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Seamount

A seamount is a large geologic landform that rises from the ocean floor but that does not reach to the water's surface, thus is not an island, islet or cliff-rock. Seamounts are formed from extinct volcanoes that rise abruptly and are found rising from the seafloor to 1,000–4,000 m in height, they are defined by oceanographers as independent features that rise to at least 1,000 m above the seafloor, characteristically of conical form. The peaks are found hundreds to thousands of meters below the surface, are therefore considered to be within the deep sea. During their evolution over geologic time, the largest seamounts may reach the sea surface where wave action erodes the summit to form a flat surface. After they have subsided and sunk below the sea surface such flat-top seamounts are called "guyots" or "tablemounts"; the Earth's oceans contain more than 14,500 identified seamounts of which 9,951 seamounts and 283 guyots, covering a total area of 8,796,150 km2, have been mapped but only a few have been studied in detail by scientists.

Seamounts and guyots are most abundant in the North Pacific Ocean, follow a distinctive evolutionary pattern of eruption, build-up, subsidence and erosion. In recent years, several active seamounts have been observed, for example Loihi in the Hawaiian Islands; because of their abundance, seamounts are one of the most common marine ecosystems in the world. Interactions between seamounts and underwater currents, as well as their elevated position in the water, attract plankton, corals and marine mammals alike, their aggregational effect has been noted by the commercial fishing industry, many seamounts support extensive fisheries. There are ongoing concerns on the negative impact of fishing on seamount ecosystems, well-documented cases of stock decline, for example with the orange roughy. 95 % of ecological damage is done by bottom trawling. Because of their large numbers, many seamounts remain to be properly studied, mapped. Bathymetry and satellite altimetry are two technologies working to close the gap.

There have been instances. However, the greatest danger from seamounts are flank collapses. Seamounts can be found in every ocean basin in the world, distributed widely both in space and in age. A seamount is technically defined as an isolated rise in elevation of 1,000 m or more from the surrounding seafloor, with a limited summit area, of conical form. There are more than 14,500 seamounts. In addition to seamounts, there are more than 80,000 small knolls and hills less than 1,000 m in height in the world's oceans. Most seamounts are volcanic in origin, thus tend to be found on oceanic crust near mid-ocean ridges, mantle plumes, island arcs. Overall and guyot coverage is greatest as a proportion of seafloor area in the North Pacific Ocean, equal to 4.39% of that ocean region. The Arctic Ocean has only 16 seamounts and no guyots, the Mediterranean and Black seas together have only 23 seamounts and 2 guyots; the 9,951 seamounts, which have been mapped, cover an area of 8,088,550 km2. Seamounts have an average area of 790 km2, with the smallest seamounts found in the Arctic Ocean and the Mediterranean and Black Seas, whilst the largest mean seamount size occurs in the Indian Ocean 890 km2.

The largest seamount has an area of 15,500 km2 and it occurs in the North Pacific. Guyots cover a total area of 707,600 km2 and have an average area of 2,500 km2, more than twice the average size of seamounts. Nearly 50% of guyot area and 42% of the number of guyots occur in the North Pacific Ocean, covering 342,070 km2; the largest three guyots are all in the North Pacific: the Kuko Guyot, Suiko Guyot and the Pallada Guyot. "Seamount chain" redirects here. Seamounts are found in groupings or submerged archipelagos, a classic example being the Emperor Seamounts, an extension of the Hawaiian Islands. Formed millions of years ago by volcanism, they have since subsided far below sea level; this long chain of islands and seamounts extends thousands of kilometers northwest from the island of Hawaii. There are more seamounts in the Pacific Ocean than in the Atlantic, their distribution can be described as comprising several elongate chains of seamounts superimposed on a more or less random background distribution.

Seamount chains occur in all three major ocean basins, with the Pacific having the most number and most extensive seamount chains. These include the Hawaiian, Gilbert and Austral Seamounts in the north Pacific and the Louisville and Sala y Gomez ridges in the southern Pacific Ocean. In the North Atlantic Ocean, the New England Seamounts extend from the eastern coast of the United States to the mid-ocean ridge. Craig and Sandwell noted that clusters of larger Atlantic seamounts tend to be associated with other evidence of hotspot activity, such as on the Walvis Ridge, Bermuda Islands and Cape Verde Islands; the mid-Atlantic ridge and spreading ridges in the Indian Ocean are associated with abundant seamounts. Otherwise, seamounts tend not to form distinctive chains in the Indian and Southern

List of tallest buildings in Regina, Saskatchewan

This list of tallest buildings in Regina ranks skyscrapers in the city of Regina, Canada by height. The tallest building in Regina is the Mosaic Potash Tower, which rises 84.5 m. Regina is the capital city of Saskatchewan; as of October 2016, the city contains 5 skyscrapers over 75 m and 40 high-rise buildings that exceed 35 m in height. As of October 2016, there are 3 high-rises under construction, approved for construction, proposed for construction in Regina; this list ranks buildings in Regina that stand at least 30 m tall, based on CTBUH height measurement standards. This does not include antenna masts. List of high-rise buildings under construction, proposed and on-hold in Regina. Canadian Centre for Architecture Society of Architectural Historians Canadian architecture List of tallest buildings in Canada List of tallest buildings in Regina List of tallest buildings in Winnipeg Emporis.com saskMAPS.ca interactive tallest buildings map

Chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament

The Chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament is the main and largest chapel of De La Salle University in Manila, Philippines. It is located on the second floor of the south-most wing of the St. La Salle Hall, the oldest building of the university; the chapel was designed in art deco style by Tomas Mapua. Built in the 1930s, the chapel pews were hewn from narra and carried the Signum Fidei Star, the sign of faith and the symbol of the La Salle Brothers. On February 12, 1945, during the liberation of Manila at the peak of World War II, retreating Japanese troops massacred 41 civilians inside the chapel as they sought refuge from the ongoing battle, believing that the building's thick walls would protect them from anything but a direct hit. On December 2, 2014, the 75th year jubilee of the Chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament was celebrated, with a mass presided by a De La Salle University alumnus, Rev. Fr. Benildus Maramba, OSB. Before De La Salle College moved to its present location at Taft Avenue in Malate, the school had its own chapel.

Its first chapel was opened on March 19, 1912, a year after the school opened its doors to 100 students in Calle Nozaleda, in Paco, Manila. When the school transferred to Taft Avenue, it needed to build a new chapel. On March 22, 1926, Br. Basilian and Br. Anthony were sent to Iloilo and Mindanao to solicit funds for the construction of the new chapel. On November 17, 1926, the church was dedicated to St. Joseph. President Manuel L. Quezon and his wife attended this occasion. On February 12, 1945, a Japanese military officer along with 20 soldiers forcibly made their way into the college, a refuge for 70 people, including 30 women and young girls, 16 Christian Brothers and the college's chaplain-Redemptorist Father Cosgrave CSSR, the adult men of two families; the De La Salle College Director-Brother Egbert Xavier FSC was about two days earlier forcibly taken by a group of Japanese soldiers and was never seen again. The Japanese soldiers herded these people into the school chapel where they were subsequently shot, slashed, or bayoneted.

Those who did not die in the attack would be be left to bleed to death and the Japanese attempted to violate the women who were dying from their wounds. The chapel was set on fire and only ten of the victims would survive. On December 16, 1946, a written permission was received from Archbishop O' Doherty to have the reconciliation ceremony and the re-dedication of the Chapel to the Most Blessed Sacrament. On December 20, 1947, the Chapel was blessed. A ceremony of reparation to the Blessed Sacrament took place for the desecrations perpetrated in the chapel, for the excesses in the name of war; the chapel was renovated. The original panes in the glass doors were of pre-war vintage and had, over the years, been patched with varicolored substitutes; this led to Relieve a Pane. Now, uniform glass adorns the Chapel's doors; the De La Salle Alumni Association has donated four million pesos for the renovation of the chapel in the year 2000. It restored the chapel to its original splendor; the stained glass stations were polished to their original beauty.

In the process newly added stations were incorporated. The sanctuary was beautified with narra parquet extensions; the statues were brought back to their original home on the small altars. The rose window above the main altar was backlit and the crucifix in the cupola was bathed in a soft halogen light