A throne is the seat of state of a potentate or dignitary the seat occupied by a sovereign on state occasions. "Throne" in an abstract sense can refer to the monarchy or the Crown itself, an instance of metonymy, is used in many expressions such as "the power behind the throne". The expression "ascend the throne" takes its meaning from the steps leading up to the dais or platform, on which the throne is placed, being comprised in the word's significance; when used in a political or governmental sense, throne refers to a civilization, tribe, or other politically designated group, organized or governed under an authoritarian system. Throughout much of human history societies have been governed under authoritarian systems, in particular dictatorial or autocratic systems, resulting in a wide variety of thrones that have been used by given heads of state; these have ranged from stools in places such as a Africa to ornate chairs and bench-like designs in Europe and Asia, respectively. But not always, a throne is tied to a philosophical or religious ideology held by the nation or people in question, which serves a dual role in unifying the people under the reigning monarch and connecting the monarch upon the throne to his or her predecessors, who sat upon the throne previously.
Accordingly, many thrones are held to have been constructed or fabricated out of rare or hard to find materials that may be valuable or important to the land in question. Depending on the size of the throne in question it may be large and ornately designed as an emplaced instrument of a nation's power, or it may be a symbolic chair with little or no precious materials incorporated into the design; when used in a religious sense, throne can refer to one of two distinct uses. The first use derives from the practice in churches of having a bishop or higher-ranking religious official sit on a special chair which in church referred to by written sources as a "throne", is intended to allow such high-ranking religious officials a place to sit in their place of worship; the other use for throne refers to a belief among many of the world's monotheistic and polytheistic religions that the deity or deities that they worship are seated on a throne. Such beliefs go back to ancient times, can be seen in surviving artwork and texts which discuss the idea of ancient gods seated on thrones.
In the major Abrahamic religions of Judaism and Islam, the Throne of God is attested to in religious scriptures and teachings, although the origin and idea of the Throne of God in these religions differs according to the given religious ideology practiced. In the west, a throne is most identified as the seat upon which a person holding the title King, Emperor, or Empress sits in a nation using a monarchy political system, although there are a few exceptions, notably with regards to religious officials such as the Pope and bishops of various sects of the Christian faith. Changing geo-political tides have resulted in the collapse of several dictatorial and autocratic governments, which in turn have left a number of throne chairs empty, however the significance of a throne chair is such that many of these thrones - such as China's Dragon Throne - survive today as historic examples of nation's previous government. Thrones were found throughout the canon of ancient furniture; the depiction of monarchs and deities as seated on chairs is a common topos in the iconography of the Ancient Near East.
The word throne itself is from Greek θρόνος, "seat, chair", in origin a derivation from the PIE root *dher- "to support". Early Greek Διὸς θρόνους was a term for the "support of the heavens", i.e. the axis mundi, which term when Zeus became an anthropomorphic god was imagined as the "seat of Zeus". In Ancient Greek, a "thronos" was a specific but ordinary type of chair with a footstool, a high status object but not with any connotations of power; the Achaeans were known to place additional, empty thrones in the royal palaces and temples so that the gods could be seated when they wished to be. The most famous of these thrones was the throne of Apollo in Amyclae; the Romans had two types of thrones- one for the Emperor and one for the goddess Roma whose statues were seated upon thrones, which became centers of worship. The word "throne" in English translations of the Bible renders Hebrew כסא kissē'; the Pharaoh of the Exodus is described as sitting on a throne, but the term refers to the throne of the kingdom of Israel called the "throne of David" or "throne of Solomon".
The literal throne of Solomon is described in 1 Kings 10:18-20: "Moreover the king made a great throne of ivory, overlaid it with the best gold.. The throne had six steps, the top of the throne was round behind: and there were stays on either side on the place of the seat, two lions stood beside the stays, and twelve lions stood there on the one side and on the other upon the six steps: there was not the like made in any kingdom." In the Book of Esther, the same word refers to the throne of the king of Persia. The god of Israel himself is described as sitting on a throne, referred to outside of the Bible as the Throne of God, in the Psalms, in a vision Isaiah, notably in Isaiah 66:1, YHWH says of himself "The heaven is my throne, the earth is my footstool". In the New Testament, the angel Gabriel refers to this throne in the Gospel of Luke: "He will be great, will be called the Son of the Highest.
A bench is a long seat on which multiple people may sit at the same time. Benches are made of wood, but may be made of metal, stone, or synthetic materials. Many benches have arm and back rests. In American public areas, benches are donated by persons or associations, which may be indicated on it, e.g. by a small plaque. Benches are used both indoors. Benches are named for the place they are used, regardless of whether this implies a specific design. Park benches are set as seating places within public parks, vary in the number of people they can seat. Garden benches are longer and offer more sitting places. Picnic tables, or catering buffet tables have long benches as well as a table; these tables may have table legs which are collapsible, in order to expedite storage. Scenic benches are situated to provide a comfortable means of enjoying the contemplation of a beautiful landscape, a busy street scene, or a specific event. Perch benches are situated in high traffic areas to enable people to take a quick break.
A storage bench is a combination of sitting space and a storage box used for keeping gardening supplies or grill equipment. A form is a backless bench, used for seating in dining rooms, school rooms and law courts. Various types of benches are designed for and/or named after specific uses, such as: church benches and pews inside places of worship, which are sometimes equipped with an additional kneeling bench. Church benches and pews can come in various styles including traditional and curved to match and complement the architectural styles and spaces of places of worship. A bench seat is a traditional seat installed in automobiles, featuring a continuous pad running the full width of the cabin. A punishment bench is used to have a punishee lie down on for the administration of a corporal punishment, after which it may be named, e.g. caning bench a bench is used for fitness exercises, such as the bench press, named after its use of a bench a communion bench is not used as a seat a piano bench offers one person seating a spanking bench, such as a caning bench, is designed for a spankee to lie upon strapped down, while submitting to paining of the posterior swing seats are independently movable, suspended benches, used for play or as a relaxing porch swing.
Glider Benches are not suspended. A friendship bench in a school playground is; the bench in a courtroom, behind which the judge is seated. Benches come in a variety of different materials, but there are some venue standards that account for use and maintenance patterns. Aluminum: Aluminum benches are found in outdoor, sideline settings at recreational venues like sports fields or courts and as a compliment to bleacher systems; the material affords for a lightweight, corrosive-free bench, so it is a portable and economical option for indoor or outdoor settings. Concrete: Concrete benches are heavy and are a more permanent furnishing, they are installed in facilities that are not expected to change or transition if at all, such as military bases, state parks and official buildings. Concrete is durable, so it is appropriate for any climate. Concrete can be composed of many different materials to afford benches different accents, depending on what it is composed of. Fiberglass: Fiberglass is a versatile material so fiberglass benches can come in a variety of designs and finishes or colors.
The material is great for indoor or outdoor use because it will not corrode or rust, is low maintenance, can be manufactured to compliment any facility. Common places where fiberglass benches are installed include food courts and office buildings. Powder-coated steel: Powder coated steel benches are found lining entryways for different venues, like retail centers, medical facilities and country clubs. While powder-coat is a common finish on many commercial site furnishings, it is featured on strap metal benches because of its anti-corrosive qualities and ability to bond to heavy duty steel constructions. Powder-coated benches come in a variety of colors and designs, from classic strap metal benches to intricate designs. Recycled plastic: Recycled plastic benches are low maintenance, available in a variety of colors and styles, are appropriate for any environment, including typically-corrosive salty, ocean side facilities. Recycled plastic components can vary based on the manufacturer, but it is commonplace that a high percentage is post-consumer material and will contribute to LEED certification.
For these reasons, they are found at a wide range of venues, including convention centers, office buildings, retail centers and stadiums. Thermoplastic: Thermoplastic is an environmentally friendly coating for metal benches. Thermoplastic benches are commonplace, located in facilities ranging from schools, recreational spaces and office buildings; the material itself is graffiti resistant and repairable, as opposed to other metal coatings and, with a thorough coat, will help a metal bench withstand a variety of climates. There are endless color options and six different common pattern styles: expanded metal, perforated metal, strap style, welded wire, diamond pattern and r
Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
A couch known as a sofa or settee, is a piece of furniture for seating two or three people in the form of a bench, with armrests, or upholstered, fitted with springs and tailored cushions. Although a couch is used for seating, it may be used for sleeping. In homes, couches are found in the family room, living room, den, or the lounge, they are sometimes found in non-residential settings such as hotels, lobbies of commercial offices, waiting rooms, bars. The term couch is predominantly used in Ireland, North America, South Africa and Australia, whereas the terms sofa and settee are used in the United Kingdom; the word couch originated in Middle English from the Old French noun couche, which derived from the verb meaning "to lie down". It denoted an item of furniture for lying or sleeping on, somewhat like a chaise longue, but now refers to sofas in general; the word sofa comes from Turkish and is derived from the Arabic word suffah, originating in the Aramaic word sippa. Joseph Pubillones in A Little Shimmer Goes a Long Way specifies that the main difference between the couch and the sofa is that "couches can be used for reclining or laying upon" so a couch would "best be used to describe an upholstered piece in a family room", while the term sofa "used predominantly in England and Ireland denotes a tone of formality, hence a sofa is more appropriate word for the upholstered piece in the living room".
The word settee or setee comes from the Old English word setl, used to describe long benches with high backs and arms, but is now used to describe upholstered seating. Other terms which can be synonymous with the above definition are chesterfield, davenport and canapé; the most common types of couches are the two-seater, sometimes referred to as a loveseat, designed for seating two persons, the sofa, which has two or more cushion seats. A sectional sofa just referred to as a "sectional", is formed from multiple sections and includes at least two pieces which join at an angle of 90 degrees or greater, used to wrap around walls or other furniture. Other variants include the divan, the fainting couch and the canapé. To conserve space, some sofas daybeds, or futons. A furniture set consisting of a sofa with two matching chairs is known as a "chesterfield suite" or "living-room suite". In the UK, the word chesterfield meant any couch in the 1900s, but now describes a deep buttoned sofa made from leather, with arms and back of the same height.
The first leather chesterfield sofa, with its distinctive deep buttoned, quilted leather upholstery and lower seat base, was commissioned by Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield. In Canadian English, chesterfield as equivalent to a couch or sofa is widespread among older Canadians, but the term is vanishing according to one survey done in the Golden Horseshoe region of Ontario in 1992. A couch consists of the padding and the covering; the frame is made of wood, but can be made of steel, plastic or laminated boards. Sofa padding is made from foam, feathers, fabric or a combination thereof. Sofa coverings are made out of soft leather, corduroy or linen fabric coverings. Bean bag Couch potato Confidante Davenport Divan Ottoman Settle, wooden furniture with similar usage Slipcover Wing chair Window seat John Gloag, A Short Dictionary of Furniture rev. ed. 1962. Campbell, Gordon. "Sofa". The Grove Encyclopedia of Decorative Arts. Volume 2. Oxford University Press. P. 369. ISBN 9780195189483; the dictionary definition of couch at Wiktionary
A chaise longue is an upholstered sofa in the shape of a chair, long enough to support the legs. In modern French the term chaise longue can refer to any long reclining chair such as a deckchair. A literal translation in English is "long chair". In the United States the term lounge chair is used to refer to any long reclining chair. In the United States, chaise longue is nearly always written "chaise lounge" and pronounced, the first constituent a spelling pronunciation, the second a 19th-century folk-anagrammatic adaptation of French longue; the chaise longue has traditionally been associated with psychoanalysis and many psychoanalysts continue to keep chaises longues in their offices for use in psychotherapy. It is thought that the first blend of a daybed originated in Egypt; the earliest known models were made from palm sticks lashed together with pieces of rawhide. Egyptian bed-makers introduced mortise-and-tenon construction and wood bed frames veneered with ivory or ebony, in common use with many examples being found in the 1st dynasty tombs.
Ancient Greek art depicts goddesses lounging in this type of chair. The modern Greek word symposion comes from sympinein, which means "to drink together". In ancient Greece this word conveyed the idea of a party with conversation; the principal item of furniture for a symposium is a form of daybed. The Greeks changed from the normal practice of sitting at a table to the practice of reclining on couches as early as the 8th century BC; the Romans used a daybed for reclining in the daytime and to sleep on at night. Developed from the Greek prototype, the Roman daybed was designed with legs carved in wood or cast bronze; the Romans adapted a chaise longue style chair for the accubatio. At Roman banquets, the usual number of persons occupying each bed was three, with three daybeds forming three sides of a small square, so that the triclinium allowed for a party of nine; the Romans did not practice upholstery, so the couches were made comfortable with pillows, loose covers and animal skins. For the Victorians, the chaise longue was thought of as being dear to expecting wives.
As birth control information improved and became more widespread, the chaise longue became less fashionable. Marghanita Laski was the author of The Victorian Chaise-longue, a historical novel, published in 1953, Duchesse brisée: this word is used when the chaise longue is divided in two parts: the chair and a long footstool, or two chairs with a stool in between them; the origin of the name is unknown. Récamier: a récamier has two raised ends, nothing on the long sides, it is sometimes associated with French Empire style. It’s named after French society hostess Madame Récamier, who posed elegantly on a couch of this kind for a portrait, painted in 1800; the shape of the récamier is similar to a traditional lit bateau but made for the drawing room, not the bedroom. Méridienne: a méridienne has a high head-rest, a lower foot-rest, joined by a sloping piece. Whether or not they have anything at the foot end, méridiennes are asymmetrical day-beds, they were popular in the grand houses of France in the early 19th century.
Its name is from its typical use: rest in the middle of the day. Eames Lounge Chair Fainting couch Sunlounger Couch Segal, Troy. "Antique Fainting Couches and Daybeds". Antiques.about.com. Retrieved 2017-04-04
Bar stools are a type of tall chair with a foot rest to support the feet. The height and narrowness of bar stools makes them suitable for use at bars and high tables in pubs or bars. There are construction materials and models. Bar stools are made of wood or metal. There are bar stools with and without armrests and padding or upholstery on the seat surface. Bar stools can range from basic wooden designs to more complex ones with adjustable height. Extra tall and extra short are common features, as well as outdoor bar stools; some bar stools have backs. In commercial settings and floor mounted bar stools are common. Floor mounting renders the stool immovable, so it cannot be stolen or used as a weapon in a bar fight. Floor-mounted stools are mounted on a column, but stools with legs can be secured to the floor using metal brackets; the normal seat height for a bar stool is 30" with a 26" stool being used against kitchen counters. Extra tall 36" stools are used in contemporary styles with high pub tables to create a visual effect in modern interiors.
Counter height bar stools have a seat height of 24". By comparison a conventional dining chair seat height is 18"; some bar stools use polyurethane foam as padding for comfort. Bar stools can be made from rattan or bamboo and these stools can be used to create a tiki bar effect; the retro styling of the 1950 and 1960s is popular in some bars and restaurants, which use chrome and vinyl stools combined with matching benches or diner chairs. Stacking stools are favored for their space-saving qualities; some establishments use matching bar chairs. Aluminum is used outdoors. Stacking aluminum stools and patio chairs are used by commercial premises. Indoors and upholstery are popular in traditional settings. Bar stools are used in pool or billiard halls and the style of chair customized for such use is called a "spectator chair". Bar stools are used in Ireland during weekends by followers of the English Premier League, a practice which led to the creation of the pejorative term "barstoolers" by supporters of the League of Ireland.
Bar stools are a growth area in the consumer market and online purchasing is on the increase. Bar stools can be made to order and customers can specify a wide range of fabrics and finishes as well as specifying other options such as height and custom foot rests. Both wooden and metal bar stools, including stainless and chrome styles and adjustable height features are popular
In an automotive context, an armrest is a feature found in many modern vehicles on which occupants can rest their arms. Armrests are found on chairs in general. Armrests are more prolific in more expensive models of cars. In the front of the car, a central armrest, which folds away based on user preference, will often include a storage compartment and sometimes cup holders; some provide the location for controls for non-essential functions of the vehicle, such as climate control or window motors. Sometimes one or two armrests may be attached to each individual seat, a feature found in minivans and some SUVs. There is a further armrest built into the door of the car forming part of the door pulling handle. A rear arm-rest will fold away between the back seats, to allow for the central seating place to be used. In some designs where occupant safety is emphasised, including some Volvo models, the armrest doubles as a child seat, complete with specially adjustable seatbelt; as with the front, it is not unusual to have armrests built into rear doors, or the side of the car if there is no rear door.
Footstool Head restraint Human factors and ergonomics Lyre arm