Seattle SuperSonics

The Seattle SuperSonics known as the Sonics, were an American professional basketball team based in Seattle, Washington. The SuperSonics played in the National Basketball Association as a member club of the league's Western Conference Pacific and Northwest divisions from 1967 until 2008. After the 2007–08 season ended, the team relocated to Oklahoma City and now plays as the Oklahoma City Thunder. Sam Schulman owned the team from its 1967 inception until 1983, it was owned by Barry Ackerley, Basketball Club of Seattle, headed by Starbucks chairman emeritus, former president and CEO Howard Schultz. On July 18, 2006, the Basketball Club of Seattle sold the SuperSonics and its Women's National Basketball Association sister franchise Seattle Storm to the Professional Basketball Club LLC, headed by Oklahoma City businessman Clay Bennett; the sale was approved by the NBA Board of Governors on October 24, 2006, finalized on October 31, 2006, at which point the new ownership group took control. After failing to find public funding to construct a new arena in the Seattle area, the SuperSonics moved to Oklahoma City before the 2008–09 season, following a $45 million settlement with the city of Seattle to pay off the team's existing lease at KeyArena at Seattle Center in advance of its 2010 expiration.

Home games were played at KeyArena known as Seattle Center Coliseum, for 33 of the franchise's 41 seasons in Seattle. In 1978, the team moved to the Kingdome, shared with the Seattle Mariners of Major League Baseball and the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League, they returned to the Coliseum full-time in 1985, moving temporarily to the Tacoma Dome in Tacoma, for the 1994–95 season while the Coliseum was renovated and rebranded as KeyArena. The SuperSonics won the NBA championship in 1979. Overall, the franchise won three Western Conference titles: 1978, 1979, 1996; the franchise won six divisional titles, their last being in 2005, with five in the Pacific Division and one in the Northwest Division. Settlement terms of a lawsuit between the city of Seattle and Clay Bennett's ownership group stipulated the SuperSonics' banners and retired jerseys remain in Seattle; the SuperSonics' franchise history, would be shared with the Thunder. On December 20, 1966, Los Angeles businessmen Sam Schulman and Eugene V. Klein, who both owned the AFL's San Diego Chargers at the time, a group of minority partners were awarded an NBA franchise for the city of Seattle.

Schulman would serve as the active head of team operations. He named the team "SuperSonics" after Boeing's awarded contract for the SST project, canceled; the SuperSonics were Seattle's first major league sports franchise. Beginning play on October 13, 1967, the SuperSonics were coached by Al Bianchi and featured All-Star guard Walt Hazzard and NBA All-Rookie Team members Bob Rule and Al Tucker; the expansion team stumbled out of the gates with a 144–116 loss in their first game in San Francisco against the San Francisco Warriors. The team got their first win on October 21, their third game of the season in San Diego against the San Diego Rockets in overtime 117–110, finished the season with a 23–59 record. Hazzard was traded to the Atlanta Hawks before the start of the next season for Lenny Wilkens. Wilkens brought a strong all-around game to the SuperSonics, averaging 22.4 points, 8.2 assists, 6.2 rebounds per game for Seattle in the 1968–69 season. Rule, improved on his rookie statistics with 24.0 points per game and 11.5 rebounds per game.

The SuperSonics, only won 30 games and Bianchi was replaced by Wilkens as player/coach during the offseason. Wilkens and Rule both represented Seattle in the 1970 NBA All-Star Game, Wilkens led the NBA in assists during the 1969–70 season. In June 1970 the NBA owners voted 13–4 to work toward a merger with the ABA; the Oscar Robertson suit delayed the merger, the SuperSonics remained in Seattle. Early in the 1970–71 season, Rule tore his left Achilles' tendon and was lost for the rest of the season. Wilkens was named the 1971 All-Star Game MVP, but the big news of the season came when owner Sam Schulman managed to land American Basketball Association Rookie of the Year and MVP Spencer Haywood following a lengthy court battle; the following season, the SuperSonics went on to record their first winning season at 47–35. The team, led by player-coach Wilkens and First Team forward Haywood, held a 46–27 mark on March 3, but late season injuries to starters Haywood, Dick Snyder, Don Smith contributed to the team losing eight of its final nine games.

For the 1972–73 season, Wilkens was dealt to Cleveland in a unpopular trade, without his leadership the SuperSonics fell to a 26–56 record. One of the few bright spots of the season was Haywood's second consecutive All-NBA First Team selection, as he averaged a SuperSonics record 29.2 points per game and collected 12.9 rebounds per game. The legendary Bill Russell was hired as the head coach in the following year, in 1975 he coached the SuperSonics to the playoffs for the f

Rozel, Kansas

Rozel is a city in Pawnee County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 156; the first post office in Rozel was established in 1893. The community was named in honor of the daughter of a businessman. Rozel is located at 38°11′45″N 99°24′09″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.17 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 156 people, 66 households, 43 families residing in the city; the population density was 917.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 85 housing units at an average density of 500.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.0% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.5% of the population. There were 66 households of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 1.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.8% were non-families. 31.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the city was 44.5 years. 23.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.3% male and 48.7% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 182 people, 72 households, 48 families residing in the city; the population density was 825.4 people per square mile. There were 86 housing units at an average density of 390.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.70% White, 0.55% from other races, 2.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.10% of the population. There were 72 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.3% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.25.

In the city, the population was spread out with 31.3% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, 16.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,750, the median income for a family was $45,893. Males had a median income of $25,833 versus $21,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,151. About 6.1% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 6.3% of those sixty five or over. Rozel is a part of USD 496 Pawnee Heights; the Pawnee Heights High School mascot is Tigers. Rozel High School was closed through school unification; the Rozel Tigers won the Kansas State High School boys class BB basketball championship in 1959 and the boys class B basketball championship in 1960. Gary Patterson, head football coach at TCU Glee Smith, Jr.

Kansas state legislator and lawyer Pawnee River Tornado outbreak of May 18–21, 2013 CityCity of Rozel Rozel - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 496, local school districtMapsRozel City Map, KDOT

Structure and genome of HIV

The genome and proteins of HIV have been the subject of extensive research since the discovery of the virus in 1983. "In the search for the causative agent, it was believed that the virus was a form of the Human T-cell leukemia virus, known at the time to affect the human immune system and cause certain leukemias. However, researchers at the Pasteur Institute in Paris isolated a unknown and genetically distinct retrovirus in patients with AIDS, named HIV." Each virion comprises a viral envelope and associated matrix enclosing a capsid, which itself encloses two copies of the single-stranded RNA genome and several enzymes. The discovery of the virus itself occurred two years following the report of the first major cases of AIDS-associated illnesses; the complete sequence of the HIV-1 genome, extracted from infectious virions, has been solved to single-nucleotide resolution. The HIV genome encodes a small number of viral proteins, invariably establishing cooperative associations among HIV proteins and between HIV and host proteins, to invade host cells and hijack their internal machineries.

HIV is different in structure from other retroviruses. The HIV virion is ~100 nm in diameter, its innermost region consists of a cone-shaped core that includes two copies of the ssRNA genome, the enzymes reverse transcriptase and protease, some minor proteins, the major core protein. The genome of human immunodeficiency virus encodes 8 viral proteins playing essential roles during the HIV life cycle. HIV-1 is composed of two copies of noncovalently linked, positive-sense single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid composed of the viral protein p24, typical of lentiviruses; the RNA component is 9749 nucleotides long and bears a 5’ cap, a 3’ poly tail, many open reading frames. Viral structural proteins are encoded by long ORFs, whereas smaller ORFs encode regulators of the viral life cycle: attachment, membrane fusion and assembly; the single-strand RNA is bound to p7 nucleocapsid proteins, late assembly protein p6, enzymes essential to the development of the virion, such as reverse transcriptase and integrase.

Lysine tRNA is the primer of the magnesium-dependent reverse transcriptase. The nucleocapsid associates with the genomic protects the RNA from digestion by nucleases. Enclosed within the virion particle are Vif, Vpr and viral protease. A matrix composed of an association of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid, ensuring the integrity of the virion particle; this is in turn surrounded by an envelope of host-cell origin. The envelope is formed when the capsid buds from the host cell, taking some of the host-cell membrane with it; the envelope includes the glycoproteins gp120 and gp41, which are responsible for binding to and entering the host cell. As the only proteins on the surface of the virus, the envelope glycoproteins are the major targets for HIV vaccine efforts. Over half of the mass of the trimeric envelope spike is N-linked glycans; the density is high as the glycans shield underlying viral protein from neutralisation by antibodies. This is one of the most densely glycosylated molecules known and the density is sufficiently high to prevent the normal maturation process of glycans during biogenesis in the endoplasmic and Golgi apparatus.

The majority of the glycans are therefore stalled as immature'high-mannose' glycans not present on secreted or cell surface human glycoproteins. The unusual processing and high density means that all broadly neutralising antibodies that have so far been identified bind to or, are adapted to cope with, these envelope glycans; the molecular structure of the viral spike has now been determined by X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy. These advances in structural biology were made possible due to the development of stable recombinant forms of the viral spike by the introduction of an intersubunit disulphide bond and an isoleucine to proline mutation in gp41; the so-called SOSIP trimers not only reproduce the antigenic properties of the native viral spike but display the same degree of immature glycans as presented on the native virus. Recombinant trimeric viral spikes are promising vaccine candidates as they display less non-neutralising epitopes than recombinant monomeric gp120 which act to suppress the immune response to target epitopes.

HIV has several major genes coding for structural proteins that are found in all retroviruses as well as several nonstructural genes unique to HIV. The HIV genome contains nine genes; these are synthesized as polyproteins which produce proteins for virion interior, called Gag, group specific antigen. In addition to these, HIV encodes for proteins which have certain regulatory and auxiliary functions as well. HIV-1 has two important regulatory elements: Tat and Rev and few important accessory proteins such as Nef, Vpr and Vpu which are not essential for replication in certain tissues; the gag gene provides the basic physical infrastructure of the virus, pol provides the basic mechanism by which retroviruses reproduce, while the others help HIV to enter the host cell and enhance its reproduction. Though they may be altered by mutation, all of these genes except tev exist in all known variants of HIV. HIV employs a sophisticated system of differential RNA splicing to obtain nine different gene products from a less than 10kb genome.

HIV has a 9.2kb unspliced genomic transcript which encodes for