Great Flood of 1862
The Great Flood of 1862 was the largest flood in the recorded history of Oregon and California, occurring from December 1861 to January 1862, caused by an ARkStorm. It was preceded by weeks of continuous rains and snows in the high elevations that began in Oregon in November 1861 and continued into January 1862; this was followed by a record amount of rain from January 9–12, contributed to a flood that extended from the Columbia River southward in western Oregon, through California to San Diego, extended as far inland as Idaho in the Washington Territory and Utah in the Utah Territory, Arizona in the western New Mexico Territory. The ARkStorm dumped an equivalent of 10 feet of rainfall in California, in the form of rain and snow, over a period of 43 days. Immense snowfalls in the mountains of the far western United States caused more flooding in Idaho, New Mexico, Sonora, Mexico the following spring and summer as the snow melted; the event was capped by a warm intense storm. The resulting snow-melt flooded valleys, inundated or swept away towns, dams, houses and domestic animals, ruined fields.
It has been described as the worst disaster to strike California. The weather pattern that caused this flood was not from an El Niño type event, from the existing Army and private weather records, it has been determined that the polar jet stream was to the north as the Pacific Northwest experienced a mild rainy pattern for the first half of December 1861. In 2012, hydrologists and meteorologists concluded that the precipitation was caused by a series of atmospheric rivers that hit the Western United States along the entire West Coast, from Oregon to Southern California. An atmospheric river is a wind-borne, deep layer of water vapor with origins in the tropics, extending from the surface to high altitudes above 10,000 feet, concentrated into a narrow band about 400 to 600 kilometres wide running ahead of a frontal boundary, or merging into it. With the right dynamics in place to provide lift, an atmospheric river can produce astonishing amounts of precipitation if it stalls over the same area for any length of time.
Prior to the flooding, Oregon had steady but heavier than normal rainfall during November and heavier snow in the mountains. Researchers believe the jet stream slid south accompanied by freezing conditions reported at Oregon stations by December 25. Heavy rainfall began falling in California as the longwave trough moved down over the state, remaining there until the end of January 1862 and causing precipitation everywhere in the state for nearly 40 days; the trough moved further south, causing snow to fall in the Central Valley and surrounding mountain ranges. There was an excessive amount of precipitation in November 1861 over most of Oregon, less so in the extreme northwest, it was cold enough at the higher elevations that much snow fell in the Cascade Range, when melted by the warm rains produced a great quantity of water that flooded into the Willamette River and other streams in the Cascades. Tributaries of the Willamette rising in the Oregon Coast Range did not rise so high; the depression that came in at the beginning of December produced strong, warm southerly winds in Oregon, with heavy rain.
The crest of the flood was reached at Salem on December 3. The crest at Albany and Salem were the highest known at any time. In Oregon, the flood was one of the largest in the history of the Willamette Valley and the rest of Western Oregon. Flooding was heaviest on rivers with tributaries arising from the snow-covered Cascade Range. An article in the December 14, 1861, Oregon City Argus, described the course of the flood at Oregon City: During the month of November the rain had been falling continuously, a vast amount of snow must have accumulated in the mountains... Tuesday evening a gloom settled on a scene such as never was witnessed in our Valley before; the ceaseless roar of the stream made a fearful elemental music different from the ordinary monotone of the Falls. The flood has covered the highest mark of January'53, is still rising; as late as anything could be seen the mills were still standing, but the insatiate monster is still creeping up inch by inch, winding its swelling folds round the pillars and foundations of all the houses in its way and grinding them in the maw of destruction, sweeping the broken fragments into a common vortex of ruin.
All night as on the night previous, people whose homes were being invaded hurried to places of security, glad to escape with the sacrifice of all their goods. The light of Wednesday morning revealed a scene of desolation terrible in its extent no less than in its completeness; the Oregon City and Island Mills, Willamette Iron Works and Machine Shop were all gone... Flood waters were so high that at Oregon City at the flood's crest on December 5, the steamer St. Clair was able to run the falls, steamers were able to visit points at some distance from the normal river channel. Although large amounts of wheat and flour were swept away, some was recovered when Oregon City's Island Mill was found on Sauvie Island downriver from Portland; the nearby town of Linn City was destroyed by flooding and was not rebuilt. In additio
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Fort Yuma Indian Reservation
The Fort Yuma Indian Reservation is a part of the traditional lands of the Quechan people. Established in 1884 from the former Fort Yuma, the reservation, at 32°47′04″N 114°38′43″W, has a land area of 178.197 km2 in southeastern Imperial County and western Yuma County, near the city of Yuma, Arizona. Both the county and city are named for the tribe; as of the 2010 Census the population was 2,189. In 1910, the community of Bard, California was created after the eastern part of the reservation was declared surplus under the Dawes Act. In 2009, the Quechan Tribe opened a large gaming resort, the Quechan Casino Resort, on their reservation land
Capitan Grande Reservation
The Capitan Grande Reservation is a Kumeyaay Indian reservation in San Diego County, jointly controlled by the Barona Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians and Viejas Group of Capitan Grande Band of Mission Indians. The reservation is uninhabited and is 15,753 acres large, located in the Cuyamaca Mountains and middle of the Cleveland National Forest and west of Cuyamaca Peak; the closest town is California. The reservation was created by President Ulysses S. Grant, via executive order in 1875 for local Kumeyaay people, its name comes from the Spanish Coapan, what the area west of the San Diego River was called in the 19th century. The dry and chaparral lands proved inhospitable. In 1931, the state flooded the heart of the reservation. Many Kumeyaay families had homes in the floodzone, they petitioned Congress to prevent the loss of their land; the two tribes and Viejas, were forced to sell the land and with their proceeds they purchased their current reservations, the Barona Reservation and Viejas Reservation, respectively.
In 1973, 7 people lived on the reservation. Today, the two tribes have a joint-trust patent of the remaining reservation, it serves as an ecological preserve. Eargle, Jr. Dolan H. Northern California Guide: Weaving the Past and Present. San Francisco: Tree Company Press, 2000. ISBN 0-937401-10-2. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Shipek, Florence C. "History of Southern California Mission Indians." Handbook of North American Indians. Volume ed. Heizer, Robert F. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. 610-618. ISBN 0-87474-187-4. Barona Band of Mission Indians, official website Viejas Band of Kumeyaay Indians, official website
Campo Indian Reservation
The Campo Indian Reservation is home to the Campo Band of Diegueño Mission Indians known as the Campo Kumeyaay Nation, a federally recognized tribe of Kumeyaay people in the southern Laguna Mountains, in eastern San Diego County, California. The reservation is 16,512 acres; the reservation can be found "in the southeastern San Diego County atop the Laguna Mountains". The location was set on 710 acres in 1893. Eighty additional acres were added in the winter of 1907, another 13,610 acres were added in 1911. "All land on Campo is tribal-owned land. Pre-Contact The sovereign land of the Kumeyaay Nation ranged from the Northern outskirts of modern San Diego county to the western borders of the imperial valley and the northern tip of Baja California, Mexico. There were many clans of the Kumeyaay nation; the multiple clans would join together. Post-Contact The Campo and their neighboring clans resisted the Spanish soldiers. Notably, the Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcala, founded in 1769, proved to be troubling for the tribe and many revolts broke out.
"The most famous of these was the attack and destruction of the San Diego Mission in 1775". After the Mexican Revolution, the new Mexican government enforced a secularization of the Mission system. Most of the Missions became ranches. In response multiple Indian revolts and raids in the region brought destruction to many of the Ranchos. "By 1842, the Ranchos had been abandoned and the warriors were attacking the last stronghold, the City of San Diego", however the city was not destroyed. The Mexican-American war intersects with the Kumeyaay. Although the Kumeyaay "offered allegiance", they were directed by US forces to stay out of the conflict; this interaction thus led to an agreed upon distinction of land in the Treaty of Santa Ysabel. However, this treaty was "voted down and placed under seal by the Senate of the United States". Through a combination of military conflicts, raid suppression, migration brought by the gold rush: "population of Indians in California dropped by 90% from 1850 to 1860".
And soon after 1870, the land of the Kumeyaay would begin to be divided and set into sections, thus defining the reservations. "Further additions were taken into trust over the next 25 years including the first portion of the Campo Indian Reservation in 1893". Modern Era In time the Treaty of Santa Ysabel, many others of its kind, were revealed to have been kept in secrecy. In 1927, supporters of the Mission Indian Federation, a Riverside County organization in the support of Native rights, came in conflict with the Bureau of Indian Affairs "police resulting in shootings and deaths on the Campo Indian Reservation". Periods of the twentieth century proved to bring minor justices to the Campo Indian Reservation, including "1960s public assistance and food programs", the Self Determination Act of 1975, by 1978, "the Campo people designated the area near the Crestwood freeway off-ramp as an area for economic development". Since the tribe has developed a casino and built a wind farm; the Campo Band is headquartered in California.
They ratified their tribal constitution on July 13, 1975, which established a governing council consisting of all band members aged 18 or over. The democratically elected Executive Committee includes: In 1990, the Campo Band created the Campo Environmental Protection Agency, which protects the environment and public health in the face of commercial development; the tribe has the Campo Indian Education Center and Campo Tribal Training Program. The Campo Kumeyaay Nation receives health services from the Southerm Indian Health Council. There are two areas included in the reservation, found on US Geological Survey feature ID 270242; the address for the tribal government is in the portion of the reservation north of Campo and Cameron Corners. This area is shown on the US Geological Survey Campo and Cameron Corners, California 7.5-minute quadrangles. While not a true square, this part of the reservation is one mile across on each side. A point suitable for finding the reservation on a map is latitude/longitude.
A second, larger area of the Campo Indian Reservation is located to the east in the area around the community of Live Oak Springs. This area is shown on the US Geological Survey Live Oak Springs and Tierra del Sol, California 7.5-minute quadrangles. This portion is rectangular: about six miles in the north-south dimension and about 3.2 miles in the east-west dimension. Live Oak Springs is located at latitude/longitude 32°41′26″N 116°20′01″W; the south extent of the area is about 0.4 miles north of the Mexican border. Muht Hei, Inc. is the tribe's corporation, which oversees Golden Acorn Casino, Campo Materials, Kumeyaay Wind, a wind farm with 25 turbines. The tribe owns and operates the Golden Acorn Casino, the Golden Grill Restaurant, the Del Oro Deli, a travel center, all located in Campo; the Wind farm produces an annual power supply to bring energy to "about 30,000 homes and saves 110,000 tons a year in greenhouse gas emissions". Portions of this remote area have wireless Ethernet Internet capability for tribe members.
The service is provided through the Tribal Digital Village based on the Pala Indian Reservation, about 80 miles north. This was reported in the San Diego Union Tribune, New York Times, on the Community Television of Southern California program, California Connected. Boulevard, California Mountain Empire, San Diego Kumeyaay Language Eargle, Jr. Dolan H. California Indian Country: The Land and the People. S
Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians
The Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation is a federally recognized tribe of the Cahuilla, located in Riverside County, California. They inhabited the Coachella Valley desert and surrounding mountains between 5000 BCE and 500 AD. With the establishment of the reservations, the Cahuilla were divided into 10 sovereign nations, including the Agua Caliente Band; the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation was founded on May 15, 1876 through Executive Order and signed by President Ulysses S. Grant and occupies 31,610 acres. On 1877 and 1907 the Reservation was extended to over 32,000 acres of land. Since 6,700 acres of the reservation are within Palm Springs city limits, the tribe is the city's largest collective landowner; the tribe owns Indian Canyons, located southwest of Palm Springs. The canyons are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, they own land in the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains National Monument. The tribe's headquarters is located in California.
They ratified their constitution and bylaws in 1957. For many years the band was headed by Chairman Richard M. Milanovich until his death on March 11, 2012, their current tribal council is as follows: Agua Caliente is one of three reservations where speakers of the "Pass" dialect of the Cahuilla were located, the other two being the Morongo Indian Reservation and Augustine Indian Reservation. Pass Cahuilla is a dialect of Cahuilla found within the Cupan branch of Takic languages, part of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Though revitalization efforts are underway, all dialects of Cahuilla are technically considered to be extinct as they are no longer spoken at home, children are no longer learning them as a primary language; the last native speaker of Pass Cahuilla died in 2008. Tribal Family Services was established in 2003 to support social and educational programs for tribal members. Other services include cultural preservation, child development, scholarships; the Jane Augustine Patencio Cemetery provides burial services.
The Agua Caliente Cultural Museum in Palm Springs was founded by the tribe in 1991. It houses permanent collections and archives, a research library, changing exhibits, as well as hosting an annual film festival; the tribe owns two major casinos: the Spa Resort Casino in downtown Palm Springs, California at the original hot springs and the Agua Caliente Casino Resort Spa in Rancho Mirage, California. The resort at Rancho Mirage includes a hotel, fitness center and spa, the Canyons Lounge, seven different restaurants; the Spa Resort Casino, opened in 2003, features gaming, the Cascade Lounge, four restaurants. Tahquitz Canyon southwest of downtown Palm Springs is accessible for guided tours; the Indian Canyons accessible for hiking, horseback riding, tours, are south of Palm Springs. The tribe maintains two golf courses in Indian Canyon which are open to the public. Tribal leaders who have been honored with "Golden Palm Stars" on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars include:Richard Milanovich – Chairman of the Agua Caliente Band Flora Agnes Patencio – Cahuilla Indian elder Ray Leonard Patencio – Cahuilla Indian leader Peter Siva – Cahuilla Tribal Chairman Woodchuck Welmas – professional NFL football player in the 1920s Mission Indians Golden Checkerboard, a book about legal issues related to the checkerboard patterned division of Palm Springs real estate, wherein the tribe retains ownership of alternating "squares" of the region, including Palm Springs and surrounding cities.
Bean, Lowell John. Archaeological and Enthnohistoric Investigations at Tahquitz Canyon, Palm Springs, California. Menlo Park, California: Cultural Systems Research. Pp. 800+. OCLC 35045166. Eargle, Jr. Dolan H. California Indian Country: The Land and the People. San Francisco: Tree Company Press, 1992. ISBN 0-937401-20-X. Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians; the Story of the Palm Spring Reservation. Palm Springs, CA: Agua Caliente Band of Indians. OCLC 17733446. Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians. 1962 Progress Report. Long Beach, CA: Technicomm, Inc.: Imperial Press. P. 64. OCLC 14933990. Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians, Tribal Council. "All that glitters is not gold": an interim report from the Agua Caliente Tribal Council. P. 23. Berman, Burt. From squatter to conservator: effects of federal policy on the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians and their land, 1850-1974.
P. 83. A senior thesis in the Social Sciences Division, Dept. of Interdisciplinary and General studies, University of California, Berkeley.. OCLC 810236228, 14691345. Bowes, Ronald Wayne; the Press-Enterprise Investigation of the Palm Springs Indians Land Affair in 1967-68: one newspaper's protection of minority rights. Fullerton, CA: California State University. P. 108. Masters Thesis. OCLC 9158475, 14156105. James, Harry Clebourne; the Cahuilla Indians. Morongo Indian Reservation: Malki Museum Press. ASIN B0007HDH7E. LCCN 60010491. OCLC 254156323. LCC E99. K27 J3 ASIN B0007EJ4OM Patencio, Francisco. Hudson, Roy F. ed. Desert Hours with Chief Patencio. Palm Springs, CA: Desert Museum. P. 38. LCC E99 C155 P3 Patencio, Francisco. Stories and Legends of the Palm Springs Indians. Los Angeles, CA: Times-Mirror. P. 132. LCCN 44018350. Prather, Bonnie Gean.
Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony of California
The Bridgeport Indian Colony of California known as the "Bridgeport Paiute Indian Colony of California", is a federally recognized tribe of Northern Paiute Indians in Mono County, United States. The Bridgeport Indian Colony has a federal reservation in Mono County, close to the Nevada border, in the unincorporated community of Bridgeport, California; the reservation is 72 acres large. Fifty-five Tribal Members live on the Colony one hundred and five Tribal members enrolled, a registered population of 120 today; the reservation community consists of descendants from Miwok, Paiute and the Washoe tribes. The reservation site is near the southeast corner of Bridgeport Reservoir; the Bridgeport traditionally spoke the Northern Paiute language, part of the Western Numic branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Their dialect is sometimes called "Southern Nevada Northern Paiute." They used the Bridgeport writing system. There is a language project, held by University of California, Santa Cruz, dedicated to preserving and dedicating the Northern Paiute Language.
The Bridgeport Indian Colony was federally recognized on October 17, 1974. The Tribe's Reservation is located in California; the tribe is governed by a five-person Tribal Council, who are as follows: Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1. Bridgeport Indian Colony Website http://infodome.sdsu.edu/research/guides/calindians/calinddict.shtml#b http://paiute.ucsc.edu/