Jacksonville is the most populous city in Florida, the most populous city in the southeastern United States and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. It is the seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968. Consolidation gave Jacksonville its great size and placed most of its metropolitan population within the city limits; as of 2017 Jacksonville's population was estimated to be 892,062. The Jacksonville metropolitan area has a population of 1,523,615 and is the fourth largest in Florida. Jacksonville is centered on the banks of the St. Johns River in the First Coast region of northeast Florida, about 25 miles south of the Georgia state line and 328 miles north of Miami; the Jacksonville Beaches communities are along the adjacent Atlantic coast. The area was inhabited by the Timucua people, in 1564 was the site of the French colony of Fort Caroline, one of the earliest European settlements in what is now the continental United States. Under British rule, settlement grew at the narrow point in the river where cattle crossed, known as Wacca Pilatka to the Seminole and the Cow Ford to the British.
A platted town was established there in 1822, a year after the United States gained Florida from Spain. Harbor improvements since the late 19th century have made Jacksonville a major military and civilian deep-water port, its riverine location facilitates Naval Station Mayport, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, the U. S. Marine Corps Blount Island Command, the Port of Jacksonville, Florida's third largest seaport. Jacksonville's military bases and the nearby Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay form the third largest military presence in the United States. Significant factors in the local economy include services such as banking, insurance and logistics; as with much of Florida, tourism is important to the Jacksonville area tourism related to golf. People from Jacksonville may be called "Jacksonvillians" or "Jaxsons"; the area of the modern city of Jacksonville has been inhabited for thousands of years. On Black Hammock Island in the national Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve, a University of North Florida team discovered some of the oldest remnants of pottery in the United States, dating to 2500 BC.
In the 16th century, the beginning of the historical era, the region was inhabited by the Mocama, a coastal subgroup of the Timucua people. At the time of contact with Europeans, all Mocama villages in present-day Jacksonville were part of the powerful chiefdom known as the Saturiwa, centered around the mouth of the St. Johns River. One early map shows. French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault charted the St. Johns River in 1562, calling it the River of May because, the month of his discovery. Ribault erected a stone column at his landing site near the river's mouth, claiming the newly discovered land for France. In 1564, René Goulaine de Laudonnière established the first European settlement, Fort Caroline, on the St. Johns near the main village of the Saturiwa. Philip II of Spain ordered Pedro Menéndez de Avilés to protect the interest of Spain by attacking the French presence at Fort Caroline. On September 20, 1565, a Spanish force from the nearby Spanish settlement of St. Augustine attacked Fort Caroline, killed nearly all the French soldiers defending it.
The Spanish renamed the fort San Mateo, following the ejection of the French, St. Augustine's position as the most important settlement in Florida was solidified; the location of Fort Caroline is subject to debate but a reconstruction of the fort was established on the St. Johns River in 1964. Spain ceded Florida to the British in 1763 after the French and Indian War, the British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia; the road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British called the Cow Ford; the British introduced the cultivation of sugar cane and fruits, as well the export of lumber. As a result, the northeastern Florida area prospered economically more than it had under the Spanish. Britain ceded control of the territory to Spain in 1783, after being defeated in the American Revolutionary War, the settlement at the Cow Ford continued to grow. After Spain ceded the Florida Territory to the United States in 1821, American settlers on the north side of the Cow Ford decided to plan a town, laying out the streets and plats.
They named the town Jacksonville, after President Andrew Jackson. Led by Isaiah D. Hart, residents wrote a charter for a town government, approved by the Florida Legislative Council on February 9, 1832. During the American Civil War, Jacksonville was a key supply point for hogs and cattle being shipped from Florida to feed the Confederate forces; the city was blockaded by Union forces. Though no battles were fought in Jacksonville proper, the city changed hands several times between Union and Confederate forces. In the Skirmish of the Brick Church in 1862, Confederates won their first victory in the state. However, Union forces captured a Confederate position at the Battle of St. Johns Bluff, occupied Jacksonville in 1862. Slaves escaped to freedom in Union lines. In February 1864 Union forces left Jacksonville and confronted a Confederate Army at the Battle of Olustee, going down to defeat. Union forces held the city for the remainder of the war. In Ma
An EMD MP15T is a 1,500 hp 4-axle diesel switcher locomotive built by General Motors Electro-Motive Division between October 1984 and November 1987. Instead of a non-turbocharged 12-cylinder EMD 645 engine it uses a turbocharged 8-cylinder engine; the external appearance of the engine remains similar to other MP15 models. 42 of these locomotives were built for the Seaboard System Railroad, 1200-1241 and one unit for Dow Chemical Company, number 957 In 2010 Progress Rail Services, A Caterpillar Company, purchased MP15T 1220 from CSX making CSX's total count 40. List of GM-EMD locomotives Marre, Louis A. & Pinkepank, Jerry A.. The Contemporary Diesel Spotter's Guide. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Books. ISBN 0-89024-088-4. LCCN 88083625. OCLC 19959644. Media related to EMD MP15T locomotives at Robert. EMD MP15DC, MP15AC, MP15T Original Owners EMD MP15T photos at rrpicturearchives.net
The EMD GP16 was a series of rebuilt road switcher diesel-electric locomotives, a result of a remanufacturing program initiated by the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad in an effort to spare the cost of purchasing new motive power in the late 1970s. This involved the rebuilding of their aging fleet of 155 EMD GP7, GP9, GP18 road switchers; the required modifications took nine weeks per unit on average to complete. The rebuild work was done at the railroad's Uceta Shops near Florida; the program resulted in a cost savings of 50% over buying new locomotives. Included in the program: Rebuilding the underframe assembly; this gave rise to the 16 designation. Removal of the dynamic brakes, installation of a new type 26L air brake system. Installation of a new high-voltage cabinet. Lowering the front nose of the carbody to improve visibility, retrofitting with a new cab and standard AAR control stand. Ancillary benefits included increased fuel efficiency. SCL committed over 100 of its personnel to the conversion program.
The first GP16 emerged from SCL's Uceta shop in June 1979 while the last was placed into service during November 1982. The rebuilt locomotives saw service throughout the system, engaging in a variety of duties from local switching to main-line freight hauling. Though SCL became part of the CSX Transportation system in the 1980s, the majority of the units remained active until 1992, when the bulk of the roster was retired and sold-off. Many GP16s remain in active service today on short line railroads around the country, far exceeding their 15-year projected lifespan. In 1993 the U. S. Army bought a small number of GP16s from CSX; the locomotives were sent to Conrail's Juniata Locomotive shops to be'remanufactured' under contract with the Army. When they were completed, Conrail put a GP9M plate on them; these locomotives are controlled by Woodward PGR type diesel engine governors. In the late 1960s through the early 1970s, the Missouri Pacific Railroad repowered their entire roster of high-hood ALCO RS-11s with EMD 567 series diesel engines.
These converted units were designated by the MP as "GP12s" and "GP16s" to reflect their new horsepower rating. Clinchfield Railroad had six GP7s rebuilt by ICG Paducah and they were called GP16s, but built to the same standard as ICG GP11s; when the CSX merger occurred these engines were grouped as GP16s. Two notable features was air intake filters. List of GM-EMD locomotives "The GP16 Rebuild Program". Locomotive Rebuilding Programs. Archived from the original on January 20, 2003. Retrieved January 3, 2006. "The History of EMD Diesel Engines". Pacific Southwest Railway Museum. Archived from the original on July 22, 2014. Retrieved December 14, 2005. Pinkepank, Jerry A.. The Second Diesel Spotter's Guide. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89024-026-7. SCL's TAMPA REBUILD - THE "GP16" by Doug Nuckles and the Diesel Era Staff, Diesel Era July August 1994 pp. 27-40 CSX GP16 photo archives
Western Maryland Railway
The Western Maryland Railway was an American Class I railroad which operated in Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania. It was a coal hauling and freight railroad, with a small passenger train operation; the WM became a property of the Chessie System holding company in 1973, although it continued independent operations until May 1975 after which time many of its lines were abandoned in favor of parallel Baltimore and Ohio Railroad lines. In 1983 it was merged into the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, merged with the former Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad into the Chessie System in 1987, now renamed as CSX Transportation; the original main line began with the chartering of the Baltimore and Frederick Railroad in 1852, with the intent of building a rail line from Baltimore west to Washington County, Maryland. The Maryland General Assembly changed the name of the company to the Western Maryland Rail Road Company in 1853, construction began from Owings Mills in 1857. An existing Northern Central Railway branch line terminating at Owings Mills was used to connect into Baltimore.
The railroad was completed to Westminster in 1861 and Union Bridge in 1862. Further expansion was delayed because of the Civil War. Westward construction resumed in 1868 under Chief Engineer Joseph S. Gitt, the line was completed to Hagerstown in 1872; this section became the East Subdivision. The company's first major car shops were established at Union Bridge. In 1873 the WM built its own line from Owings Mills to Fulton Junction in Baltimore, obtained trackage rights from the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad for the remaining two miles of the route eastward to Union Station, it built a branch east of Union Station to Hillen Station, which opened in 1876 and became the company headquarters. The WM built a connection from Hagerstown to Williamsport, in order to access coal traffic from the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Under the leadership of company president John Mifflin Hood, the railway made its first extension into Pennsylvania by leasing a line from Edgemont, Maryland, to Waynesboro and Shippensburg.
This line became the Lurgan Subdivision and was leased from the Baltimore and Cumberland Valley Railroad in 1881, was connected to the Harrisburg and Potomac Railroad in 1886. A second route into Pennsylvania, the Hanover Subdivision, was acquired by the WM when it gained control of the Baltimore and Hanover Railroad, the Gettysburg Railroad, in late 1886; this line connected to the WM main at Emory Grove, proceeded north to Hanover and Gettysburg southwest to connect again to the WM at Highfield, near the Pennsylvania border. A branch from Porters to York, Pennsylvania was completed in 1893; the WM established a connection with the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1892 with the opening of the Potomac Valley Rail Road between Williamsport and Big Pool, Maryland. This connection brought a major increase in through-freight traffic. Construction of an extension from Hagerstown to Cumberland began in 1903 and completed in 1906; this became the West Subdivision. To service the expanded system, the WM built a major shop complex at Hagerstown in 1909, with a roundhouse, machine shops and related facilities.
Rail yards at Hagerstown were expanded. The Fuller Syndicate, led by George Gould, purchased a controlling interest in the WM in 1902 and made plans for westward expansion of the system. In 1904 the WM completed construction of a large marine terminal at Port Covington, on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, to support the Gould organization's expansion plans; the terminal facilities included coal and merchandise piers, overhead cranes, 11 rail yards, warehouses, a roundhouse, a turntable and a machine shop. In the 1920s rotary dumpers for coal and coke were installed, a large grain elevator. In 1907 the syndicate acquired several railroad companies, including the George's Creek and Cumberland Railroad, which had built a line west through the Cumberland Narrows, south to Lonaconing, Maryland. Using the portion of the line through the Narrows, the Connellsville Extension was built west from Cumberland to Connellsville, beginning in 1910, it was completed in 1912. At Connellsville the WM connected with the Lake Erie Railroad.
In 1915 the WM obtained trackage rights on a B&O line from Bowest Junction to Chiefton, West Virginia, which provided access to coal mines in the area west of Fairmont, West Virginia. The GC&C line provided the WM with access to mines in the Georges Creek Valley. In 1927 the WM abandoned some of the GC&C track and accessed additional mines in the area through trackage rights on the Cumberland and Pennsylvania Railroad. In 1944 the WM purchased the C&P, formally merged the operations in 1953. Although never a giant, the Connellsville subdivision of WM handled through midwest fast freight traffic and coal from company-owned mines near Fairmont and Somerset, Pennsylvania. WM opened a passenger station in Cumberland and one in Hagerstown in 1913; the Cumberland station contained the offices for the Western Division. Today the building is called Canal Place, a facility operated by the National Park Service, includes the station for the Western Maryland Scenic Railroad and a visitors center for the C&O Canal National Historic Park.
It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. The Hagerstown station was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976; the West Virginia Central and Pittsburg Railway began as a narrow gauge line in 1880, its name and gauge changed in 1881 and in the ensuing years it opened a huge swath of timber and coal territory in th
Chesapeake and Ohio Railway
The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway was a Class I railroad formed in 1869 in Virginia from several smaller Virginia railroads begun in the 19th century. Led by industrialist Collis P. Huntington, it reached from Virginia's capital city of Richmond to the Ohio River by 1873, where the railroad town of Huntington, West Virginia was named for him. Tapping the coal reserves of West Virginia, the C&O's Peninsula Extension to new coal piers on the harbor of Hampton Roads resulted in the creation of the new City of Newport News. Coal revenues led the forging of a rail link to the Midwest reaching Columbus and Toledo in Ohio and Chicago, Illinois. By the early 1960s the C&O was headquartered in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. In 1972, under the leadership of Cyrus Eaton, it became part of the Chessie System, along with the Baltimore and Ohio and Western Maryland Railway; the Chessie System was combined with the Seaboard Coast Line and Louisville and Nashville, both the primary components of the Family Lines System, to become a key portion of CSX Transportation in the 1980s.
C&O's passenger services ended in 1971 with the formation of Amtrak. Today Amtrak's tri-weekly Cardinal passenger train follows the historic and scenic route of the C&O through the New River Gorge in one of the more rugged sections of the Mountain State; the rails of the former C&O continue to transport intermodal and freight traffic, as well as West Virginia bituminous coal east to Hampton Roads and west to the Great Lakes as part of CSXT, a Fortune 500 company, one of seven Class I railroads operating in North America at the beginning of the 21st century. At the end of 1970 C&O operated 5067 miles of road on 10219 miles of track, not including WM or B&O and its subsidiaries; the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway traced its origin to the Louisa Railroad of Louisa County, begun in 1836, the James River & Kanawha Canal Company in Virginia, begun in 1785. The first train ran on December 20, 1837. A feeder line to connect with the predecessor of the Richmond and Potomac Railroad at what is now Doswell, by 1850 the Louisa Railroad had won the right in Virginia courts to build southeast to Richmond in competition with the RF&P.
It expanded west, reaching Charlottesville. In keeping with its new and larger vision, it was renamed the Virginia Central Railroad. However, plans to cross the Blue Ridge Mountains, the first mountain barrier to the west, at Swift Run Gap proved both financially and technically unfeasible; the Commonwealth of Virginia, always keen to help with internal improvements not only owned a portion of Virginia Central stock through the state Board of Public Works, but incorporated and financed the Blue Ridge Railroad to accomplish the hard and expensive task of crossing the Blue Ridge Mountains. Under the leadership of the great early civil engineer Claudius Crozet, the Blue Ridge RR built over the mountains using four tunnels: Greenwood Tunnel, Brookville Tunnel, Little Rock Tunnel, the 4,263-foot Blue Ridge Tunnel at the top of the pass one of the longest tunnels in the world. At the same time, Virginia Central was building westward from the west foot of the Blue Ridge, crossing the Shenandoah Valley and Great North Mountain reaching the foot of the Alleghany Mountains in 1856 at a point known as Jackson's River Station to be called Clifton Forge.
To finish its line across the mountainous territory of the Alleghany Plateau, the Commonwealth again chartered a state-subsidized railroad called the Covington and Ohio Railroad, authorized by the General Assembly in 1853. This company completed important grading work on the Alleghany grade and did considerable work on numerous tunnels over the mountains and in the west, it did a good deal of roadway work around Charleston on the Kanawha River. The American Civil War intervened, work was stopped on the westward expansion. During the Civil War the Virginia Central Railroad was one of the Confederacy's most important lines, carrying food from the Shenandoah region to Richmond, ferrying troops and supplies back and forth as the campaigns surrounded its tracks frequently, it had an important connection with the Orange and Alexandria Railroad at Virginia. On more than one occasion, the Virginia Central was used in actual tactical operations, transporting troops directly to the battlefield. But, it was a prime target for Federal armies, by the end of the war had only about five miles of track still in operation, $40 in gold in its treasury.
Following the war, Virginia Central officials, led by company president Williams Carter Wickham, realized that they would have to get capital to rebuild from outside the economically devastated South, attempted to attract British interests, without success. They succeeded in interesting Collis P. Huntington of New York. Huntington had been one of the "Big Four" involved in building the Central Pacific portion of the Transcontinental Railroad, just reaching completion. Huntington had a vision of a true transcontinental railroad that would go from sea to sea under one operating management, decided that the Virginia Central might be the eastern link to this system. Huntington supplied the Virginians with the money needed to complete the line to the Ohio River, through what was now the new state of West Virginia; the old Covington & Ohio's properties were conveyed to them in keeping with its new mission of linking the Tidewater coast of Vi
Evansville is a city and the county seat of Vanderburgh County, United States. The population was 117,429 at the 2010 census, making it the state's third-most populous city after Indianapolis and Fort Wayne, the largest city in Southern Indiana, the 232nd-most populous city in the United States, it is the commercial and cultural hub of Southwestern Indiana and the Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky tri-state area, home to over 911,000 people. The 38th parallel crosses the north side of the city and is marked on Interstate 69. Situated on an oxbow in the Ohio River, the city is referred to as the "Crescent Valley" or "River City"; as a testament to the Ohio's grandeur, early French explorers named it La Belle Rivière. The area has been inhabited by various indigenous cultures for millennia, dating back at least 10,000 years. Angel Mounds was a permanent settlement of the Mississippian culture from 1000 AD to around 1400 AD; the European-American city was founded in 1812. Four NYSE companies are headquartered in Evansville, along with the global operations center for NYSE company Mead Johnson.
Three other companies traded on the NASDAQ are headquartered in Evansville. The city is home to public and private enterprise in many areas, as Evansville serves as the region's economic hub. A tourist destination, Evansville is home to the state's first casino; the city has several educational institutions. The University of Evansville is a small private school on the city's east side, while the University of Southern Indiana is a larger public institution just outside the city's westside limits; the Indiana University School of Medicine maintains a campus in Evansville. Other local educational institutions include the nationally ranked Signature School and the Evansville Vanderburgh Public Library. In 2008, Evansville was voted the best city in the country in which "to live and play" by the readers of Kiplinger, in 2009 as the 11th best. See main article: History of Evansville, Indiana. There was a continuous human presence in the area that became Evansville from at least 8,000 BC by Paleo-Indians.
Archaeologists have identified several archaic and ancient sites in and near Evansville, with the most complex at Angel Mounds. This was built and occupied from about 900 A. D. to about 1600 A. D. just before the arrival of Europeans to North America. Following the abandonment of Angel Mounds between the years 1400 and 1450, tribes of the historic Miami, Piankeshaw, Wyandot and other Native American peoples were known to be in the area. French hunters and trappers were among the first Europeans to come to the area, using Vincennes as a base of operations for fur trading; the land encompassing Evansville was formally relinquished by the Delaware in 1805 to General William Henry Harrison governor of the Indiana Territory. On March 27, 1812, Hugh McGary Jr. purchased about 441 acres and named it "McGary's Landing". In 1814, to attract more people, McGary renamed his village "Evansville" in honor of Colonel Robert Morgan Evans. Evansville incorporated in 1817 and was designated as the county seat on January 7, 1818.
The county was named for Henry Vanderburgh, a deceased chief judge of the Indiana Territorial Supreme Court. Evansville became a thriving commercial town with a river trade, the town began to expand outside of its original footprint. Evansville's west side was for many years cut off from the city's main part by Pigeon Creek and the factories that developed along it, making the creek an industrial corridor; the land comprising the former town of Lamasco was platted in 1837 and was annexed in 1870. Evansville's economy received a boost in the early 1830s when Indiana unveiled plans to build the longest canal in the world, a 400-mile ditch to connect the Great Lakes at Toledo, Ohio with the inland rivers at Evansville; the project was intended to open Indiana to commerce and improve transportation from New Orleans to New York City. The project was so poorly engineered that it would not hold water. By the time the Wabash and Erie Canal was finished in 1853, Evansville's first railroad, Evansville & Crawfordsville Railroad, was opened to Terre Haute.
The expansion of railroads in this territory had made the canal obsolete. Only two flat barges made the entire trip; the canal basin at Fifth and Court street in downtown Evansville became the site of a new courthouse in 1891. The era of Evansville's greatest growth occurred in the second half of the 19th century, following the disruptions of the Civil War; the city was a major stop for steamboats along the Ohio River, it was the home port for a number of companies engaged in trade via the river. Coal mining and hardwood lumber was a major source of economic activity. By 1900 Evansville was one of the world's largest hardwood furniture centers, with 41 factories employing 2,000 workers. Railroads became more important and in 1887 the L&N Railroad constructed a bridge across the Ohio River. Along with a major rail yard southwest of Evansville in Howell, annexed in 1916 and completed the city's counterclockwise march around the horseshoe bend. Throughout this period Evansville's main ethnic groups consisted of Protestant Scotch-Irish from the South, Catholic Irish coming for canal or railroad work, New England businessmen, Germans fleeing Europe after the 1848 revolutions, freedmen from Western Kentucky.
By the U. S. census of 1890 Evansville ranked as the 56th-largest urban area in the United States, but it was surpassed in population by other cities
Raleigh, North Carolina
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States. Raleigh is the second-largest city in the state, after Charlotte. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees, which line the streets in the heart of the city; the city covers a land area of 142.8 square miles. The U. S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population as 479,332 as of July 1, 2018, it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the country. The city of Raleigh is named after Sir Walter Raleigh, who established the lost Roanoke Colony in present-day Dare County. Raleigh is home to North Carolina State University and is part of Research Triangle Park, together with Durham and Chapel Hill; the "Triangle" nickname originated after the 1959 creation of the Research Triangle Park, located in Durham and Wake counties, among the three cities and their universities. The Research Triangle region encompasses the U. S. Census Bureau's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill Combined Statistical Area, which had an estimated population of 2,037,430 in 2013.
The Raleigh metropolitan statistical area had an estimated population of 1,214,516 in 2013. Most of Raleigh is located within Wake County, with a small portion extending into Durham County; the towns of Cary, Garner, Wake Forest, Holly Springs, Fuquay-Varina, Wendell and Rolesville are some of Raleigh's primary nearby suburbs and satellite towns. Raleigh is an early example in the United States of a planned city. Following the American Revolutionary War when the US gained independence, this was chosen as the site of the state capital in 1788 and incorporated in 1792 as such; the city was laid out in a grid pattern with the North Carolina State Capitol in Union Square at the center. During the American Civil War, the city was spared from any significant battle, it fell to the Union in the closing days of the war, struggled with the economic hardships in the postwar period related to the reconstitution of labor markets, over-reliance on agriculture, the social unrest of the Reconstruction Era. Following the establishment of the Research Triangle Park in 1959, several tens of thousands of jobs were created in the fields of science and technology, it became one of the fastest-growing communities in the United States by the early 21st century.
Bath, the oldest town in North Carolina, was the first nominal capital of the colony from 1705 until 1722, when Edenton took over the role. The colony had no permanent institutions of government until the new capital New Bern was established in 1743. In December 1770, Joel Lane petitioned the North Carolina General Assembly to create a new county. On January 5, 1771, the bill creating Wake County was passed in the General Assembly; the county was formed from portions of Cumberland and Johnston counties. The county was named for the wife of Governor William Tryon; the first county seat was Bloomsbury. New Bern, a port town on the Neuse River 35 miles from the Atlantic Ocean, was the largest city and the capital of North Carolina during the American Revolution; when the British Army laid siege to the city, that site could no longer be used. Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital in 1788, as its central location protected it from attacks from the coast, it was established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital.
The city was named for sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island. The city's location was chosen, in part, for being within 11 mi of Isaac Hunter's Tavern, a popular tavern frequented by the state legislators. No known city or town existed on the chosen city site. Raleigh is one of the few cities in the United States, planned and built to serve as a state capital, its original boundaries were formed by the downtown streets of North, East and South. The plan, a grid with two main axes meeting at a central square and an additional square in each corner, was based on Thomas Holme's 1682 plan for Philadelphia; the North Carolina General Assembly first met in Raleigh in December 1794, granted the city a charter, with a board of seven appointed commissioners and an "Intendant of Police" to govern it. In 1799, the N. C. Minerva and Raleigh Advertiser was the first newspaper published in Raleigh. John Haywood was the first Intendant of Police. In 1808, Andrew Johnson, the nation's future 17th President, was born at Casso's Inn in Raleigh.
The city's first water supply network was completed in 1818, although due to system failures, the project was abandoned. In 1819 Raleigh's first volunteer fire company was founded, followed in 1821 by a full-time fire company. In 1817, the Episcopal Diocese of North Carolina was headquartered in Raleigh. In 1831, a fire destroyed the North Carolina State House. Two years reconstruction began with quarried gneiss being delivered by the first railroad in the state. Raleigh celebrated the completions of the new State Capitol and new Raleigh & Gaston Railroad Company in 1840. In 1853, the first State Fair was held near Raleigh; the first institution of higher learning in Raleigh, Peace College, was established in 1857. Raleigh's Historic Oakwood contains many houses from the 19th century that are still in good condition. North Carolina seceded from the Union. After the Civil War began, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance ordered the construction of breastworks around the city as protection from