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Lightning Lake

Lightning Lake is a lake located in E. C. Manning Provincial Park, British Columbia, Canada; the lake is located within the Similkameen-Okanagan forest district. The lake is unusual as it drains in two directions, into Flash Lake in the south and the Similkameen River to the north; the current lake is not a occurring lake, as at the north end, near the day-use area, there is an earthen dam. The lake is shallow and near the end of the summer season, the narrows under the Rainbow Bridge are either shallow or dry. Lightning Lake is the mains summer tourism feature within Manning Park. Both canoes and rowboats are available for rental from the day-use area; the lake provides a paved boat launch. Parking at the lake free for all vehicles, overnight parking is permitted as there are back-country campgrounds located at multiple locations along the Lightning Lakes chain. Fishing is permitted within the park; the lake is skirted by a 9 km level-grade hiking-only trail, which can be halved by taking the Rainbow Bridge at the narrows of the lake.

The day-use parking area serves as a parking area for the Windy Joe, Mount Frosty, Lightning Lakes Chain hike. There are two drive-in camping areas, maintained by Manning Park Resort for BC Parks, on Lightning Lake; the first is Lone Duck Group Camp, open year-round, the Lightning Lake Campground, a trailer-camping facility with flush toilets. There are no hike-in campgrounds on Lightning Lake due to its proximity to roads. Lightning Lake is the first of the four lakes on the Lightning Lakes chain, all of which are located within E. C. Manning Provincial Park; the entire chain is accessible by maintained hiking trails and there are campgrounds on the other lakes. Lightning Lake Flash Lake Strike Lake Thunder Lake Information about Lightning Lake on Information on summer lake activities on the Manning Park Resort website


Apologeticus is Tertullian's most famous work, consisting of apologetic and polemic. In this work Tertullian defends Christianity, demanding legal toleration and that Christians be treated as all other sects of the Roman Empire, it is in this treatise that one finds the phrase: "the blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church". There is a similarity of content, if not of purpose, between this work and Tertullian's Ad nationes—published earlier in the same year—and it has been claimed that the latter is a finished draft of Apologeticus. There arises the question of similarity to Minucius Felix's dialogue Octavius; some paragraphs are shared by both texts. Tertullian's brief De testimonio animae is an appendix to the Apologeticus, intended to illustrate the meaning of the phrase testimonium animae naturaliter christianae in chapter 17). Not much is known about the life of Quintus Septimus Florens Tertullian; some scholars believe him to have been a presbyter of the Catholic Church, the son of a Roman centurion, have him training to be a lawyer in Rome.

Others, like David Wright, find that to be improbable. "No firm evidence places him in Rome at all, or for that matter anywhere outside of Carthage… It is in the well-educated circles in Carthage," Wright argues, "that Tertullian most securely belongs". Sometime after his conversion to the Christian faith, Tertullian left the Catholic Church in favor of the Montanist movement, which he remained a part of for at least 10–15 years of his active life and whose influence can be seen in many of his works. Apologeticus, his most famous apologetic work, was written in Carthage in the summer or autumn of 197 AD, during the reign of Septimius Severus. Using this date, most scholars agree that Tertullian's conversion to Christianity occurred sometime before 197 around 195, it was written before the edict of Septimius Severus, the laws to which Tertullian took exception were those under which the Christians of the 1st and 2nd centuries had been convicted. This work is ostensibly addressed to the provincial governors of the Roman Empire, more the magistrates of Carthage- "that the truth, being forbidden to defend itself publicly, may reach the ears of the rulers by the hidden path of letters"— and thus bears resemblance to the Greek apologues.

It is structured as an appeal on behalf of the Christians and pleads "for toleration of Christianity, attacking pagan superstition, rebutting charges against Christian morality, claiming that Christians are no danger to the State but useful citizens". Its readership is to have been composed of Christians, whose faith was reinforced through Tertullian's defense against rationalizations and rumours and who "would have been hugely enheartened by Tertullian’s matchless confidence in the superiority of the Christian religion". Apologeticus has the typical concerns of other apologetic works of his time, though it is presented in a much more complex manner. According to Wright, the text is shifting "from the philosophical mode to the rhetorical and juridical". Drawing from his training in literature and law, Tertullian demonstrates his talents as a Latinist and a rhetorician in an attempt to defend his newfound Christian faith. Tertullian's modern editor Otto Bardenhewer further contends that Apologeticus is calm in tone, "a model of judicial discussion".

Unlike previous apologists of Christianity, whose appeals for tolerance were made in the name of reason and humanity, influenced by his legal training, spoke as a jurist convinced of the injustice of the laws under which the Christians were persecuted. The following outline and summary is based on Robert D. Sider's translation of Apologeticus; the first section of Apology is concerned with the unjust treatment of the Christians, which Tertullian believes stems from the ignorance of the pagan populace. Put, he argues that people praise what they know and hate what they do not. To Tertullian this becomes evident in the cases of people who once hated because they were ignorant towards that they hated, once their ignorance was gone, so was their hate, their hatred prevents them from investigating more and acknowledging the goodness, inherent in Christianity, so they remain ignorant. And there is good in Christianity, Tertullian claims, despite the fact that people remain ignorant to it; when brought forth and accused, true Christians do not tremble with fear or deny their faith.

It is the authorities that display bad behavior when they deny proper criminal treatment to the Christians. He argues that if Christians are to be treated as criminals, they should not be treated differently from ordinary criminals, who are free to answer to charges, to cross-question and defend themselves. In reality, the Christians are not free to say anything that will clear their name or ensure that the judge conducts a fair trial. If an individual says he is not a Christian, he is tortured, they confess, anything to acquit him. If all this done to someone for admitting to be a Christian they are making a mockery of Roman laws by basing all the charges on the name "Christian". Before hating the name, one must study the founder and the school. In addressing the charges, Tertullian plans to show the hypocrisy that surrounds these charges, demonstrating that those crimes exist among the pagan prosecutors as well, he analyzes the laws, claiming it suspicious that a la


The genus Callophrys consists of butterflies in the family Lycaenidae. It is not monophyletic, but which of the taxa considered junior synonyms of Callophrys are valid genera remains to be determined; the Old World members of this genus are known as green hairstreaks, while the North American ones are called elfins. Listed alphabetically within groups. Subgenus Callophrys Billberg, 1820: Callophrys affinis – western green hairstreak, immaculate green hairstreak Callophrys amphichloros Callophrys androflavus Callophrys armeniaca Zhdanko, 1998 Callophrys apama – canyon green hairstreak Callophrys avis Chapman, 1909 – Chapman's green hairstreak Callophrys barraguei Callophrys bipunctata Callophrys borelis Callophrys brunnea Callophrys butlerovi Callophrys caecus Callophrys caerulescens Callophrys chalybeitincta Sovinsky, 1905 Callophrys cinerascens Callophrys comstocki Callophrys connexa Callophrys davisi Callophrys danchenkoi Zhdanko, 1998 Callophrys dumetorum – bramble hairstreak, coastal green hairstreak, bluish green hairstreak Callophrys fervida Callophrys foulquieri Callophrys gryneus – juniper hairstreak Callophrys hatuma Zhdanko, 1996 Callophrys herculeana Callophrys homoperplexa Callophrys mcfarlandi – Sandia hairstreak Callophrys mystaphia Miller, 1913 – rhubarb hairstreak Callophrys paulae Pfeiffer, 1932 Callophrys perplexa Barnes & Benjamin, 1923 Callophrys rubi – green hairstreak Callophrys sheridanii – Sheridan's hairstreak, white-lined green hairstreak Callophrys suaveola Callophrys titanus Zhdanko, 1998 Callophrys washingtonia Subgenus Cisincisalia Johnson, 1992: Callophrys johnsoni – Johnson's hairstreak Callophrys spinetorum – thicket hairstreak Callophrys guatemalena Clench, 1981Subgenus Incisalia Scudder, 1872: Callophrys augustinus – brown elfin Callophrys eryphon – western pine elfin Callophrys fotis – early elfin Callophrys henrici – Henry's elfin Callophrys irus – frosted elfin Callophrys lanoraieensis Sheppard, 1934 – bog elfin Callophrys mossii – Moss's elfin, stonecrop elfin, Schryver's elfin Callophrys niphon – eastern pine elfin Callophrys polios Cook & Watson, 1907 – hoary elfinSubgenus Mitoura Scudder, 1872: Callophrys barryi – Barry's hairstreak Callophrys gryneus – olive hairstreak, juniper hairstreak Callophrys hesseli – Hessel's hairstreak Callophrys muiri – Muir's hairstreak Callophrys rosneri – Rosner's hairstreak, cedar hairstreak Callophrys thornei – Thorne's hairstreakSubgenus Sandia Clench & Ehrlich, 1960: Callophrys mcfarlandi Ehrlich & Clench, 1960 – Sandia hairstreakSubgenus Xamia Clench, 1961: Callophrys xami – xami hairstreak Callophrys scaphia Clench, 1981Subgenus Ahlbergia Bryk, 1946 Callophrys aleucopuncta K. Johnson, 1992 Callophrys arquata K. Johnson, 1992 Callophrys bimaculata K. Johnson, 1992 Callophrys caerulea K. Johnson, 1992 Callophrys caesius K. Johnson, 1992 Callophrys chalcidis I.

Chou & H. H. Li, 1994 Callophrys chalybeia Callophrys circe Callophrys clarofacia Callophrys clarolinea Callophrys confusa Callophrys distincta H. Huang, 2003 Callophrys dongyui Callophrys ferrea Callophrys frivaldszkyi Callophrys haradai Callophrys hsui Callophrys huertasblancae Callophrys korea K. Johnson, 1992 Callophrys leechii Callophrys leechuanlungi Callophrys leei Callophrys luoliangi Callophrys lynda Callophrys nicevillei Callophrys pictila K. Johnson, 1992 Callophrys pluto Callophrys prodiga K. Johnson, 1992 Callophrys unicolora K. Johnson, 1992 Callophrys zhujianhuai H. Huang & C. S. Wu, 2003Unnamed genus: Callophrys dospassosi Clench, 1981 Callophrys estela Clench, 1981 images representing Callophrys at Consortium for the Barcode of Life mages representing Ahlbergia at Consortium for the Barcode of Life Callophrys "Le genre Callophrys" from French Wikipedia provides more distribution information

André Wormser

André Alphonse Toussaint Wormser was a French banker and Romantic composer. André Wormser was born in Paris and studied with Antoine Marmontel and François Bazin at the Paris Conservatoire, he married Olga née Boris, the couple had four children, Sabine and Olivier, all featured in a 1926 portrait Madame André Wormser and her Children by Édouard Vuillard. As a wealthy man, Wormser was able to afford a membership in the social club Cercle artistique et littéraire. In 1872 Wormser won the Premier Prix in piano at the Paris Conservatoire, in 1875 he won the Prix de Rome for his cantata Clytemnestre, he is best known for the pantomime L'Enfant prodigue, revived at the Booth Theater in New York in 1916 as the three-act play Perroit the Prodigal. He died in Paris. Notable students include Charles Malherbe. Wormser composed choral and orchestra music and works for solo instrument and voice. Selected works include: L'Étoile, Ballet-pantomime en deux actes Ballada for Oboe and Piano Clytemnestre, cantata L'Enfant prodigue, pantomime Rêverie for violin and piano Adèle de Ponthieu, opera Rivoli, opera Works by or about André Wormser at Internet Archive Free scores by André Wormser at the International Music Score Library Project André Wormser at AllMusic André Wormser: Romance sans paroles, #4 from'6 Pieces Pittoresques' from YouTube


IRCAM is a French institute for science about music and sound and avant garde electro-acoustical art music. It is situated next to, is organisationally linked with, the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris; the extension of the building was designed by Richard Rogers. Much of the institute is located underground, beneath the fountain to the east of the buildings. Several concepts for electronic music and audio processing have emerged at IRCAM. John Chowning pioneered work on FM synthesis at IRCAM, Miller Puckette wrote Max at IRCAM in the mid-1980s, which would become the real-time audio processing graphical programming environment Max/MSP. Max/MSP has subsequently become a used tool in electroacoustic music. Many of the techniques associated with spectralism, such as analyses based on fast Fourier transforms, were made practical by technological contributions at IRCAM. For instance, researchers at IRCAM have developed a special microphone capable of isolating each of the cello's four strings for separate amplification or electronic treatment.

Along with tools for sound synthesis and analysis, IRCAM has played an instrumental role in developing programs for visualization of musical form with the creation of OpenMusic, a Lisp-based visual programming language. IRCAM provides classes to train composers in music technology. Composers who do not have programming experience to create the technology end of a piece for ensemble and electronics are provided with an assistant who helps them to realise technically intensive parts of the piece; the assistant will follow the conceptual advice of a composer with no technology experience to realize a computer part, or will help a composer who can program in Max/MSP to make their "patch" more efficient and elegant. Tristan Murail's Désintégrations is an example of a piece realized in this program by a composer with significant technological skill, whereas Harrison Birtwistle's The Mask of Orpheus required an active and creative role for the technology assistants, such as Barry Anderson and Ian Dearden.

Apart from electroacoustic programmes, IRCAM has programmes in contemporary classical music. It has disseminated music of post World War II modernist musicians such as that of Luciano Berio or Pierre Boulez, as well as younger performers and composers. Musical spectralism such as that of Tristan Murail, has received support from IRCAM. Murail taught at IRCAM for a time. Kaija Saariaho, whose work has been influenced by spectralism, has been supported by IRCAM. IRCAM has helped to develop various performance models. A resident ensemble of IRCAM, Ensemble InterContemporain, specialised in contemporary classical music, where each performer could be called upon to perform solo literature or ensemble literature; the Ensemble InterContemporain has been a model for many large ensembles in Europe, for example the Ensemble Modern and Klangforum Wien. Many classical contemporary pieces have been written for the chamber orchestra section of Ensemble InterContemporain. There are regular concerts at IRCAM. In 1970 President Georges Pompidou asked Pierre Boulez to found an institution for research in music.

In 1973 the section of the building underneath Place Igor Stravinsky was finished, IRCAM opened in 1977. From the outset, Boulez was in charge of the institute; the initial administrators included Luciano Berio, Vinko Globokar, Jean-Claude Risset, Max Mathews. 1990 Ircam established the Cursus Program for young Composers, a training in Computer Music and Composition. In 1992 Boulez, who became honorary director, was succeeded by Laurent Bayle. In 2002 the philosopher Bernard Stiegler became the new head of the institute. On January 1, 2006, Stiegler became Director of Cultural Development at the Centre Pompidou and was replaced by Frank Madlener; the creation of IRCAM coincided with the rise of the debates about modernism and postmodernism in culture and the arts. Its multimedia library was established in 1996, it is one of the first music hybrid libraries to have been created with close to 1000 hours of recorded music and over 2,000 scientific articles available online, in addition to its physical collections of sheet music and books on music and related domains.

Several international conferences have been held at IRCAM: ICMC, the yearly International Computer Music Conference, in 1984 ISMIR 2002, the 3rd international conference on music information retrieval, in October 2002 NIME-06, the 6th International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, in June 2006 Acanthes, a yearly summer festival and series of composition workshops started in 2012 Instrumental acoustics Room acoustics Music therapy Musical perception and cognition Analysis/synthesis Music representations Free software and software engineering Sound design Online services Some software is being developed at IRCAM, such as OpenMusic, AudioSculpt, OMax, Modalys and Orchidée. Orchidée is developed as a tool to aid in orchestral composition in which musical scores using traditional instruments are generated by imitating a target input sound, it is used in Jonathan Harvey's 2008 piece, "Speakings", a composition based on emulating speech patterns and inflections. Orchidée is capable of computing the complex combinatorial possibilities of an orchestra based on musical attributes such as dynamics and instruments, perceptual attributes such as brightness, timbre models.

IRCAM software is distributed via a subscription-based Forum. As of 2011, IRCAM Forum has 534 members including individual artists and art institutions around the world. IRCAM Forum members gather yearly at IRCAM for workshops regarding new technologies developed at IRCAM and elsewhere. There are partnerships