Seal of Mindaugas

The Seal of Mindaugas is a medieval seal affixed to the October 1255 act by Mindaugas, King of Lithuania, granting Selonia to the Teutonic Knights. An academic debate is ongoing to determine authenticity of the act and the seal as they might have been forged by the Knights. If it is authentic the seal is the only surviving contemporary depiction of Mindaugas; as the most important surviving artifact from Mindaugas' times, the seal was a centerpiece of a special exhibition organized by the National Museum of Lithuania in 2003 to commemorate the 750th anniversary of Mindaugas' coronation. During an internal struggle in 1250, Mindaugas allied himself with the Livonian Order and the Teutonic Knights. With Orders' assistance he defeated his enemies, converted to Christianity, was crowned as King of Lithuania in 1253. For their help, Mindaugas granted various lands to the Knights in 1253, 1255, 1257, 1259, 1260, 1261; these six acts caused much controversy and debate among modern historians regarding their authenticity.

Only one act, the October 1255 act concerning Selonia, survives with a seal of Mindaugas. The Selonian act was mentioned by Pope Alexander IV in a papal bull, dated July 13, 1257, confirming the territorial transfer. A transcript and detailed description of the seal was made in May 1393 by a papal legate; the 1393 description is an accurate representation of the surviving seal except for the string holding the seal to the parchment: according to the description the string was white and yellow while it is now white and blue. The original document is preserved by the Prussian Privy State Archives; the seal is about 85 millimetres in diameter. It depicts a ruler sitting on a bench, covered by a drapery; the ruler wears a crown. The right arm holds a scepter decorated with a large lily, while the left arms holds an orb with a cross; the empty field around the figure is decorated with a Gothic diamond-shaped latticework. The diamonds have a tiny cross in the middle of them; the legend where Mindaugas' name and title should appear is completely chipped off.

The only surviving details are a tiny cross, which would indicate the beginning of the legend's text, a letter. The letter was variously read as M, D, or SI. According to the 1393 description, when the legend was still intact, it read + MYNDOUWE DEI GRA REX LITOWIE. In the beginning of the 19th century, German historian Ernst Hennig raised doubts about authenticity of the act; these doubts were elaborated upon by Polish historian Juliusz Latkowski. He raised a theory that the act was forged around 1392–1393 during territorial disputes over Samogitia, but the seal was authentic – it was taken from another document by Mindaugas and affixed to the forged act; this hypothesis is bolstered by the fact that the wax used to fasten the seal to the parchment is of different color. Wojciech Kętrzyński paid special attention to the fact that seal's legend with Mindaugas's name and title is completely chipped off while the rest of the seal and the act are well-preserved, he arrived to the conclusion. He further stipulated that the act was forged while Mindaugas was alive and that the seal belonged to a different person Magnus III of Sweden or Andrew II of Hungary.

Antoni Prochaska dismissed any doubts regarding authenticity based on the fact that the act was mentioned in a papal bull. Karol Maleczyński rejected ideas about forgery and argued that at some point the seal fell off and was affixed anew thus explaining different color strings and wax used to fasten it. Lithuanian heraldic expert Edmundas Rimša analyzed heraldic aspects of the seal, he paid particular attention to the Gothic latticework, which appeared in European royal seals only in the 14th century. Rimša thus concluded that the seal is a forgery made at least 50 years after the supposed date of the act


Wyverstone is a village and civil parish in the Mid Suffolk district of Suffolk in eastern England. Located around five miles north of Stowmarket, in 2005 its population was 370; the parish includes the hamlets of Wyverstone Street, 1 km to the west and Earl's Green, 1.5 km south-west. Recorded in Domesday as "Wiuertestuna" and on John Speed's 1610 map as "Wiuerston"; the village sign as shown in the photograph was made by Brian Brookes from Wyverstone. Hall Barn lies on the site of the former Wyverstone Hall. Horse slaughter site in the village. Wyverstone used to have the Plough pub, a mid 16th building on Mill Road, but it closed in the 1960s and is now a Grade II private dwelling; the local shop and post office closed soon after the pub. St George's church is to the east of the village; the Old School House, built in 1869 but closed in 1963, was purchased by the Parish Council to act as the village hall. It is now a private house, close to the church; the new village hall is in the centre of the village built in the late 1980s.

Old Rectory and Wyverstone Green come next going west on Rectory Lane. 21 listed structures in the village. Wyverstone Street Grange Farm to the north, Sudbourne Farm to the south and Crooksell Hall in between on Wyverstone Street. There is a fine example of a Grade II listed Tudor public building, restored as part of the conversion of barns adjacent to Lodge Farm into a residential home named Guildhall Place. Earl's Green Bill Edrich - cricketer Wally Sykes - Clay Pigeon Shooting at 1984 Olympics Plough Church Pictures

Constitution of Barbados

The Constitution of Barbados is the supreme law under which Barbados is governed. The Constitution provides a legal establishment of the structure and various roles of administration of the Queen of Barbados, the Government of Barbados, as well as legal rights and responsibilities of the public and various other government officers; the Constitution which came into force in 1966 was amended in 1974, 1978, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2002, 2003. The 1966 document succeeds several other documents concerning administration of Barbados. One of them, the Barbados Charter, is discussed in the present Constitution's Preamble. Prior statutes were created for the administration of Barbados as a colony; as a former English and British colony, the Constitution is similar to those of other Commonwealth realms, yet distinctly different in the spirit of the Statute of Westminster. In recent years there has been some dialogue on whether Barbados should undertake a process of patriating the constitution to cease the foundation being a 1966 Act of the British House of Commons.

In 1625 the English landed at Barbados and carved the term'For King James of E. and this island' on a tree some personal items were left behind, the ship's crew returned to England to notify The Crown and to seek initial settlers. In 1627 the initial settlers landed at Barbados and formed a colony based on common law; as the population of Barbados grew a General Assembly began to draft laws. After conflict in England erupted during the English Civil War, large numbers of English settlers moved to Barbados, the General Assembly began the practice of creating a distinctly Barbados-based administration; as a constituent province of the West Indies Federation, Barbados became independent of the United Kingdom on 30 November 1966 under the Barbados Independence Act 1966. Elizabeth II issued an Order in Council, the Barbados Independence Order 1966, which formally enacted the present constitution; the Constitution may be amended by Act of Parliament. Amendments to certain defined clauses require the support of two thirds of all the members of each House.

Barbados Independence Act 1966. Constitutional law 1966/Nov/17 - Includes the Barbados Independence Order, 1966 which establishes the judiciary, judicial procedures and parliament; the Constitution is included in the Schedule to the Order. Chapter 1 stipulates that the Constitution is the supreme law Chapter 2 Citizenship Chapter 3 Protection of fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual Chapter 4 The Governor-General Chapter 5 Parliament Chapter 6 Executive powers Chapter 7 The judicature Chapter 8 The public service Chapter 9 Finance Chapter 10 Miscellaneous and interpretation Barbados Independence Order 1966. - 1966/Nov/22 Barbados Constitution Act. - Amends a large number of sections in the Constitution including: sections 3, 6, 7, 13, 22, 27, 37, 38, 39, 43, 44, 45, 79, 81, 82, 84, 89, 94, 95, 96, 97, 99, 100, 104, 105, 106, 112, 113, 117. In addition, the following new sections are inserted into the Constitution: 79A, 89A, 93A and 93B and 1OOA. Barbados Constitution Act, 1990. - Amendments relating to the office of Judges.

Barbados Constitution Act, 1992. Barbados Constitution Act, 1995 - Inserts a new section 112A on remuneration of public officers and soldiers which provides that the salaries and allowances payable to the holders of offices established under the Civil Establishment Act and the Defence Act shall not be altered to their disadvantage. Barbados Constitution Act, 2002. - Amends Sections 15, 23 and 78 of Constitution. Establishes that imposition of mandatory sentence of death or execution thereof shall not be inconsistent with Section 15 of Constitution. Provides for transfer between Barbados and other countries of persons detained in prisons, hospitals or other institutions by virtue of orders made in the course of the exercise by courts or tribunals of their jurisdiction. Barbados Constitution Act, 2003. - Amends Constitution of Barbados. Inter alia provides for establishment and jurisdiction of Caribbean Court of Justice; the Constitution of Barbados consists of the following 14 parts: CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER PREAMBLECHAPTER I- The Constitution This Constitution is the supreme law of Barbados and, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, this Constitution shall prevail and the other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.

CHAPTER II- Citizenship Persons who become citizens on 30 November 1966 Person entitled to be registered as citizens Persons born in Barbados after 29 November 1966 Persons born outside Barbados after 29 November 1966 Marriage to citizen of Barbados Renunciation of citizenship Commonwealth citizens Powers of Parliament Interpretation CHAPTER III- Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual Protection of right to life Protection of right to personal liberty Protection of freedom of expression Protection of freedom of assembly and association Protection of freedom of movement Protection from discrimination on grounds of race, etc. Enforcement of protective provisions Time of emergency Saving of existing law Interpretation CHAPTER IV- The Governor General Establishment of office of Governor General Acting Governor General Deputy to Governor General Personal staff of Governor - General Exercise of Governor - General's functions Oaths to be taken by Governor General CHAPTER V- Parliament Establis