Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, produced by the quantum excitation of the Higgs field, one of the fields in particle physics theory. It is named after physicist Peter Higgs, who in 1964, along with five other scientists, proposed the mechanism which suggested the existence of such a particle, its existence was confirmed in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations based on collisions in the LHC at CERN. On December 10, 2013, two of the physicists, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their theoretical predictions. Although Higgs's name has come to be associated with this theory, several researchers between about 1960 and 1972 independently developed different parts of it. In mainstream media the Higgs boson has been called the "God particle", from a 1993 book on the topic, although the nickname is disliked by many physicists, including Higgs himself, who regard it as sensationalism. Physicists explain the properties of forces between elementary particles in terms of the Standard Model – a accepted framework for understanding everything in the known universe, other than gravity.
In this model, the fundamental forces in nature arise from properties of our universe called gauge invariance and symmetries. The forces are transmitted by particles known as gauge bosons. In the Standard Model, the Higgs particle is a boson with spin zero, no electric charge and no colour charge, it is very unstable, decaying into other particles immediately. The Higgs field is a scalar field, with two neutral and two electrically charged components that form a complex doublet of the weak isospin SU symmetry; the Higgs field has a "Mexican hat-shaped" potential. In its ground state, this causes the field to have a nonzero value everywhere, as a result, below a high energy it breaks the weak isospin symmetry of the electroweak interaction; when this happens, three components of the Higgs field are "absorbed" by the SU and U gauge bosons to become the longitudinal components of the now-massive W and Z bosons of the weak force. The remaining electrically neutral component either manifests as a Higgs particle, or may couple separately to other particles known as fermions, causing these to acquire mass as well.
Field theories had been used with great success in understanding the electromagnetic field and the strong force, but by around 1960 all attempts to create a gauge invariant theory for the weak force had failed, with gauge theories thereby starting to fall into disrepute as a result. The problem was that the symmetry requirements in gauge theory predicted that both electromagnetism's gauge boson and the weak force's gauge bosons should have zero mass. Although the photon is indeed massless, experiments show; this meant that either gauge invariance was an incorrect approach, or something else – unknown – was giving these particles their mass, but all attempts to suggest a theory able to solve this problem just seemed to create new theoretical issues. In the late 1950s, physicists had "no idea" how to resolve these issues, which were significant obstacles to developing a full-fledged theory for particle physics. By the early 1960s, physicists had realised that a given symmetry law might not always be followed under certain conditions, at least in some areas of physics.
This was recognised in the late 1950s by Yoichiro Nambu. Symmetry breaking can lead to unexpected results. In 1962 physicist Philip Anderson – an expert in superconductivity – wrote a paper that considered symmetry breaking in particle physics, suggested that symmetry breaking might be the missing piece needed to solve the problems of gauge invariance in particle physics. If electroweak symmetry was somehow being broken, it might explain why electromagnetism's boson is massless, yet the weak force bosons have mass, solve the problems. Shortly afterwards, in 1963, this was shown to be theoretically possible, at least for some limited cases. Following the 1962 and 1963 papers, three groups of researchers independently published the 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers with similar conclusions: that the conditions for electroweak symmetry would be "broken" if an unusual type of field existed throughout the universe, indeed, some fundamental particles would acquire mass; the field required for this to happen became known as the Higgs field and the mechanism by which it led to symmetry breaking, known as the Higgs mechanism.
A key feature of the necessary field is that it would take less energy for the field to have a non-zero value than a zero value, unlike all other known fields, the Higgs field has a non-zero value everywhere. It was the first proposal capable of showing how the weak force gauge bosons could have mass despite their governing symmetry, within a gauge invariant theory. Although these ideas did not gain much initial support or attention, by 1972 they had been developed into a comprehensive theory and proved capable of giving "sensible" results that described particles known at the time, which, with exceptional accuracy, predicted several other particles discovered during the following years. During the 1970s these theories became the Standard Mod
Hugh Everett III
Hugh Everett III was an American physicist who first proposed the many-worlds interpretation of quantum physics, which he termed his "relative state" formulation. Discouraged by the scorn of other physicists for MWI, Everett ended his physics career after completing his Ph. D. Afterwards, he developed the use of generalized Lagrange multipliers for operations research and applied this commercially as a defense analyst and a consultant, he was married to Nancy Everett née Gore. They had two children: Elizabeth Everett and Mark Oliver Everett, who became frontman of the musical band Eels. Born in 1930, Everett was born and raised in the Washington, D. C. area. Everett's parents separated. Raised by his mother, he was raised by his father and stepmother from the age of seven. Everett won a half scholarship to St. John's College High School in Washington, D. C. From there, he moved to the nearby Catholic University of America to study chemical engineering as an undergraduate. While there, he read about Dianetics in Astounding Science Fiction.
Although he never exhibited any interest in Scientology, he did retain a distrust of conventional medicine throughout his life. During World War II his father was away fighting in Europe as a lieutenant colonel on the general staff. After World War II, Everett's father was stationed in West Germany, Hugh joined him, during 1949, taking a year out from his undergraduate studies. Father and son were both keen photographers and took hundreds of pictures of West Germany being rebuilt. Reflecting their technical interests, the pictures were "almost devoid of people". Everett graduated from the Catholic University of America in 1953 with a degree in chemical engineering, although he had completed sufficient courses for a mathematics degree as well, he received a National Science Foundation fellowship that allowed him to attend Princeton University for graduate studies. He started his studies at Princeton in the mathematics department, where he worked on the then-new field of game theory under Albert W. Tucker, but drifted into physics.
In 1953 he started taking his first physics courses, notably Introductory Quantum Mechanics with Robert Dicke. During 1954, he attended Methods of Mathematical Physics with Eugene Wigner, although he remained active with mathematics and presented a paper on military game theory in December, he passed his general examinations in the spring of 1955, thereby gaining his master's degree, started work on his dissertation that would make him famous. He switched thesis advisor to John Archibald Wheeler some time in 1955, wrote a couple of short papers on quantum theory and completed his long paper, Wave Mechanics Without Probability in April 1956. In his third year at Princeton, Everett moved into an apartment which he shared with three friends he had made during his first year, Hale Trotter, Harvey Arnold and Charles Misner. Arnold described Everett as follows: He was smart in a broad way. I mean, to go from chemical engineering to mathematics to physics and spending most of the time buried in a science fiction book, I mean, this is talent.
It was during this time that he met Nancy Gore, who typed up his Wave Mechanics Without Probability paper. Everett married Nancy Gore the next year; the long paper was retitled as The Theory of the Universal Wave Function. Wheeler himself had traveled to Copenhagen in May 1956 with the goal of getting a favorable reception for at least part of Everett's work, but in vain. In June 1956 Everett started defense work in the Pentagon's Weapons Systems Evaluation Group, returning to Princeton to defend his thesis after some delay in the spring of 1957. A short article, a compromise between Everett and Wheeler about how to present the concept and identical to the final version of his thesis, was published in Reviews of Modern Physics Vol 29 #3 454-462, accompanied by an approving review by Wheeler. Everett was not happy with the final form of the article. Upon graduation in September 1956, Everett was invited to join the Pentagon's newly-forming Weapons Systems Evaluation Group, managed by the Institute for Defense Analyses.
Between 23–26 October 1956 he attended a weapons orientation course managed by Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque, New Mexico to learn about nuclear weapons and became a fan of computer modeling while there. In 1957, he became director of the WSEG's Department of Mathematical Sciences. After a brief intermission to defend his thesis on quantum theory at Princeton, Everett returned to WSEG and recommenced his research, much of which, but by no means all, remains classified, he worked on various studies of the Minuteman missile project, starting, as well as the influential study The Distribution and Effects of Fallout in Large Nuclear Weapon Campaigns. During March and April 1959, at Wheeler's request, Everett visited Copenhagen, on vacation with his wife and baby daughter, in order to meet with Niels Bohr, the "father of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics"; the visit was a complete disaster. The conceptual gulf between their positions was too wide to allow any meeting of minds.
Everett described this experience as "hell...doomed from the
Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics
The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics is a research institute of the University of California, Santa Barbara. KITP is one of the most renowned institutes for theoretical physics in the world, brings theorists in physics and related fields together to work on topics at the forefront of theoretical science; the National Science Foundation has been the principal supporter of the Institute since it was founded as the Institute for Theoretical Physics in 1979. In a 2007 article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, KITP was given the highest impact index in a comparison of nonbiomedical research organizations across the U. S; the Directors of the KITP since its beginning have been: Walter Kohn, 1979–1984 Robert Schrieffer, 1984–1989 James S. Langer, 1989–1995 James Hartle, 1995–1997 David Gross, 1997–2012 Lars Bildsten, 2012–presentThe Director and the permanent members of the KITP are on the faculty of the UC Santa Barbara Physics Department. Former permanent members include Physics Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek.
In the early 2000s, the institute known as the Institute for Theoretical Physics, or ITP, was named for the Norwegian-American physicist and businessman Fred Kavli, in recognition of his donation of $7.5 million to the Institute. Kohn Hall, which houses KITP, is located just beyond the Henley Gate at the East Entrance of the UCSB campus; the building was designed by the architect Michael Graves, a new wing designed by Graves was added in 2003-2004. The KITP web site
Richard Phillips Feynman was an American theoretical physicist, known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, jointly with Julian Schwinger and Shin'ichirō Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965. Feynman developed a used pictorial representation scheme for the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles, which became known as Feynman diagrams. During his lifetime, Feynman became one of the best-known scientists in the world. In a 1999 poll of 130 leading physicists worldwide by the British journal Physics World he was ranked as one of the ten greatest physicists of all time, he assisted in the development of the atomic bomb during World War II and became known to a wide public in the 1980s as a member of the Rogers Commission, the panel that investigated the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster.
Along with his work in theoretical physics, Feynman has been credited with pioneering the field of quantum computing and introducing the concept of nanotechnology. He held the Richard C. Tolman professorship in theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology. Feynman was a keen popularizer of physics through both books and lectures including a 1959 talk on top-down nanotechnology called There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom and the three-volume publication of his undergraduate lectures, The Feynman Lectures on Physics. Feynman became known through his semi-autobiographical books Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman! and What Do You Care What Other People Think? and books written about him such as Tuva or Bust! by Ralph Leighton and the biography Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman by James Gleick. Feynman was born on May 11, 1918, in Queens, New York City, to Lucille née Phillips, a homemaker, Melville Arthur Feynman, a sales manager from Minsk in Belarus. Both were Lithuanian Jews.
Feynman was a late talker, did not speak until after his third birthday. As an adult he spoke with a New York accent strong enough to be perceived as an affectation or exaggeration—so much so that his friends Wolfgang Pauli and Hans Bethe once commented that Feynman spoke like a "bum"; the young Feynman was influenced by his father, who encouraged him to ask questions to challenge orthodox thinking, and, always ready to teach Feynman something new. From his mother, he gained the sense of humor; as a child, he had a talent for engineering, maintained an experimental laboratory in his home, delighted in repairing radios. When he was in grade school, he created a home burglar alarm system while his parents were out for the day running errands; when Richard was five his mother gave birth to a younger brother, Henry Phillips, who died at age four weeks. Four years Richard's sister Joan was born and the family moved to Far Rockaway, Queens. Though separated by nine years and Richard were close, they both shared a curiosity about the world.
Though their mother thought women lacked the capacity to understand such things, Richard encouraged Joan's interest in astronomy, Joan became an astrophysicist. Feynman's parents were not religious, by his youth, Feynman described himself as an "avowed atheist". Many years in a letter to Tina Levitan, declining a request for information for her book on Jewish Nobel Prize winners, he stated, "To select, for approbation the peculiar elements that come from some Jewish heredity is to open the door to all kinds of nonsense on racial theory", adding, "at thirteen I was not only converted to other religious views, but I stopped believing that the Jewish people are in any way'the chosen people'". In his life, during a visit to the Jewish Theological Seminary, he encountered the Talmud for the first time and remarked that it contained a medieval kind of reasoning and was a wonderful book. Feynman attended Far Rockaway High School, a school in Far Rockaway, attended by fellow Nobel laureates Burton Richter and Baruch Samuel Blumberg.
Upon starting high school, Feynman was promoted into a higher math class. A high-school-administered IQ test estimated his IQ at 125—high, but "merely respectable" according to biographer James Gleick, his sister Joan did better. Years he declined to join Mensa International, saying that his IQ was too low. Physicist Steve Hsu stated of the test: I suspect that this test emphasized verbal, as opposed to mathematical, ability. Feynman received the highest score in the United States by a large margin on the notoriously difficult Putnam mathematics competition exam... He had the highest scores on record on the math/physics graduate admission exams at Princeton... Feynman's cognitive abilities might have been a bit lopsided... I recall looking at excerpts from a notebook Feynman kept while an undergraduate... contained a number of misspellings and grammatical errors. I doubt Feynman cared much about such things; when Feynman was 15, he taught himself trigonometry, advanced algebra, infinite series, analytic geometry, both differential and integral calculus.
Before entering college, he was experimenting with and deriving mathematical topics such as the half-derivative using his own notation. He created special symbols for logarithm, sine and tangent functions so they did not look like three variables multiplied together, for the derivative, to remove the temptation of canceling out the d's. A member
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Villanova University is a private research university in Radnor Township, United States. Named after Saint Thomas of Villanova, the school is the oldest Catholic university in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Founded in 1842 by the Order of Saint Augustine, the university traces its roots to old Saint Augustine's Church, which the Augustinian friars founded in 1796, to its parish school, Saint Augustine's Academy, established in 1811. U. S. News & World Report ranks Villanova as tied for the 46th best National University in the U. S. for 2018. The university is a member of the Augustinian Secondary Education Association. In October 1841, two Augustinian friars from Saint Augustine's Church in Philadelphia purchased the 200-acre "Belle Air" estate in Radnor Township with the intention of starting a school; the school, called the "Augustinian College of Villanova", opened in 1842. However, the Philadelphia Nativist Riots of 1844 that burned Saint Augustine's Church in Philadelphia caused financial difficulties for the Augustinians, the college was closed in February 1845.
The college reopened in 1846 and graduated its first class in 1847. In March 1848, the governor of Pennsylvania incorporated the school and gave it the power to grant degrees. In 1859, the first master's degree was conferred on a student. In 1857, the school closed again as the demand for priests in Philadelphia prevented adequate staffing, the crisis of the Panic of 1857 strained the school financially; the school remained closed throughout the Civil War and reopened in September 1865. Its prep department moved to Malvern, a town along the Main Line, is still run by the order; the School of Technology was established in 1905. In 1915, a two-year pre-medical program was established to help students meet medical schools' new requirements; this led to a four-year pre-medical program, the B. S. in biology, the founding of the sciences division in 1926. Villanova was all-male until 1918, when the college began evening classes to educate nuns to teach in parochial schools. In 1938, a laywoman received a Villanova degree for the first time.
It was not until the nursing school opened in 1953 that women permanently began attending Villanova full-time. In 1958, the College of Engineering admitted its first female student. Villanova University became coeducational in 1968. During World War II, Villanova was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. After World War II, Villanova expanded, returning veterans swelling enrollments and the faculty growing fourfold. Additional facilities were built, in 1953, the College of Nursing and the School of Law were established. Villanova achieved university status on November 18, 1953. Between 1954 and 1963, 10 new buildings were built or bought on land adjacent to the campus, including Bartley and Dougherty Halls. Villanova University sits on 254 acres just 12 miles from Center City Philadelphia; the campus has 1,500 trees. The campus was known as Arboretum Villanova, but its status as an official arboretum was revoked after the university failed to meet rules and standards such as planting enough new trees and offering tours.
There are three named areas on the campus, all within easy walking distance: Main Campus contains most of the educational buildings, administration buildings, Student Center, Bookstore, the Villanova Chapel, the main cafeteria and a variety of coffee shops and eateries, the Athletic Center, the Pavilion, Villanova Stadium, many sophomore student residences. West Campus contains the Law School, St. Mary's hall some administrative buildings, housing for juniors as well as some seniors who are permitted to live on campus. Included are basketball and tennis courts, soccer fields, volleyball courts and barbecue pits; the SEPTA Paoli/Thorndale station – Villanova is here. There is the Law School parking garage in addition to apartment parking. South Campus contains Donohue Court and Donohue Market; the Norristown High Speed Line has a stop right behind Stanford Hall. The most prominent campus feature is St. Thomas of Villanova Church, whose dual spires are the university's tallest structure; the cornerstone was laid in 1883, construction ended in 1887.
Built in the Gothic Revival style, the church was renovated in 1943 and 1992. The church lies at the head of the path crossing Lancaster Avenue into the parking lots and toward South Campus, it is a popular meeting place for students, hosts three student-oriented masses on Sunday nights at 5:30, 7, 9 p.m. The church is home to St. Thomas of Villanova Parish; the stained-glass windows of the church depict the life of St. Augustine of Hippo. Behind the Church is Mendel Field, around which sit six major campus buildings: Mendel Hall, named for pioneering geneticist and Augustinian monk Gregor Mendel, holds science labs, lecture halls, other facilities, its two large buildings are connected underground and by a second-floor indoor bridge that forms the gateway between West and Main Campus. In 1998, the college commissioned a 7-foot bronze sculpture of Mendel by Philadelphia sculptor James Peniston, installed it outside the hall's entrance. Tolentine Hall, one of the oldest buildings on campus, houses classrooms, academic offices such as the Registrar's Office and the Office of the President, computer labs, is connected to Vi