A seashell or sea shell known as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea. The shell is part of the body of the animal. Empty seashells are found washed up on beaches by beachcombers; the shells are empty because the animal has died and the soft parts have been eaten by another animal or have decomposed. A seashell is the exoskeleton of an invertebrate, is composed of calcium carbonate or chitin. Most shells that are found on beaches are the shells of marine mollusks because these shells are made of calcium carbonate, endure better than shells made of chitin. Apart from mollusk shells, other shells that can be found on beaches are those of barnacles, horseshoe crabs and brachiopods. Marine annelid worms in the family Serpulidae create shells which are tubes made of calcium carbonate cemented onto other surfaces; the shells of sea urchins are called "tests", the moulted shells of crabs and lobsters are exuviae. While most seashells are external, some cephalopods have internal shells.
Seashells have been used by humans for many different purposes throughout pre-history. However, seashells are not the only kind of shells; when the word "seashells" refers only to the shells of marine mollusks studying seashells is part of conchology. Conchologists or serious collectors who have a scientific bias are in general careful not to disturb living populations and habitats: though they may collect a few live animals, most responsible collectors do not over-collect or otherwise disturb ecosystems; the study of the entire molluscan animal is known as malacology. Seashells are found in beach drift, natural detritus deposited along strandlines on beaches by the waves and the tides. Shells are often washed up onto a beach empty and clean, the animal having died. Empty seashells are picked up by beachcombers. However, the majority of seashells which are offered for sale commercially have been collected alive and killed and cleaned for the commercial trade; this type of large-scale exploitation can sometimes have a strong negative impact on local ecosystems, sometimes can reduce the distribution of rare species.
The word seashell is used to mean only the shell of a marine mollusk. Marine mollusk shells that are familiar to beachcombers and thus most to be called "seashells" are the shells of marine species of bivalves, scaphopods and cephalopods; these shells are often the most encountered, both in the wild, for sale as decorative objects. Marine species of gastropods and bivalves are more numerous than land and freshwater species, the shells are larger and more robust; the shells of marine species often have more sculpture and more color, although this is by no means always the case. In the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, there are far more species of colorful, shallow water shelled marine mollusks than there are in the temperate zones and the regions closer to the poles. Although there are a number of species of shelled mollusks that are quite large, there are vast numbers of small species too, see micromollusks. Not all mollusks are marine. There are numerous freshwater mollusks, see for example snail and freshwater bivalves.
In addition, not all mollusks have an external shell: some mollusks such as some cephalopods have an internal shell, many mollusks have no shell, see for example slug and nudibranch. Bivalves are the most common seashells that wash up on large sandy beaches or in sheltered lagoons, they can sometimes be numerous. The two valves become separated. There are more than 15,000 species of bivalves that live in both freshwater. Examples of bivalves are clams, scallops and oysters; the majority of bivalves consist of two identical shells. The animal's body is held protectively inside these two shells. Bivalves that do not have two shells either have one shell or they lack a shell altogether; the shells are formed in layers by secretions from the mantle. Bivalves known as pelecypods, are filter feeders; some bivalves have an open circulatory system. Bivalves are used all as a source of pearls; the larvae of some freshwater mussels can bore through wood. Shell Beach, Western Australia, is a beach, made up of the shells of the cockle Fragum erugatum.
Certain species of gastropod seashells can sometimes be common, washed up on sandy beaches, on beaches that are surrounded by rocky marine habitat. Chiton plates or valves wash up on beaches in rocky areas where chitons are common. Chiton shells, which are composed of eight separate plates and a girdle come apart not long after death, so they are always found as disarticulated plates. Plates from larger species of chitons are sometimes known as "butterfly shells" because of their shape. Only a few species of cephalopods have shells; some cephalopods such as Sepia, the cuttlefish, have a large internal shell, the cuttlefi
Henry "Hank" J. Caruso was an American businessman, he was the founder of Dollar Rent A Car. Of Italian heritage, Caruso was born in Pennsylvania, his father, August Caruso, worked in the landscape business and decided that the weather in the Mid-Atlantic was problematic and moved the family to Los Angeles, California in the mid-1920s. They first moved to East Los Angeles but soon settled in the Silver Lake neighborhood where Henry and his brothers and Lawrence, were raised, he enrolled at the University of Southern California in 1939 with plans to study medicine, but left to join the US Navy Air Corp and earned the distinction of Navy Pilot LTJG. He returned to USC after the war to finish his studies. Caruso entered the automobile business by acquiring a number of new car dealerships, including from General Motors and Chrysler. In the early days of TV he monopolized commercial television airwaves in Los Angeles with his radio and TV singing commercials where he billed himself as "H. J. Caruso—he's the greatest."
The Desert Sun called him the "glamour boy of automotive salesmanship in Los Angeles."He founded Dollar Rent-A-Car in 1966 as Dollar A Day Rent A Car. After opening five locations, he was determined to open lucrative airport locations; this led to a legal fight in the 1970s that caused the Federal Trade Commission to take action and prohibit any practices that discriminated against small companies vying for airport locations. Many airports and local townships rejected his request to display the "Dollar A Day" sign as they felt it constituted false advertising. In 1973, the Palm Springs, California Planning Commission rejected Caruso's request for approval of a "Dollar A Day" sign as "misleading advertising." He changed the name to Dollar Rent-A-Car. Under his 20 years of guidance it grew to be the fourth largest car rental agency worldwide with over 1,400 locations, he sold the company to the Chrysler Corporation in 1990. Caruso was the head of Caruso Affiliated, which owned his car dealerships, HJC Investment Corporation, an investment company.
On April 25, 1957, Caruso was indicted by the Grand Jury of Los Angeles County for criminal conspiracy to defraud and cheat and grand theft related to his automobile dealerships. Caruso pleaded guilty to two counts of the April 25 indictment. Caruso was given a suspended sentence. Probation was granted for a period of 10 years conditioned on his spending the first year in the county jail, paying a fine of $10,000 and remaining "out of the automobile business or any business involving sales to the public."In 1970, the Superior Court of California set aside the guilty plea. Having fulfilled the terms of his probation, he was allowed to withdraw his guilty plea and enter a plea of not guilty, the charges against him were dismissed. Caruso lived with his wife Gloria in California, he has one daughter, Cristina Caruso, two sons, Rick J. Caruso, a billionaire builder and retail operator and owner and CEO of Caruso Affiliated, which has built and owns and operates such retail properties as The Grove at Farmers Market and The Americana at Brand, Marc Caruso, a Los Angeles music executive and CEO of Angry Mob Music
Ouenza is a town in Tébessa Province, in far eastern Algeria. The population is 60,000. Ethnologically, the city draws its population from the diverse surrounding regions, including Souk Ahras, Annaba, Tebessa, Chréa, El-meridj, Ain Zerga and others. Ouenza was built by the French Société de l'Ouenza at the start of the Twentieth Century, to exploit the iron ore deposits that have been the basis of economic growth in the region for over 100 years. Workers from Morocco, Tunisia and other regions of Algeria came to Ouenza, contributing to its cultural diversity and making the town unique in the region, but once these workers retired and returned home with their families, they were replaced by inhabitants of Ouenza's neighbouring villages. Ouenza's location brings it a dry climate, with cold winters; the majority of the inhabitants leave for coastal towns such as Annaba and el Kala during the summer season. Ouenza has a number of locations popular with its inhabitants. One of these, the suq, is known by its colonial name, SAS.
People of all ages gather at the boulodrome, named to watch the game of pétanque. The main supermarket is named "L'économat". There is a village hall with a 400-seat cinema and air conditioning. There are three tennis courts and the football field of the local team OSO. A number of cybercafes have emerged, catering for the tastes of the young people; the transportation of iron ore raises clouds of dust throughout the city, making hygienic life difficult and discoloring paintwork. Locals suffer a number of lung complaints from inhalation of the dust silicosis. After years of exposure, most of Ouenza's miners suffer from this affliction, caused by inhaling silica dust, many die from its complications. Iron ore in Africa
Network Enabled Weapons, or NEW, are a class of air-to-ground precision-guided munitions in development by a number of countries. A derivative of GPS-guided weapons, which are guided to a specific coordinate entered prior to release, NEW have the additional ability to have targeting coordinates updated in flight through the use of a common datalink, be tracked by aircraft and other platforms logged into the same network. Previous weapons have used datalink to provide updated target information in flight, but the creation of a common datalink allows control of the weapon to be passed from one platform to another, for example from an aircraft that launches the weapons to a ground party, in visual contact with an enemy tank formation; the concept for network enabled weapons originated at the U. S. Air Force's Air Combat Command headquarters in 2003 as a solution to the problem of attacking moving targets in all-weather, high-threat environments; the Air Force's Air Armament Center refined the idea and in late 2003 declared NEW as the "single most cost effective means available for enhancing overall armament capability."An Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration was funded in 2005 to develop the miniaturized radio that would be needed and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept.
Subsequently, the requirements for the Small Diameter Bomb Increment 2 were modified to incorporate the capability. Weapons incorporating this technology include the AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon and Turkish Air Force's SOM Cruise Missile
Below is a partial list of minor league baseball players in the Detroit Tigers system. Sergio Junior Alcántara Hernández is a Dominican professional baseball infielder in the Detroit Tigers organization. Alcántara signed with the Arizona Diamondbacks as an international free agent in July 2012, he made his professional debut in 2013 with the AZL Diamondbacks and spent the whole season there, slashing.243/.398/.320 with 16 RBIs in 48 games. In 2014, he played for the Missoula Osprey where he batted.244 with one home run and 18 RBIs in 70 games, in 2015, he played for the Kane County Cougars and Hillsboro Hops where he posted a combined.223 batting average with one home run and 28 RBIs in 91 total games between the two teams. He spent 2016 with the AZL Diamondbacks, Kane County and the Visalia Rawhide, compiling a.284 batting average with one home run and 26 RBIs in 76 total games. He began 2017 back with Visalia. On July 18, 2017 the Diamondbacks traded Alcántara along with Dawel Lugo and Jose King to the Detroit Tigers for J. D. Martinez.
Detroit assigned him to the Lakeland Flying Tigers and he finished the season there. In 121 total games between Visalia and Lakeland, he slashed.266/.334/.339 with three home runs, 35 RBIs, a.673 OPS. The Tigers added Alcántara to their 40-man roster after the 2017 season. In 2018, he spent the full season with the Double-A Erie SeaWolves, where he hit.271 with a home run, 37 RBIs, eighteen doubles. For the second straight season, Alcantara would remain at the Double-A level for the full season. Playing in 102 games he finished the season with a.247 average and.346 OBP. He hit two home runs, had 27 RBIs, but walked 48 times, six times more than in 2018. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Jose Enrique Azocar is a Venezuelan professional baseball outfielder in the Detroit Tigers organization. Azocar signed with the Detroit Tigers as an international free agent in October 2012 and would make his professional debut in 2013 with the VSL Tigers, he would join the short-season single-a Connecticut Tigers in 2015, before being sent to the GCL Tigers roster, where he was named a 2015 Post Season All-Star.
He hit.325 with ten doubles to go with five triples. His play warranted a call-up for the 2016 season to the West Michigan Whitecaps, where he spent the entire year, he made another jump in play up to high-A Lakeland for 2017, however despite seeing his first professional home runs, his average would drop from.281 in 2016 to.220 in 2017. Azocar would spend 2018 in Lakeland, he would start 2019 with the Erie SeaWolves. As of May 11, 2019, he possessed the third-highest batting average in the Eastern League with a.336 clip. His average would take a down-tick, but it would be sitting at.293 when, on June 24, he was named to the Eastern League All-Star Game for the Western Division. He would be named the Eastern League Rookie of the Year for 2019, becoming the first SeaWolves' player to earn the honor. At time of honoring, he led the league in hits with 136, was tied for third-highest batting average in the league, had 39 multi-hit games, had ten home runs and 56 RBIs, he tied for the lead in the minor leagues in 2019 by grounding into 22 double plays.
Azocar was resigned after becoming a minor league free agent on November 7, 2019. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Beau Van Burrows is an American professional baseball pitcher in the Detroit Tigers organization. Burrows attended Weatherford High School in Texas. In 2015, as a senior, he went 9 -- 3 with a 0.89 ERA. He was selected by the Tigers in the first round of the 2015 MLB draft, he signed with the Tigers. Burrows made his professional debut in 2015 with the GCL Tigers and spent the whole season there, posting a 1–0 record with a 1.61 ERA in ten games. After his success in the Gulf Coast League, Burrows was promoted to the West Michigan Whitecaps for the 2016 season, he posted a 6 -- 4 record with a 3.15 ERA in 21 games. In 2017, Burrows spent time with both the Lakeland Flying Tigers and the Erie SeaWolves, posting a combined 10–7 record and 3.20 ERA in 26 combined starts between both teams. He spent 2018 with Erie, pitching to a 10–9 record with a 4.10 ERA in 26 starts.
Burrows began 2019 with the Toledo Mud Hens. Burrows struggled with injuries over the course of the 2019 season and would start just 15 games in Toledo, he finished with a 2 -- 5.51 ERA in Toledo. Burrows was added to the Tigers 40–man roster following the 2019 season. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Anthony Silfredo Castro is a Venezuelan professional baseball pitcher in the Detroit Tigers organization. Castro signed with the Detroit Tigers as an international free agent in July 2011 and would spend all of 2012 and 2013 with the VSL Tigers. In 2014, he played for the GCL Tigers and would go on to post a 6–3 record and 4.10 ERA over thirteen games, with twelve starts. He would, miss all of 2015 as a result of Tommy John surgery and against spent 2016 with the GCL Tigers making his full-season Tigers organization debut in 2017 with the West Michigan Whitecaps; that season he posted a 10–6 record with a 2.49 ERA as a starter, only allowing opponents to hit.226 off of him.
He impressed in 2018 with the Lakeland Flying Tigers with a 9–4 record, 2.93 ERA, a career-high 101 strikeouts. He earned a brief two-week call-up that season to the
Richard Ashby Wilson is an American-British social anthropologist of law and human rights. He is the Gladstein Distinguished Professor of Human Rights and Professor of Anthropology and Law at the University of Connecticut. Wilson established the interdisciplinary Human Rights Institute at the University of Connecticut and was the Director of the Human Rights Institute from 2003 to 2013. Wilson is one of the founders of the anthropology of human rights and was editor and an author of Human Rights and Context, the first edited volume in the field of the anthropology of human rights. Wilson argued that anthropology needed to go beyond the universalism/relativism debate and study empirically the globalization of human rights in specific locales. Wilson’s subsequent work in the anthropology of law has analyzed the operation of national truth and reconciliation commissions and international criminal courts, his recent book Writing History in International Criminal Trials was selected by Choice Magazine as an "Outstanding Academic Title" in January 2012.
In "Writing History in International Criminal Trials", Wilson examines the role that history plays in international criminal proceedings