Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5%. This means that every kilogram of seawater has 35 grams of dissolved salts. Average density at the surface is 1.025 kg/L. Seawater is denser than both fresh water and pure water because the dissolved salts increase the mass by a larger proportion than the volume; the freezing point of seawater decreases as salt concentration increases. At typical salinity, it freezes at about −2 °C; the coldest seawater recorded was in 2010, in a stream under an Antarctic glacier, measured −2.6 °C. Seawater pH is limited to a range between 7.5 and 8.4. However, there is no universally accepted reference pH-scale for seawater and the difference between measurements based on different reference scales may be up to 0.14 units. Although the vast majority of seawater has a salinity of between 31 g/kg and 38 g/kg, 3.1–3.8%, seawater is not uniformly saline throughout the world. Where mixing occurs with fresh water runoff from river mouths, near melting glaciers or vast amounts of precipitation, seawater can be less saline.
The most saline open sea is the Red Sea, where high rates of evaporation, low precipitation and low river run-off, confined circulation result in unusually salty water. The salinity in isolated bodies of water can be greater still - about ten times higher in the case of the Dead Sea. Several salinity scales were used to approximate the absolute salinity of seawater. A popular scale was the "Practical Salinity Scale" where salinity was measured in "practical salinity units"; the current standard for salinity is the "Reference Salinity" scale with the salinity expressed in units of "g/kg". The density of surface seawater ranges from about 1020 to 1029 kg/m3, depending on the temperature and salinity. At a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g/kg and 1 atm pressure, the density of seawater is 1023.6 kg/m3. Deep in the ocean, under high pressure, seawater can reach a density of higher; the density of seawater changes with salinity. Brines generated by seawater desalination plants can have salinities up to 120 g/kg.
The density of typical seawater brine of 120 g/kg salinity at 25 °C and atmospheric pressure is 1088 kg/m3. Seawater pH is limited to the range 7.5 to 8.4. The speed of sound in seawater is about 1,500 m/s, varies with water temperature and pressure; the thermal conductivity of seawater is a salinity of 35 g/kg. The thermal conductivity decreases with increasing salinity and increases with increasing temperature. Seawater contains more dissolved ions than all types of freshwater. However, the ratios of solutes differ dramatically. For instance, although seawater contains about 2.8 times more bicarbonate than river water, the percentage of bicarbonate in seawater as a ratio of all dissolved ions is far lower than in river water. Bicarbonate ions constitute 48% of river water solutes but only 0.14% for seawater. Differences like these are due to the varying residence times of seawater solutes; the most abundant dissolved ions in seawater are sodium, magnesium and calcium. Its osmolarity is about 1000 mOsm/l.
Small amounts of other substances are found, including amino acids at concentrations of up to 2 micrograms of nitrogen atoms per liter, which are thought to have played a key role in the origin of life. Research in 1957 by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography sampled water in both pelagic and neritic locations in the Pacific Ocean. Direct microscopic counts and cultures were used, the direct counts in some cases showing up to 10 000 times that obtained from cultures; these differences were attributed to the occurrence of bacteria in aggregates, selective effects of the culture media, the presence of inactive cells. A marked reduction in bacterial culture numbers was noted below the thermocline, but not by direct microscopic observation. Large numbers of spirilli-like forms were seen by microscope but not under cultivation; the disparity in numbers obtained by the two methods is well known in other fields. In the 1990s, improved techniques of detection and identification of microbes by probing just small snippets of DNA, enabled researchers taking part in the Census of Marine Life to identify thousands of unknown microbes present only in small numbers.
This revealed a far greater diversity than suspected, so that a litre of seawater may hold more than 20,000 species. Mitchell Sogin from the Marine Biological Laboratory feels that "the number of different kinds of bacteria in the oceans could eclipse five to 10 million."Bacteria are found at all depths in the water column, as well as in the sediments, some being aerobic, others anaerobic. Most are free-swimming, but some exist as symbionts within other organisms – examples of these being bioluminescent bacteria. Cyanobacteria played an important role in the evolution of ocean processes, enabling the development of stromatolites and oxygen in the atmosphere; some bacteria interact with diatoms, form a critical link in the cycling of silicon in the ocean. One anaerobic species, Thiomargarita namibiensis, plays an important part in the breakdown of hydrogen sulfide eruptions from diatomaceous sediments off the Namibian coast, generated by high rates of phytoplankton
Michael Bolton is the third studio album by American recording artist Michael Bolton. It was Bolton's first record to be released, on Columbia Records; this was the first time that Bolton recorded under his stage name. It features future Kiss guitarist Bruce Kulick on lead guitar, rotating with Bolton himself. Future Trans-Siberian Orchestra/Savatage/Megadeth guitarist Al Pitrelli replaced Kulick on the tour supporting the single, "Fool's Game", though the tour was cancelled after four shows; the Rolling Stone Album Guide said the album was "better balanced and more pop-savvy, but falters when he attempts an over-burdened rendition of The Supremes"Back in My Arms Again'."Allmusic gave the album a negative retrospective review, saying that it was dominated by arena rock cliches, but acknowledged that "Bolton was an undeniably involving singer, songs like'Fools Game,' the lead-off track and chart single, were satisfying pop efforts". Produced by Gerry Block and Michael Bolton Associate Producer – Jan Mullaney Executive Producer – Louis Levin Engineered by Carla Bandini, Gerry Block and John Convertino.
Assistant Engineers – Barry Bongiovi, Jeffry Hendrickson, Linda Randazzo, Garry Rindfuss, Glenn Rosenstein and Jimmy Santis. Additional Recording by Tony Bongiovi Mixed by Tony Bongiovi. Recorded and Mixed at Sigma Sound Studios and The Power Station. Mastered by Bob Ludwig at Masterdisk. Drum and Sound Technician – John Potoker Creative Direction – Louis Levin, David Krebs and Steve Leber. Design – Design Photography – David Kennedy Michael Bolton – lead and backing vocals, guitar solo, lead guitar Craig Brooks – rhythm guitar, backing vocals Bob Kulick – rhythm guitar Bruce Kulick – lead guitar, guitar solo Mark Mangold – synthesizer, backing vocals Jan Mullaney – piano, Hammond organ Aldo Nova – synthesizer, guitar solo George Clinton – synthesizer, backing vocals Doug Katsaros – piano Mark Clarke – bass guitar Michael Braun – drums Chuck Burgi – drums Lloyd Landesman – backing vocals Scott Zito – backing vocals. René Froger covered "I Almost Believed You" on his 1990 album Midnight Man. Axel Rudi Pell covered "Fools Game" on his 2007 covers album Diamonds Unlocked.
Werner Mathias Goeritz Brunner was a well-known Mexican painter and sculptor of German origin. After spending much of the 1940s in North Africa and Spain and his wife, photographer Marianne Gast, immigrated to Mexico in 1949. Mathias Goeritz spent his childhood in Berlin, he began studying philosophy and the history of art at Berlin's Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität, now known as the Humboldt University of Berlin, in 1934. Goeritz received a doctorate in art history from this institution in 1940, his doctoral dissertation on the nineteenth-century German painter Ferdinand von Rayski was published as Ferdinand Von Rayski und die Kunst des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts. During the course of his studies, Goeritz trained as an artist at the Kunstgewerbe- und Handwerkerschule in Berlin-Charlottenberg, where he studied drawing with German artists Max Kaus and Hans Orlowski. Upon completion of his doctorate, Goeritz worked at Berlin’s Nationalgalerie, now the Alte Nationalgalerie, under the supervision of nineteenth-century art specialist Paul Ortwin Rave.
In early 1941, in the midst of the Second World War, Goeritz left Germany, settling first in Tetuan, Morocco. He and photographer Marianne Gast married in 1942, the couple settled in Granada, Spain just after the war ended in 1945. Goeritz's career as a professional artist began with his first solo exhibition at the Librería-Galería Clan in Madrid in June 1946 under the pseudonym "Ma-Gó"; the Goeritzs relocated to Madrid in 1947. There, Goeritz developed a close friendship with Spanish sculptor Ángel Ferrant. In the summer of 1948, Goeritz and Ferrant traveled to visit the prehistoric paintings of the Cave of Altamira in the north of Spain, along with writer Ricardo Gullón and others, it was that Goeritz proposed the founding of an Escuela de Altamira, an association of artists and writers who would meet annually near the Cave, in 1948. The Escuela de Altamira would hold two meetings, in 1949 and 1950. Through the intervention of Mexican architect Ignacio Díaz Morales, Goeritz was offered a job teaching art history to the students of the newly founded Escuela de Arquitectura in Guadalajara, Mexico in 1949.
In 1953 he first presented his "Manifiesto de la Arquitectura Emocional" at the pre-inauguration of the Museo Experimental El Eco in Mexico City, which he designed in 1952-53. Goeritz collaborated with Luis Barragán to make monumental abstract sculptures in reinforced concrete during the 1950s, including El animal del Pedregal and the Torres de la Ciudad Satélite. Mathias Goeritz exhibited in Mexico and beyond throughout his life, had a significant influence on younger Mexican artists such as Helen Escobedo and Pedro Friedeberg, he died in Mexico City on August 4, 1990. El animal del Pedregal, sculpture in reinforced concrete, Jardines de Pedregal de San Ángel, Mexico City. Los amantes, sculpture at the Hotel Presidente, Acapulco. El bailarín. La mano divina and La mano codiciosa, reliefs in the Iglesia de San Lorenzo, Mexico City. El Eco Museo Experimental, Mexico City. El Pájaro Amarillo Colonia Jardines del Bosque, Guadalajara. Torres de la Ciudad Satélite with Luis Barragán. Stained Glass windows for the cathedrals of Mexico City and Cuernavaca, the churches of Santiago Tlatelolco and Azcapotzalco, the Maguén-David synagogue, Mexico City.
Coordination of the sculptures of the Ruta de la amistad, a major project of the Cultural Program of the 1968 Mexico City Olympics. Osa Mayor, Palacio de los Deportes, Mexico City. Torres de Automex, Carretera de Toluca. Pirámide de Mixcoac, Mexico City. Murals for the Arco Tower in Los Angeles, United States, 1970. Corona de Bambi and Espacio Escultórico, Ciudad Universitaria, UNAM, Mexico City. Laberinto de Jerusalén, 1978-1980. Massive bronze entry door for the John Lautner-designed residence "Marbrisa", Acapulco, 1973 List of people from Danzig Olivia Zúñiga, Mathias Goeritz, English edition published 1964 Mathias Goeritz 1915-1990: El Eco: Bilder, Modelle, ed. Christian Schneegass (Berlin: Akademie der Künste, 1992 Mathias Goeritz, 1915-1990: Monographie mit Werkverzeichnis, Elke Werry 1994 Conversaciones con Mathias Goeritz, Mario Monteforte Toledo 1993 Artspawn. "Biography of Mathias_Goeritz", Biographical information about Mathias_Goeritz on Artspawn. Jürgen Claus, "Mathias Goeritz", in: "Liebe die Kunst.
Eine Autobiografie in einundzwanzig Begegnungen", Kerber Verlag/ZKM, 2013, ISBN 978-3-86678-788-9 11. Between Earth And Heaven: The Architecture of John Lautner, ed. N. Olsberg, Rizzoli/Hammer Museum, 2011 Los Angeles County Museum of Art