The Seaboard Air Line Railroad, which styled itself "The Route of Courteous Service," was an American railroad which existed from April 14, 1900, until July 1, 1967, when it merged with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, its longtime rival, to form the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad. Predecessor railroads dated from the 1830s and reorganized extensively to rebuild after the American Civil War; the company was headquartered in Norfolk, until 1958, when its main offices were relocated to Richmond, Virginia. The Seaboard Air Line Railway Building in Norfolk's historic Freemason District still stands and has been converted into apartments. At the end of 1925 SAL operated 3,929 miles not including its flock of subsidiaries; the main line ran from Richmond via Raleigh, North Carolina, South Carolina, Savannah, Georgia to Jacksonville, Florida, a major interchange point for passenger trains bringing travelers to the Sunshine State. From Jacksonville, Seaboard rails continued to St. Petersburg, West Palm Beach and Miami.
Other important Seaboard routes included a line from Jacksonville via Tallahassee to a connection with the Louisville and Nashville Railroad at Chattahoochee, for through service to New Orleans. In the first half of the 20th century, along with its main competitors Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, Florida East Coast Railway and Southern Railway, contributed to the economic development of the Southeastern United States, to that of Florida, its trains brought vacationers to Florida from the Northeast and carried southern timber and produce Florida citrus crops, to the northern states. The complex corporate history of the Seaboard began on March 8, 1832, when its earliest predecessor, the Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad was chartered by the legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina to build a railroad from Portsmouth, Virginia, to the Roanoke River port of Weldon, North Carolina. After a couple of months of horse-drawn operation, the first locomotive-pulled service on this line began on September 4, 1834, with a twice-daily train from Portsmouth to Suffolk, Virginia, 17 miles away.
By June 1837 the railroad was completed to Weldon, where a connection was made with the tracks of the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad. In 1846, after suffering financial difficulties, the P&R was reorganized as the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad, known informally as the Seaboard Road. Meanwhile, the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad had begun construction on November 1, 1836, with the first scheduled service between its endpoints beginning on March 21, 1840. After the American Civil War, this was advertised as the Inland Air-Line Route. By 1853, the Roanoke and Gaston had connected with the Seaboard and Roanoke at Weldon, thus offering travelers through service on the 176-mile route from Portsmouth to Raleigh. Both railroads were built to standard gauge, 4 feet, 8½ inches, rather than the 5-foot gauge favored by most other railroads in the South; the R&G takeover gave the P&R control of the Raleigh & Augusta Air-Line Railroad which the former road controlled. This was the first time; the R&AA-L began as the Chatham Railroad, chartered by the state in February 14, 1855 to build a rail line, "...between Deep River, at or near the Coalfields, Moncure, NC in the county of Chatham, the City of Raleigh or some point on the North Carolina Railroad."
The project was riddled with delays and reorganized as the Raleigh & Augusta Air-Line in 1871. It reached Hamlet in 1877 which in years was a major SAL terminal point. With a route that now extended through North Carolina the three roads offered a competitive network serving several important cities; the South was blossoming into an industrial giant in the area of cotton, agriculture/farming and manufacturing. The American Civil War devastated railroads in former Confederate territories including Virginia and North Carolina. After the war, Moncure Robinson and Alexander Boyd Andrews organized the Seaboard Inland Air Line to connect Georgia and South Carolina to Portsmouth, Virginia, they worked with Confederate general turned Republican political boss William Mahone to work against the conglomeration of railroads reorganized by Thomas A. Scott, who had moved up the ranks of the Pennsylvania Railroad, took control of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad after the Civil War, tried to work with African American legislators to acquire railroads further South.
As it had before the Civil War, Virginia paid millions to get railroads rebuilt and commerce moving through its cities. Charges of corruption against Scott, resentment against northern and black workers led to volatile situations in many areas. Eruptions of Ku Klux Klan violence centered on railroads through interior South Carolina. Together the R&G, P&R, R&AA-L formed the backbone of the future Seaboard Air Line. Moncure Robinson's son John M. Robinson acquired financial control of the trio in 1875; as a marketing tactic they were collectively known as the "Seaboard Air-Line System." The name had no legal author
Hajiyeh Seyyedeh Nosrat Begum Amin known as Banu Amin, Lady Amin, was Iran's most outstanding female jurisprudent and great Muslim mystic of the 20th century, a Lady Mujtahideh. She received numerous ijazahs of ijtihad, among them from Ayatollahs Muḥammad Kazim Ḥusayni Shīrāzī and Grand Ayatullah ‘arif, the founder of the Qom seminaries, she granted numerous ijazahs of ijtihad to female and male scholars, among them Sayyid Mar'ashi Najafi. She wrote several books about Islamic sciences, among them a tafsir in 15 volumes, established a maktab in Isfahan in 1965, called Maktab-e Fatimah; the maktab was directed since its inception until 1992 by Banu Amin's most prominent student, Zīnah al-Sādāt Humāyūnī. After 1992, Ḥajj Āqā Ḥasan Imāmi, a relative of Humāyūnī’s, took over the directorship. Banu Amin was born into a merchant family. Nuṣrat Amīn’s husband was her cousin Haj Mirza known as Muīn al-Tujjar, her father is known by the name of Haj Sayyid Muḥammad ʿAlī Amīn al-Tujjar. His sister Hāshimīyah al-Tujjar was a mujtahidah herself who received ijtihād degrees in fiqh and uṣūl.
Further, Nuṣrat Amīn had a niece, Iffat al-Zamān Amīn known as Iftikhār al-Tujjar, one of her most prominent students and who received an ijazah of riwāya in Najaf by Ayatullah Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi. Banu Amin had only one of whom survived her, she was buried at the Takht-e Fulad Cemetery in Isfahan. Al-Arbaʿīn al-Hāshimīyyah Jā̄miʿ al-shatāt Al-Nafaḥāt al-Raḥmānīyah fī al-Vāridāt al-Qalbīyah Sayr va Sulūk dar Ravish-i Awliyāʼ-i Allāh Akhlāq va Rahi Sa‘adat: Iqtibas va tarjamih az Taharat al-Iraqi Ibn Maskuyih Ravish-i Khushbakhtī va Tawsīyih bih Khāharān-i Imani Makhzan al-ʿirfān dar ʿulūm-i Qurʾān Makhzan al-laālī dar fazīlat-i mawlá al-mawālī hazrat-i Alī ibn Abītālib Maʿād, yā Ākharīn Sayr-i Bashar ʻAmū Khalīlī, Marjān. Kawkab-i durrī:. Bāqirī Bīdʾhindī, Nāṣir. Bānū-yi nimūnah: gilwahāyī az ḥayāt-i bānū-yi mujtahidah Amīn Iṣfahānī, Markaz-i Intishārāt, Qom 1382. Tayyibī, Nāhīd. Zindagānī-yi Bānū-yi Īrānī: Bānū-yi Mujtahidah Nuṣrat al-Sādāt Amīn. Majmūʻah-ʾi maqālāt wa sukhanrānīhā-yi avvalīn wa duvumīn Kungrih-ʾi Buzurgdāsht-i Bānū-yi Mujtahidah Sayyidah Nuṣrat Amīn, Markaz-i Muṭālaʻāt wa Taḥqīqāt-i Farhangī, Daftar-i Muṭālaʻāt-i Farhangī-i Bānūwān, Qom, 1995.
Ivan Knotek is a Slovak politician who served as Politburo member and prime minister from 1988 to 1989 of the Slovak Socialist Republic. Knotek was born on 26 August 1936, he was a member of both the Slovak Communist Party. He became a member of the Czech Communist Party's Politburo in April 1988, he was made chairman of the Politburo's two commissions and food commission and youth work commission. He retained his Politburo membership in the reshuffle of 10–11 October 1988, he was named prime minister on 12 October 1988, replacing Peter Colotka in the post. With this appointment he automatically became the deputy federal prime minister along with the Czech Prime Minister Ladislav Adamec. Knotek's tenure as prime minister ended on 22 June 1989 and he was succeeded by Pavel Hrivnák in the post, he served as the Communist Party's secretary for economic affairs. In a November 1989 reshuffle, Knotek retained his post at the politburo
Chiloglottis cornuta known as the green bird orchid, is a species of orchid found in south-eastern Australia and in New Zealand including many of its offshore islands. It has two broad leaves and a single green or pinkish flower with six to eight rounded, reddish or blackish calli on the labellum. Chiloglottis cornuta is a terrestrial, deciduous, herb with two elliptic leaves 60–100 mm long and 20–30 mm wide on a petiole 5–10 mm long. A single green to reddish flower 13–16 mm long and 25–30 mm wide is borne on a flowering stem 40–100 mm high; the dorsal sepal is 13 -- 16 mm long and 5 -- 7 mm wide. The lateral sepals are 10 -- about 3 mm wide and curve forwards. There is a glandular tip about 1 mm long on the sepals; the petals are linear to lance-shaped, 10–12 mm long, about 3.5 mm wide and spread apart from each other. The labellum is heart-shaped, 9–12 mm long and 7–8 mm wide with six to eight rounded dark red, reddish or blackish calli; the column is erect as long as the dorsal sepal with broad wings on the upper half.
Flowering occurs from November to February. Chiloglottis cornuta was first formally described in 1844 by Joseph Dalton Hooker from a specimen collected near "Campbell's Island" and the description was published in Flora Antarctica; the specific epithet is a Latin word meaning "bearing horns". The green bird orchid grows in moist places in sheltered forest in far south-eastern New South Wales, eastern Victoria, far south-eastern South Australia and in Tasmania. In New Zealand it occurs on both the North and South Islands and on Stewart, the Antipodes and Auckland Islands
Point Break is a 2015 action thriller film directed and shot by Ericson Core and written by Kurt Wimmer which he co-produced with John Baldecchi, Broderick Johnson, Andrew A. Kosove, Christopher Taylor and David Valdes. An American-German-Chinese co-production, the film is a remake of the 1991 film of the same name; the film stars Édgar Ramírez, Luke Bracey, Teresa Palmer, Delroy Lindo and Ray Winstone, was released in China on December 4, 2015 by China Film Group and in the United States on December 25, 2015 by Warner Bros. in 3D and RealD 3D. The film received negative reviews from critics, grossed $133 million from a $105 million budget. Extreme sport athlete Johnny Utah, his friend Jeff, are traversing a steep ridgeline on motorbikes; the run ends with a jump onto a lone stone column, where Jeff overshoots the landing and falls to his death. Seven years Utah is an FBI agent candidate, he attends a briefing on a skyscraper heist, in which the criminals stole diamonds, escaping by parachute, in Mumbai.
A similar heist happens over Mexico where the criminals unload millions of dollars in bills disappear into the Cave of Swallows. Utah's research concludes that they were done by the same men, who are attempting to complete the Ozaki 8, a list of eight extreme ordeals to honor the forces of nature, they have completed three, Utah predicts they'll attempt the fourth on a rare sea wave phenomenon in France. After presenting his analysis, Utah is sent undercover to France under a field agent named Pappas, they reach Utah gets help from others to surf the tall tube wave. As he goes in, there is another surfer riding the wave, leaving Utah unstable. Utah gets sucked into the wave and faints, he wakes aboard a yacht with the surfer and his team Roach and Grommet. They leave him to enjoy the party and he gets acquainted with a girl, Samsara; the next day, Utah finds the men in an abandoned Paris train station after he overhears them talking about the location. Bodhi gives him an initiation fight and soon he is accepted into the circle.
They travel to the Alps for the next ordeal: wingsuit flying through the "The Life of Wind" cliffs. The four spend some time together with Samsara; the next day, they climb the snow peaks for the sixth ordeal, snowboarding down a steep mountain of snow. They reach their spot. Chowder slips and falls to his death, Utah becomes depressed about it. After a party, Samsara explains that she and Bodhi both knew Ono Ozaki when they were young, that her parents died in an avalanche accident and Ozaki gave her a home after, she explains further that Ozaki completed his third ordeal, despite what was believed. He did not die attempting the ordeal, but was killed by a whaling ship crashing into his boat while he was trying to save humpback whales. On his boat, a young boy, decided not to tell the truth of his story but to finish what Ozaki started. Next they travel to a gold mine where Bodhi detonates explosives Roach planted. After blowing his cover, Utah chases Bodhi, managing to trip his bike. Bodhi escapes.
The FBI freezes Bodhi's sponsors' assets. Utah and the police intercept the group; as the group flees, Utah chases and shoots one of them to death, revealed to be Samsara and not Bodhi. Utah finds the location of the next ordeal: free solo climbing with no safety beside Angel Falls in Venezuela, he finds Bodhi and Grommet and chases them on the climb. Utah catches up to Bodhi, but he falls backward down the waterfall, completing what would have been the last ordeal. Seventeen months Utah finds him in the Pacific facing another giant wave; as Utah tries to get Bodhi to come back with him and pay for his crimes, he lets Bodhi attempt to surf it, both knowing that he will not come back. The wave engulfs Bodhi, Utah continues his career in the FBI and begins going through his own eight ordeals. Édgar Ramírez as Bodhi, an ecoterrorist who plays a sort of Robin Hood role. Luke Bracey as Johnny Utah, a FBI agent and former extreme motocross star and a surfer turned into an "extreme athlete." Unlike the original film, Utah is not an ex-football player.
Judah Lewis as young Johnny Ray Winstone as Angelo Pappas, a FBI special agent based in London. Teresa Palmer as Samsara Dietz, a love interest of Johnny Utah and secondary antagonist affiliated with Bodhi. Matias Varela as Grommet Clemens Schick as Roach Tobias Santelmann as Chowder Max Thieriot as Jeff Delroy Lindo as FBI Instructor Hall Nikolai Kinski as Pascal Al Fariq Glynis Barber as FBI Special Agent Esposito Steve Toussaint as FBI Director Bowman Steve Aoki as HimselfBoJesse Christopher and James LeGros, who starred in the original Point Break, appear as FBI directors. Point Break is an American-German-Chinese co-production. Studio Babelsberg oversaw production services for the film. A script for the remake had been lying around for years, but it was not until Ericson Core pitched his idea to Warner Bros. that the film got off the ground. However, Core's idea for the film was different than the script, his concept was much more with scenes that defy the laws of physics. In 2011, it was announced that a remake of Point Break was being developed by Alcon Entertainme
Margaret de Clare, Baroness Badlesmere was a Norman-Irish noblewoman, suo jure heiress, the wife of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere. She was arrested and subsequently imprisoned in the Tower of London for the duration of a year from November 1321 to November 1322, making her the first recorded female prisoner in the Tower's history, she was jailed on account of having ordered an armed assault on Isabella of France, Queen consort of King Edward II of England. Before Margaret had instructed her archers to fire upon Isabella and her escort, she had refused the Queen admittance to Leeds Castle where her husband, Baron Badlesmere held the post of governor, but, the property of Queen Isabella as part of the latter's dowry. Margaret surrendered the castle on 31 October 1321 after it was besieged by the King's forces using ballistas. Edward's capture of Leeds Castle was the catalyst which led to the Despenser War in the Welsh Marches and the north of England. Upon her release from the Tower, Margaret entered a religious life at the convent house of the Minorite Sisters outside Aldgate.
King Edward granted her a stipend to pay for her maintenance. Margaret was born at an unrecorded place in either Ireland or England on or about 1 April 1287, the youngest child of Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond and Juliana FitzGerald of Offaly, was a granddaughter of Richard de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester, she had two brothers, Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Thomond, Richard de Clare, 1st Lord Clare, Lord of Thomond, killed at the Battle of Dysert O'Dea in 1318. Margaret had Richard, her parents resided in both England throughout their marriage. Her father died on 29 August 1287, when she was five months of age, his cause of death has never been ascertained by historians. Her mother married her second husband, Nicholas Avenel, sometime afterwards, but the exact date of this marriage is not known. Between 11 December 1291 and 16 February 1292, Margaret acquired another stepfather when her mother married her third husband, Adam de Cretynges. A series of inquisitions post mortem held in response to writs issued on 10 April 1321 established that Margaret, the wife of Bartholomew de Badlesmere and Maud, wife of Sir Robert de Welle were the next heirs of Richard's son Thomas.
Thomas' estate included the stewardship of the Forest of Essex, the town and castle at Thomond and numerous other properties in Ireland. She married firstly before the year 1303, Gilbert de Umfraville, son of Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus, Elizabeth Comyn. Upon their marriage, the Earl of Angus granted Gilbert and Margaret the manors of Hambleton and Market Overton. On an unrecorded date earlier than 30 June 1308, when the couple were jointly granted the manor of Bourne, Margaret married Bartholomew de Badlesmere, an English soldier and court official, afterwards created 1st Baron Badlesmere by writ of summons, he had held the post of Governor of Bristol Castle since 1307, during his life accumulated many remunerative grants and offices. It is feasible that Margaret's marriage to Badlesmere had been arranged by her brother-in-law, Baron Clifford. Clifford was killed at the Battle of Bannockburn, where Badlesmere fought. Margaret was henceforth known by that title; when Margaret was visiting Cheshunt Manor in Hertfordshire in 1319, she was taken hostage by a group of sixty people, both men and women.
Her captors demanded a ransom of £100 for her release. She was held prisoner for one night before being rescued on the following day by the King's favourite, Hugh Despenser the Younger. Hugh was married to Margaret's first cousin, Eleanor de Clare, eldest daughter of Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester and Joan of Acre and Eleanor was Edward II's niece; the King ordered the imprisonment of twenty of Margaret's kidnappers. The five children of Margaret and Baron Badlesmere were: Margery de Badlesmere, married before 25 November 1316 William de Ros, 2nd Baron de Ros of Helmsley, by whom she had six children. Maud de Badlesmere, married firstly, Robert FitzPayn. Elizabeth de Badlesmere, married firstly in 1316 Sir Edmund Mortimer, eldest son of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March and Joan de Geneville, 2nd Baroness Geneville. Giles de Badlesmere, 2nd Baron Badlesmere, married Elizabeth Montagu, but did not have any children by her. Margaret de Badlesmere, married Sir John Tiptoft, 2nd Lord Tiptoft, by whom she had one son, Robert Tiptoft.
Margaret's husband, Baron Badlesmere was appointed Governor of the Royal Castle of Leeds in Kent in the fifth year of Edward II's reign. In October 1321, nine years after his assumption of the office, the queen consort Isabella went on a pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thomas at Canterbury, she decided to interrupt her journey by stopping at Leeds Castle which belonged to her as th