United States Naval Construction Battalions, better known as the Navy Seabees, form the U. S. Naval Construction Force; the Seabee nickname is a heterograph of the first letters "C B" from the words Construction Battalion. Depending upon how the word is used "Seabee" can refer to one of three things: all the enlisted personnel in the USN's occupational field 7, all officers and enlisted assigned to the Naval Construction Force, or Construction Battalions either Mobile or Amphibious. Seabees serve outside the NCF as well. During WWII they served in both the Naval Combat Demolition Units and the Underwater Demolition Teams. In addition, they served as elements of Cubs, Lions and the United States Marine Corps, they would provide the manpower for the top secret CWS Flame Tank Group. Today they have many special task assignments starting with Camp David and the Naval Support Unit at the Department of State. Seabees serve under both Commanders of the Naval Surface Forces Atlantic/Pacific fleets as well as on many base Public Works and USN diving commands.

Naval Construction Battalions were conceived of as a replacement for civilian construction companies working for the U. S. Navy after the U. S. was drawn into World War II with the attack on Pearl Harbor. At that time civilian contractors had 70,000 men working on U. S. bases overseas. International law made it illegal for civilian workers to resist an attack. To do so would classify them as guerrillas and could lead to summary execution; that is what happened when the Japanese invaded Wake Island. Adm. Moreell's concept model CB was a USMC trained battalion of construction tradesmen. A military equivalent of those civilian companies, capable of any type of construction, anywhere needed, under any conditions or circumstances, it was realized that CBs were flexible and could be utilized in every theater of operations. The use of USMC organization allowed for smooth co-ordination, integration or interface between NCF and Marine Corps elements. Additionally, CBs could be deployed individually or in multiples as the project scope and scale dictated.

What distinguishes Seabees from Combat Engineers are the skill sets. Combat Engineering is but a sub-set in the Seabee toolbox, they have a storied legacy of creative field ingenuity, stretching from Normandy and Okinawa to Iraq and Afghanistan. Adm. Ernest King wrote to the Seabees on their second anniversary, "Your ingenuity and fortitude have become a legend in the naval service." Seabees believe that anything they are tasked with, they "Can Do". They remain so today. In the October 1944 issue of Flying magazine, the Seabees are described as "a phenomenon of World War II"; the Seabees now have over 75 years of service without having changed from Adm. Moreell's model. CB Conceptual Formation In the early 1930s, the idea that the Twelfth Regiment pioneered in 1917 was still remembered by the Navy's Civil Engineers. Planners at the Bureau of Yards and Docks began providing for "Navy Construction Battalions" in contingency war plans and in 1934 Capt. Carl Carlson's version of the CB idea was tentatively approved by Chief of Naval Operations, Adm. Standley.

The next year RADM. Norman Smith, head of BuDocks, selected Captain Walter Allen, War Plans Officer, to represent BuDocks on the War Plans Board. Capt. Allen presented the bureau's "Naval Construction Battalions concept" and the Board included it in the Rainbow war plans; the Seabees would name their first training center for Capt. Allen. One flaw to the proposal was. Another issue was no provision for the military organization or military training necessary to provide unit structure and esprit de corps; the plans only allowed for battalions to be formed to build training stations throughout CONUS. Only afterwards could they be forward deployed. RADM. Ben Moreell became BuDocks Chief in December 1937 and would become the lead proponent of the CB proposal. By summer of 1941 civilian contractors were working on Guam, Wake, Pearl Harbor, Iceland and Bermuda. BuDocks decided there was a need to improve Navy project supervision through the creation of "Headquarters Construction Companies"; these companies would do no actual construction work.

The companies would be draftsmen and surveyors to aid the officers in charge of construction as well as the construction inspectors. RADM. Chester Nimitz, Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, authorized the formation of the 1st Headquarters Construction Company, on October 31st 1941. Recruitment began in November. Company formation and boot training began December 7th at Rhode Island. By Dec. 16th four additional companies had been authorized but, Pearl Harbor had happened changing all plans. On December 28th 1941, RADM Moreell requested authority to commission three Naval Construction Battalions. Approval came January 5th, 1942 and the Naval Bureau of Navigation authorized that recruitment begin for experienced construction tradesmen; the 1st HQ Construction Company was used to commission the 1st Naval Construction Detachment, assigned to [. They were sent to Boro Boro and are known in Seabee history as "Bobcats". Concurrently, the other four requested HQ Construction Companies had been authorized.

BuDocks took 3 to form the 1st Naval Construction Battalion at Charleston So. Carolina, they were deployed as 3rd Construction Detachments. HQ Companies 4 & 5 were used for the 2nd NCB and were deployed as the 4th and

Henry Littlejohn

Sir Henry Duncan Littlejohn was a Scottish surgeon, forensic scientist and public health pioneer. He is known as an inspiration for the literary character Sherlock Holmes. Henry Littlejohn was born in Edinburgh in 1826 to Isabella Duncan and Thomas Littlejohn, a confectioner of 33 Leith Street, he began his studies before attending the Royal High School, Edinburgh. He studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh, graduating with distinction in 1847, he was taught surgery by Robert Halliday Gunning. Littlejohn served as Edinburgh's first Medical Officer of Health, introducing model sanitation improvements and the legal requirement to notify cases of infectious diseases, he contributed to the public health movement in Edinburgh and to public health administration and to urban management. He was assisted in years by Dr Thomas William Drinkwater FRSE. Littlejohn co-founded the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Edinburgh. Long a lecturer for the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh at Surgeons' Hall, he was appointed to the Chair of Medical Jurisprudence at the University of Edinburgh in 1897.

Serving as Edinburgh's Police Surgeon from 1854 and as Medical Advisor to the Crown in Scotland in criminal cases, he was called upon as an expert witness. From 1862 he was Edinburgh's first Medical Officer of Health. A kirk elder at the High Kirk of Edinburgh, Littlejohn filled several prominent posts in public life, including nine years on the board of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, president of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, president of the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, president of the Royal Institute of Public Health. Although Arthur Conan Doyle credited Joseph Bell as being the source of inspiration for his character Sherlock Holmes, he cited Henry Littlejohn as being a contributing influence. Littlejohn, as a forensic expert involved in police investigations, appears to have been joined by Bell on several investigations. Henry Littlejohn was knighted in 1895 by Queen Victoria. In his life he lived at 24 Royal Circus in Edinburgh's Second New Town, he died at Benreoch, near Arrochar in Argyll in 1914, was interred at the Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh.

His grave is on the edge of the southern path towards the west end. He is buried with his wife, Isabella Jane Harvey, their children. Sir Henry was the father of Henry Harvey Littlejohn who followed in his father's footsteps and continued his adoption of tangential thinking to resolve investigations

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, on women and security, was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on 31 October 2000, after recalling resolutions 1261, 1265, 1296, 1314. The resolution acknowledged the disproportionate and unique impact of armed conflict on women and girls, it calls for the adoption of a gender perspective to consider the special needs of women and girls during conflict and resettlement, rehabilitation and post-conflict reconstruction. Resolution 1325 was the first formal and legal document from the Security Council that required parties in a conflict to prevent violations of women's rights, to support women's participation in peace negotiations and in post-conflict reconstruction, to protect women and girls from wartime sexual violence, it was the first United Nations Security Council resolution to mention the impact of conflict on women. The resolution has since become an organizing framework for the women and security agenda, which focuses on advancing the components of Resolution 1325.

The observations highlight how the Council considers the issue of women and armed conflict important to international peace and security. They express the Council's concern about civilians in armed conflict women and children, who constitute most of the victims of conflict and who are targeted by armed groups. Attacks against civilians women and children, negatively impact peace and reconciliation. More the observations: Reaffirm the important role that women play in conflict prevention, conflict resolution, peace-building. Emphasize the importance of women's equal involvement in peace and security and the need for women's increased participation in conflict prevention and peace-building. Reaffirm the importance of international humanitarian and human rights law in the protection of women and their rights. Recognize the need to adopt a gender perspective in peacekeeping operations and training of peacekeeping personnel on the special needs of women and children in conflict and humanitarian settings.

Recognizes that the protection of women and girls and their participation in peace processes is important to international peace and security. The operational items in Resolution 1325 broadly call upon member states to address the needs of women and girls in armed conflict and support their participation in peace negotiations; the key components and recommendations of the resolution are: Preventing sexual and gender-based violence in armed conflict: Resolution 1325 calls upon all parties to conflict to take special measures to protect women and girls from violence in armed conflict sexual and gender-based violence. It calls for states to end impunity for crimes against humanity sexual violence, prosecute offenders. Peace negotiations: The resolution calls for including a gender perspective in peace negotiations and increasing women's participation in peace negotiation, with particular attention to supporting local women's peace initiatives. Protection of women and girls in refugee settings: The resolution calls upon parties to conflict to consider the special needs of women in girls in designing and administering refugee camps.

Disarmament and reintegration: It calls for considering gender in DDR the different needs of male and female ex-combatants. Women's political participation: The resolution calls upon member states to increase women's participation at all levels of decision-making in national and international institutions. Incorporate a gender perspective into peacekeeping operations, consider gender in Security Council missions, consult with international and local women's organizations. Provide training for the UN and member states on the protection and needs of women. Gender balancing in the UN: Increase women's representation as Special Representatives and envoys, in field operations among military observers and human rights and humanitarian personnel. Reporting: The resolution requests that the UN Secretary-General conduct a study on the impact of armed conflict on women and girls, the role of women in peace-building, the gender dimensions of peace processes and conflict resolution, on gender mainstreaming in UN peacekeeping missions.

It invites the Secretary-General to report the findings of these studies to the Security Council. The resolution calls upon all countries to respect international law applicable to the rights and protection of women and girls, in particular the obligation under the Geneva Convention of 1949 and Additional Protocol thereto of 1977, the 1951 Refugee Convention and the Protocol thereto of 1967, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and its Optional Protocol, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and both its Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict and its Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, to bear in mind the provisions of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court; the resolution was passed unanimously in October 2000 after extensive lobbying by the NGO Working Group on Women and Security and United Nations Development Fund for Women. Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah Minister of Women's Affairs in Namibia, initiated the resolution when the country took its turn chairing the Security Council.

Ambassador Anwarul Chowdhury, representing Bangladesh at the Council made significant contributions by using Banglad