the delivery of other cargo. Delivered cargo might have been offloaded into another warehouse before being picked up and delivered to its destination. Multiple handling and delays made transport costly, time consuming and unreliable. Containerization has its origins in early coal mining regions in England beginning in the late 18th century. In 1766 James Brindley designed the box boat'Starvationer' with 10 wooden containers, to transport coal from Worsley Delph to Manchester by Bridgewater Canal. In 1795, Benjamin Outram opened the Little Eaton Gangway, upon which coal was carried in wagons built at his Butterley Ironwork.
The horse-drawn wheeled wagons on the gangway took the form of containers, loaded with coal, could be transshipped from canal barges on the Derby Canal, which Outram had promoted. By the 1830s, railroads on several continents were carrying containers that could be transferred to other modes of transport; the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in the United Kingdom was one of these. "Simple rectangular timber boxes, four to a wagon, they were used to convey coal from the Lancashire collieries to Liverpool, where they were transferred to horse-drawn carts by crane." Used for moving coal on and off barges, "loose boxes" were used to containerize coal from the late 1780s, at places like the Bridgewater Canal. By the 1840s, iron boxes were in use as well as wooden ones; the early 1900s saw the adoption of closed container boxes designed for movement between road and rail. On 17 May 1917, Benjamin Franklin Fitch inaugurated exploitation of the experimental installation for transfer of the containers called the demountable bodies based on his own design in Cincinnati, Ohio in US.
In 1919, his system was extended to over 200 containers serving 21 railway stations with 14 freight trucks. Prior to the Second World War, many European countries independently developed container systems. In 1919, Stanisław Rodowicz, an engineer, developed the first draft of the container system in Poland. In 1920, he built a prototype of the biaxial wagon; the Polish-Bolshevik War stopped development of the container system in Poland. The US Post Office contracted with the New York Central Railroad to move mail via containers in May 1921. In 1930, the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad began shipping containers between Chicago and Milwaukee. However, their efforts ended in the spring of 1931 when the Interstate Commerce Commission wouldn't allow the use of a flat rate for the containers. In 1926, a regular connection of the luxury passenger train from London to Paris, Golden Arrow/Fleche d'Or, by Southern Railway and French Northern Railway, began. For transport of passengers' baggage four containers were used.
These containers were loaded in London or Paris and carried to ports, Dover or Calais, on flat cars in the UK and "CIWL Pullman Golden Arrow Fourgon of CIWL" in France. At the Second World Motor Transport Congress in Rome, September 1928, Italian senator Silvio Crespi proposed the use of containers for road and railway transport systems, using collaboration rather than competition; this would be done under the auspices of an international organ similar to the Sleeping Car Company, which provided international carriage of passengers in sleeping wagons. In 1928 Pennsylvania Railroad started regular container service in the northeast United States. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 in New York and the subsequent Great Depression, many countries were without any means of transport for cargo; the railroads were sought as a possibility to transport cargo, there was an opportunity to bring containers into broader use. Under auspices of the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris in Venice on September 30, 1931, on one of the platforms of the Maritime Station, practical tests were done to assess the best construction for European containers as part of an international competition.
In the same year, 1931, in USA Benjamin Franklin Fitch designed the two largest and heaviest containers in existence anywhere at the time. One measured 17'6" by 8'0" by 8'0" with a capacity of 30,000 pounds