Hamilton is the capital of the British Overseas Territory of Bermuda. It is a major port and tourist destination, its population of 1,010 is one of the smallest of any capital cities. The history of Hamilton as a British city began in 1790 when the government of Bermuda set aside 145 acres for its future seat incorporated in 1793 by an Act of Parliament, named for Governor Henry Hamilton; the colony's capital relocated to Hamilton from St George's in 1815. The city has been at the political and military heart of Bermuda since. Government buildings include the parliament building, the Government House to the north, the former Admiralty House of the Royal Navy to the west, the British Army garrison headquarters at Prospect Camp to its east; the Town of Hamilton became a city in 1897, ahead of the consecration in 1911 of the Cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity, under construction at the time. A Catholic cathedral, St. Theresa's, was constructed. Today, the city overlooking Hamilton Harbour is a business district, with few structures other than office buildings and shops.
The City of Hamilton has long maintained a building height and view limit, which states that no buildings may obscure the Cathedral. In the 21st century, buildings have been planned and some are under construction that are as high as ten storeys in the area. Bermuda's local newspaper, The Royal Gazette, reports, "If you don't recognise the city, from 15 years ago, we don't blame you as it has changed so much". Hamilton is located on the north side of Hamilton Harbour, is Bermuda's main port. Although there is a parish of the same name, the city of Hamilton is in the parish of Pembroke; the city is named after Sir Henry Hamilton, governor of the territory from 1786 to 1793. Hamilton Parish antedates the city; the administrative capital of Bermuda, has a limited permanent population around 1,010. The only incorporated city in Bermuda, Hamilton is smaller than the historic town of St. George's. A more representative measure of Bermuda's local residential populations tends to be by parish; as the offshore domicile of many foreign companies, Bermuda has a developed international business economy.
Finance and international business constitute the largest sector of Bermuda's economy, all of this business takes place within the borders of Hamilton. Numerous leading international insurance companies are based in Hamilton, as it is a global reinsurance centre. Around 400 internationally owned and operated businesses are physically based in Bermuda, many are represented by the Association of Bermuda International Companies. In total, over 1,500 exempted or international companies are registered with the Registrar of Companies in Bermuda; the city is the registered headquarters of the spirits manufacturer Bacardi, semiconductor manufacturer Marvell Technology, outsourcing company Genpact, telecommunications company Global Crossing, reinsurance company Tokio Millennium Re Ltd. Hamilton is known as the headquarters of international shipping companies, such as DryShips Inc, Frontline Ltd. and Dockwise. Its low corporate tax rate makes it attractive to US companies. In addition, the corporate headquarters of the Bermuda grocery store chain The MarketPlace is located within the chain's Hamilton MarketPlace location, the largest grocery store in Bermuda.
Hamilton was named the city with the highest cost of living index in the world. The coat of arms of the city of Hamilton incorporate a shield featuring a golden sailing ship, representing the Resolution, surrounded by three cinquefoils, two above the ship and one below in gold, all on a plain blue background; this shield is supported by a mermaid and heraldic sea horse, is placed on a mount in front of, a scroll containing the motto "Sparsa Collegit". The shield is topped by a crest featuring a closed helm topped with a torque above which an heraldic seahorse is emerging from the sea holding a flower; the city's full motto is Hamilton sparsa collegit. The city's flag is a banner of arms, featuring the same details as on the shield of the city's coat of arms, but with the flowers in white rather than gold; the city of Hamilton has many parks for its size. The most notable park in the city is Victoria Park; this park was named after Queen Victoria. Other parks in the city are Par La Ville Park, Barr's Park, All Buoy's Point Park, the hidden Cedar Park.
Although located some distance north of the geographic tropics, Hamilton has a warm trade-wind tropical rainforest climate. It is warm enough for coconut palms and other tropical palms to grow, although they may not fruit properly due to the lack of heat or sunshine during the winter months because of latitude. Hamilton has uncharacteristically warm temperatures for its latitude because of the moderating influence of the North Atlantic and nearby Gulf Stream. Hamilton features warm and humid summers and semi-warm "winters"; as temperatures are moderated by the Atlantic Ocean, it gets hot or cold in the city. Precipitation is plentiful throughout the year and Hamilton does not have a dry season month, a month where on average less than 60 mm of precipitation falls. Summer precipitation is from showers and tropical disturbances or tropical cyclones. Meanwhile, winter precipitation is derived from westerly moving extra-tropical cyclones and their associated fronts
SeaStreak is a private ferry company operating in the Port of New York and New Jersey and in New England. It provides high-speed commuter service between points on the Raritan Bayshore in Monmouth County, New Jersey and in Manhattan in New York City as well as special event and sightseeing excursions in the harbor and seasonal service to the New England coast. SeaStreak began operation in 1986 as TNT Hydrolines, a subsidiary of TNT of Australia operating commuter ferry services between New Jersey and New York City. In 1994 all of TNT maritime assets where acquired by Holyman Brothers of Australia and the ferry service name was changed to Express Navigation. In 1999 Sea Containers acquired Express Navigation; the company was renamed SeaStreak. Following Sea Containers filing for bankruptcy in 2006, SeaSteak was sold to New England Fast Ferry in 2008. SeaStreak operates a fleet of seven diesel-powered double-hulled catamarans; the SeaStreak Highlands, SeaStreak Wall Street, SeaStreak New Jersey, SeaStreak New York are all 141 foot vessels owned by SeaStreak.
The vessels were built by Gladding-Hearn Shipbuilding of Massachusetts. The Ocean State is a 65-foot vessel owned by New England Fast Ferry, it is used as the ferry for the seasonal Providence to Newport route. The vessel was built by Merrifield-Roberts of Bristol; the Martha's Vineyard Express and "Whaling City Express" are 95-foot vessels owned by New England Fast Ferry and is operated by SeaStreak from September through May. The vessel was built by Derecktor Shipyards of Mamaroneck and is the sister ship of New England Fast Ferry's Whaling City Express, it operates between Martha's Vineyard during the summer months. Past vessels have included the SeaStreak Manhattan, the SeaStreak Brooklyn, the SeaStreak Liberty, among a few others. All of these catamaran ferries were designed by Incat Crowther. SeaStreak announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016 for service between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to enter service in 2017. Construction took longer than planned, the vessel, named SeaStreak Commodore, was launched in March 2018, with its entry into service the following month.
SeaStreak routes connect the towns of Atlantic Highlands and Highlands in Monmouth County, New Jersey with Pier 11 at Wall Street and the East 34th Street Ferry Landing on the East River in Manhattan. During the morning rush hour the trip from the Raritan Bayshore to Manhattan takes 40 minutes and there is limited shuttle service to Battery Park City Ferry Terminal. From Memorial Day weekend through Labor Day weekend, service is provided to the public beaches in Sandy Hook a few times each day. Service is provided to Yankee Stadium for selected New York Yankees games and to Citi Field for New York Mets games on weekends; the company has long offered "special event cruises" such as sightseeing excursions, sunset cruises, trips to Broadway matinees, college football games at West Point, the Macy's Fourth of July fireworks, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, to see the fall foliage in the Hudson Valley. On July 17, 2009, SeaStreak began providing weekend service between New York City and Martha's Vineyard.
One ferry departs New York City on Friday afternoon and returns on Sunday night. The trip through Long Island Sound and along the shoreline of Rhode Island and Massachusetts takes a little over five hours; the service will continue through Labor Day weekend and was implemented following the success of a trial run held over the Fourth of July weekend. Before launching its service to Martha's Vineyard, SeaStreak had expressed an interest in providing a similar service on summer weekends to Sag Harbor in the Hamptons, but there were concerns over traffic and ferry service is a non-permitted use in the village code. In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, which on October 29, 2012 caused massive infrastructure damage to the New York City Subway system's IND Rockaway Line A train branch south of the station at Howard Beach – JFK Airport, severing all direct subway connections between the Rockaway Peninsula and Broad Channel and the Queens mainland for many months, SeaStreak began running a ferry service between a makeshift ferry slip at Beach 108th Street and Beach Channel Drive in Rockaway Park and Pier 11 in Lower Manhattan.
The service ran from Monday through Friday for a fare of $3.50, with five morning Rockaway-to-Manhattan trips between 5:40 a.m. and 9:25 a.m. with three morning return trips from Pier 11 back to Rockaway between 6:35 a.m. and 8:35 a.m. The fare, subsidized by the city government, was set at $2, but was raised to $3.50 on Feb. 1, 2014 after the service was extended. All five of the Rockaway-to-Manhattan trips first included a stop at the ferry landing at the Brooklyn Army Terminal industrial complex on 58th Street in Sunset Park, added to the schedule in August 2013 due to extensive Sandy-related damage to the nearby BMT Broadway Line R-Train infrastructure and the resulting disruptions to service between Brooklyn and Manhattan from the repair work, although the morning Rockaway-bound ferry return trips did not stop there; the morning runs to Manhattan all included an additional stop at East 34th Street. The three earliest trips required a transfer to another waiting vessel, while the two trips continued straight through with no transfer.
There was no morning return service to Brooklyn or Rockaway from East 34th Street. In the afternoon/evening, SeaStreak ran five Manhattan-to-Rockaway trips between 2:45 p.m. and 7:30 p.m
SNAV is an Italian company that operates ferry services from Italy to Sardinia and Sicily. SNAV operates a large network of routes across the Adriatic. Naples - Palermo / Pontine Islands / Aeolian Islands Split - Ancona / Stari Grad / Pescara SNAV operates a fleet of 5 large RORO ferries, 14 high speed ferries and 5 hydrofoils. MS SNAV Lazio MS SNAV Sardegna MS SNAV Toscana HSC Croazia Jet HSC SNAV Alcione HSC SNAV Aldebaran HSC SNAV Altair HSC SNAV Andromeda HSC SNAV Antares HSC SNAV Aquarius HSC SNAV Aquila HSC SNAV Aries HSC SNAV Orion HF Superjumbo
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
Aegean Speed Lines
Aegean Speed Lines is a Greek ferry company operating fast ferries between Piraeus and the Cyclades. Aegean Speed Lines were formed in 2005 as a joint venture between Sea Containers and the Eugenides Group. Aegean Speed Lines were the first ferry company in Greece to use a European Union flag vessel on a domestic route following deregulation of ferry services in Greece. Sea Containers sold its share in 2006 leaving the Eugenides Group as the major shareholder. Aegean Speed Lines began operations using a single high speed catamaran Speedrunner I. Following two successful seasons a Fincantieri built monohull Speedrunner II joined the fleet in 2007. On 2008, the company sold Speedrunner I. In 2009 two more monohulls Speedrunner III and Speedruner IV joined the fleet. In 2015 and 2016 the company sold the Speedrunner II and the Speedrunner IV. Current fleet: Speedrunner III Former fleet: Speedrunner I Speedrunner II Speedrunner IV Piraeus–Serifos–Sifnos–Milos In 2009 Aegean Speed Lines was awarded by "Lloyd's List Greek Shipping Awards" as "The Best Passenger Line of the Year 2009"
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$30.1 trillion as of February 2018. The average daily trading value was US$169 billion in 2013; the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007; the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, it was part of NYSE Euronext, formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with Euronext. The NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation; the earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement.
Securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. On May 17, 1792 twenty four brokers signed the Buttonwood Agreement which set a floor commission rate charged to clients and bound the signers to give preference to the other signers in securities sales; the earliest securities traded were governmental securities such as War Bonds from the Revolutionary War and First Bank of the United States stock, although Bank of New York stock was a non-governmental security traded in the early days. The Bank of North America along with the First Bank of the United States and the Bank of New York were the first shares traded on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms and reorganized. After sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance.
After re-forming as the New York Stock and Exchange Board the broker organization began renting out space for securities trading, taking place at the Tontine Coffee House. Several locations were used between 1865, when the present location was adopted; the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, New York's market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Open Board of Stock Brokers was established in 1864 as a competitor to the NYSE. With 354 members, the Open Board of Stock Brokers rivaled the NYSE in membership "because it used a more modern, continuous trading system superior to the NYSE’s twice-daily call sessions." The Open Board of Stock Brokers merged with the NYSE in 1869. Robert Wright of Bloomberg writes that the merger increased the NYSE's members as well as trading volume, as "several dozen regional exchanges were competing with the NYSE for customers. Buyers and dealers all wanted to complete transactions as and cheaply as technologically possible and that meant finding the markets with the most trading, or the greatest liquidity in today’s parlance.
Minimizing competition was essential to keep a large number of orders flowing, the merger helped the NYSE to maintain its reputation for providing superior liquidity." The Civil War stimulated speculative securities trading in New York. By 1869 membership had to be capped, has been sporadically increased since; the latter half of the nineteenth century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics and crashes. Government regulation of securities trading was seen as necessary, with arguably the most dramatic changes occurring in the 1930s after a major stock market crash precipitated the Great Depression; the Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the seventh floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building; the NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21, 2005, in a deal intended to reorganize the NYSE as a publicly traded company.
NYSE's governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6, 2005, became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8, 2006. A little over one year on April 4, 2007, the NYSE Group completed its merger with Euronext, the European combined stock market, thus forming NYSE Euronext, the first transatlantic stock exchange. Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. "It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, financial industry firms". The principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, insurance. Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE and the CEO was Duncan Niederauer. Presently, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher. In 2016, NYSE owner Intercontinental Exchange Inc. earned $419 million in listings-related revenues.
The exchange was closed shortly after the beginning of World War I, but it re-opened on November 28 of that year in order to help the war effort by trading bonds, reopened for stock tradin