A lawyer is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, counselor or solicitor or chartered legal executive. The role of the lawyer varies greatly across legal jurisdictions, in practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine who is recognized as being a lawyer. As a result, the meaning of the lawyer may vary from place to place. In Australia, the lawyer is used to refer to both barristers and solicitors. In Canada, the word lawyer refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called barristers and solicitors, however, in Quebec, civil law advocates often call themselves attorney and sometimes barrister and solicitor in English. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the activities that may only be performed by a person who is entitled to do so pursuant to the Act. Lawyer is not a protected title, in India, the term lawyer is often colloquially used, but the official term is advocate as prescribed under the Advocates Act,1961.
In Scotland, the word refers to a more specific group of legally trained people. It specifically includes advocates and solicitors, in a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law. It is never used to refer to patent agents or paralegals, in fact, there are regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have terms for the analogous concept. In most countries, particularly civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners. Several countries that originally had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, in countries with fused professions, a lawyer is usually permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a clients case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the province of the barrister in England.
However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved, in England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, and barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts
Pietro Tribuno was the Doge of Venice from 887 to his death. Immediately after his succession, he began negotiations with the successors of Charles the Fat, in 888, he negotiated a treaty with Arnulf of Carinthia and again in 891. The first treaty secured for the jurisdiction over Venetian citizens abroad, the intent of this clause was to increase Venetian trade in the Carolingian Empire by extending to such merchants who did so trade the protection of their own laws. The economic benefits were immediate and the 890s saw growth in Venices relatively new iron industry, in 898, the Magyars invaded Venetia for the first time, but this raid turned out to be a precursor to something more permanent. In 899, the whole of Lombardy was overrun, the Magyars turned on Venice. First Cittanova and Equilo fell, and Altino, advancing past Chioggia and Pellestrina towards Malamocco, the Magyars arrived at Albiola to meet a vast Venetian host under Tribuno awaiting them. The Magyars used small coracles for water crossings and these proved inefficient against the Venetian galleys.
The Magyars were routed in the first great Venetian military victory since the defeat of Pepin of Italy almost a century prior, after the Magyar flight, Tribuno set to work improving the inner defences of the Rialto. He constructed a vast wall from eastern Olivolo to the Riva degli Schiavoni and he stretched a gigantic chain across the Grand Canal from S. Gregorio on Dorsoduro to a site now occupied by the Palazzo Gaggia. Tribuno died in 912 and was buried in S. Zaccaria and he was succeeded by Orso II Participazio
Alvise I Mocenigo
There were three Doges, and many other prominent Venetians, called Alvise Mocenigo. Alvise I Mocenigo was doge of Venice from 1570 to 1577, an admirer of antiquities, Mocenigo was a diplomat of the Republic of Venice at the court of emperor Charles V, to pope Paul IV and again at the imperial court. In 1567 he was a candidate to the election as doge and he participated again when the latter died, and was elected as doge of Venice in 1570. His dogaressa was the scholar Loredana Marcello, at the time of his accession, the Ottoman Empire was preparing to wage war against Venice, the conflict broke out in 1570, and Venice lost the fortresses of Nicosia and Famagusta in Cyprus. Despite the victory of the Christian coalition in the Battle of Lepanto, Venice was forced to sign a treaty of peace with the Turks. During his reign Venice was visited by the new King of France, Henry III and he was interred in the Basilica di San Giovanni e Paolo, a traditional burial place of the doges. Alvise I Mocenigo died on November 27,1577 of suicide by hanging, although he was a religious man, many had thought he was depressed as he would talk to children a lot and laugh along with them.
But with adults he would not speak a word to, Mocenigo family This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Magister militum was a top-level military command used in the Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. Used alone, the referred to the senior military officer of the Empire. In Greek sources, the term is translated either as strategos or as stratelates, the title of magister militum was created in the 4th century, when Emperor Constantine the Great deprived the praetorian prefects of their military functions. Initially two posts were created, one as head of the troops, as the magister peditum, and one for the more prestigious horse troops. The latter title had existed since Republican times, as the second-in-command to a Roman dictator, on occasion, the offices would be combined under a single person, styled magister equitum et peditum or magister utriusque militiae. As such they were directly in command of the mobile field army of the comitatenses, composed mostly of cavalry. Other magistri remained at the disposal of the Emperors, and were termed in praesenti. By the late 4th century, the commanders were termed simply magister militum.
In the Western Roman Empire, a commander-in-chief evolved with the title of magister utriusque militiae and this powerful office was often the power behind the throne and was held by Stilicho, Flavius Aetius and others. In the East, there were two generals, who were each appointed to the office of magister militum praesentalis. In the course of the 6th century and external crises in the provinces often necessitated the temporary union of the regional civil authority with the office of the magister militum. In the establishment of the exarchates of Ravenna and Carthage in 584, after the loss of the eastern provinces to the Muslim conquest in the 640s, the surviving field armies and their commanders formed the first themata. Supreme military commanders sometimes took this title in early medieval Italy, for example in the Papal States and in Venice, whose Doge claimed to be the successor to the Exarch of Ravenna. 383-385/8, Flavius Bauto, magister militum under Valentinian II 385/8-394, magister militum under Valentinian II and Eugenius 383–388, Andragathius after 383-408, –419, Flavius Gaudentius 425–433, Flavius Aetius 435-439, Litorius 452–456, Agrippinus 456–461, Aegidius 461/462, Agrippinus.
468–474, Julius Nepos 477–479, Onoulphus 479–481, Sabinianus Magnus 528, Ascum 529–530/1, Mundus 532–536,550, John 568–569/70, Bonus 581–582, Theognis c. 503–505, Areobindus Dagalaiphus Areobindus 505–506, Pharesmanes. 516-.518,554, Artabanes 588, Priscus 593, Priscus 593–594, Peter 594–ca. Justinian 528, Leontius 528-529, Phocas 520-538/9, Sittas 536, Germanus 536, Maxentianus 546–548, Artabanes 548/9–552, Suartuas 562, Constantinianus 582, Germanus 585–ca. In the Gesta Herwardi, the hero is several times described as magister militum by the man who translated the original Early English account into Latin
She was one of the most powerful and influential women in Ottoman history and a prominent and controversial figure during the era known as the Sultanate of Women. She was Haseki Sultan when her husband, Suleiman I, reigned as the Ottoman sultan and she achieved power and influenced the politics of the Ottoman Empire through her husband and played an active role in state affairs of the Empire. According to some historians, Roxelana was born as Aleksandra Ruslana Lisowska, or Anastasja Lisowska while her childhood nickname was Nastia. Among the Ottomans, she was mainly as Haseki Hürrem Sultan or Hürrem Haseki Sultan, known as Roxolena, Roxelane, Rossa, Ružica, in Turkish as Hürrem. Roxelana might be not a name but a nickname, referring to her Rusyn heritage, Roxolany or Roxelany was one of the names of Rusyns, up to the 15th century. Thus her nickname would literally mean The Ruthenian One, Hürrem Sultan was a native of Polish Ruthenia and was of either Western Slavic or Eastern Slavic ancestry.
She was born in the town of Rohatyn,68 km south-east of Lwów, in the 1520s Crimean Tatars captured her during one of their frequent raids into this region, took her as a slave and selected her for Suleimans harem. Roxelana probably entered the harem around fifteen years of age, sometime between 1517 and 1520, but certainly before Suleiman became sultan in 1520 and she quickly came to the attention of her master and attracted the jealousy of rivals. She soon became Suleimans most prominent consort beside Gülfem and Mahidevran and her joyful spirit and playful temperament earned her a new name, Hürrem, from Persian Khorram, the cheerful one. In the Istanbul harem, Hürrem became a rival to Mahidevran and she was to bear the majority of Suleimans children. Hürrem gave birth to her first son Mehmed in 1521 and to four more sons, Suleimans mother, partially suppressed the rivalry between the two women. As a result of the rivalry a fight between the two women broke out, with Mahidevran beating Hürrem, which angered Suleiman.
Never before was a former slave elevated to the status of the sultans lawful spouse, much to the astonishment of observers in the palace, Hürrem received the title Haseki Sultan and became the first consort to hold this title. Hürrems salary was 2,000 aspers a day, making her one of the highest paid haseki, later, Hürrem became the first woman to remain in the Sultans court for the duration of her life. This tradition was called Sanjak Beyliği, the consorts were never to return to Istanbul unless their sons succeeded to the throne. In defiance of this custom, Hürrem stayed behind in the harem with her hunchback son Cihangir. Moreover, she moved out of the located in the Old Palace to Suleimans quarters located in the New Palace after a fire destroyed the old palace. Under his pen name, Sultan Suleiman composed this poem for Hürrem Sultan, Throne of my lonely niche, my wealth, my love and my most sincere friend, my confidant, my very existence, my Sultan, my one and only love
Tintoretto was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school. For his phenomenal energy in painting he was termed Il Furioso and his work is characterized by its muscular figures, dramatic gestures, and bold use of perspective in the Mannerist style, while maintaining color and light typical of the Venetian School. His real name Comin was discovered by Miguel Falomir of the Museo del Prado, Comin translates to the spice cumin in the local language. Tintoretto was born in Venice in 1518, as the eldest of 21 children and his father, was a dyer, or tintore, hence the son got the nickname of Tintoretto, little dyer, or dyers boy, which is anglicized as Tintoret. The family originated from Brescia, in Lombardy, part of the Republic of Venice, older studies gave the Tuscan town of Lucca as the origin of the family. In childhood Jacopo, a painter, began daubing on the dyers walls, his father, noticing his bent. This was supposedly towards 1533, when Titian was already fifty-six years of age, active disparagement was not wanting, but it passed unnoticed by Tintoretto.
The latter sought for no further teaching, but studied on his own account with laborious zeal, he lived poorly, collecting casts, bas-reliefs etc. and practising by their aid. His noble conception of art and his personal ambition were evidenced in the inscription which he placed over his studio Il disegno di Michelangelo ed il colorito di Tiziano. Now and afterwards he very frequently worked by night as well as by day, the young painter Andrea Schiavone, four years Tintorettos junior, was much in his company. Tintoretto helped Schiavone gratis in wall-paintings, and in many subsequent instances he worked for nothing, the two earliest mural paintings of Tintoretto—done, like others, for next to no pay—are said to have been Belshazzars Feast and a Cavalry Fight. These are both long since perished, as are all his frescoes, early or later, the first work of his to attract some considerable notice was a portrait-group of himself and his brother—the latter playing a guitar—with a nocturnal effect, this is lost.
It was followed by some subject, which Titian was candid enough to praise. For the Scuola della Trinità he painted four subjects from Genesis, up till 2012, The Embarkation of St Helena in the Holy Land was attributed to his contemporary Andrea Schiavone. But new analysis of the work has revealed it as one of a series of three paintings by Tintoretto, depicting the legend of St Helena And The Holy Cross, the error was uncovered during work on a project to catalogue continental European oil paintings in the UK. The Embarkation of St Helena was acquired by the V&A in 1865 and its sister paintings, The Discovery Of The True Cross and St Helen Testing The True Cross, are held in galleries in the US. Towards 1546 Tintoretto painted for the church of the Madonna dellOrto three of his works, the Worship of the Golden Calf, the Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple. He took the commission for two of the paintings, the Worship of the Golden Calf and the Last Judgment, on a cost only basis in order to make himself better known and he settled down in a house hard by the church
Pietro I Candiano
Pietro I Candiano was briefly the sixteenth Doge of Venice in 887. He followed Orso I Participazio and Giovanni II Participazio as Doge of Venice, elected to the throne at the side of the elderly and he launched a military attempt against the Narentines in Dalmatia, who were hostile to Venetia after 886. As soon as he became Doge, he advanced with a fleet of galleys to the port of Makarska. He landed near Mokro and advanced inland, but the Narentines crushed his forces. He was the first Doge to die in a battle for La Serenissima, Giovanni briefly ruled Venice until a successor could be found for Candiano. It was Pietro Tribuno, his great-nephew and his son, Pietro II Candiano, later became Doge. Alfred A. Knopf, New York,1982
Agnello Participazio was the tenth or eighth Doge of Venice from 811 to 827. He was born to a merchant family in Heraclea and was one of the earliest settlers of the island of Rialto, which civitas Rivoalti became, under him. In 810, the doges, Obelerio and Valentino, called in the king of Italy, Pepin. It was Agnello who took up the defence of the city during the subsequent siege of Pepin, after Pepin fled and the doges were exiled, Agnello was elected to the dogeship. His Rialtine house on the Campiello della Cason became the first doges palace in Venetian history and his reign began on a happy note. By the Pax Nicephori, Venetia was retained by the Byzantine Empire and renounced by Charlemagne, Agnello began the minting of the first Venetian coinage. Agnellos reign is known for the birth of modern Venice. Agnello turned his attention to land reclamation and refortification and he appointed a building commission of three men to oversee the work. Nicolò Ardisonio was in charge of fortifying the lidi against the sea, lorenzo Alimpato dug canals and reinforced the islands, preparing new sites for construction.
Finally, the construction of newer and better edifices was given to Pietro Tradonico, Burano and Rialto were all rebuilt. Bridges were built, even across the Brenta and the Grand Canal was born, still, at this time, the few stone buildings were fortresses or churches. Agnello was married to Dogaressa Elena, agnellos latter years were plagued by family quarrels. His elder son, was away in Constantinople and so a younger son, when Giustiniano returned, he flew into a fury. Agnello appointed his son, Agnello, co-doge and began to oppose Giustiniano. Eventually, the pro-Frankish Giovanni was forced into exile at Zadar, Agnello was succeeded by his eldest son Giustiniano. Alfred A. Knopf, New York,1982
He is best remembered for his part as the admiral of the Papal fleet in the Battle of Lepanto. His parents were Ascanio Colonna, Duke of Tagliacozzo, and Giovanna dAragona, due to acts of rebellion, he was disinherited by his father, but in 1562 Colonna was able to regain the family fiefs for himself, largely thanks to the support of Pope Pius IV. However, he had to forfeit several possessions, such as Nemi, Ardea, in 1553–1554, during the war against Siena, Colonna was made commander of the Spanish cavalry. At the Battle of Lepanto, he commanded the papal Capitana as part of the Centre division, where he rescued the flagship of commander Don John of Austria, the Real. When the Real was almost taken by the Ottoman janissaries, Colonna came alongside with the bow of his galley, with the help of Colonna, the Turks were pushed off the Real and the Ottoman flagship of Ali Pasha was boarded and swept. The entire crew of Ali Pashas flagship was killed, including the commander himself, the banner of the Holy League was hoisted on the captured ship, breaking the morale of the Turkish galleys nearby.
On Colonnas return to Rome, Pope Gregory XIII confirmed him as Captain General of the Church, in 1577 King Philip II named Colonna as Viceroy of Sicily. He was Lord of Marino, a village a few south of Rome. Colonna often stayed at Avezzano, where he had a fountain built and added a new floor in the castle, in his life he moved to LAquila, where he lived in the house now called the Palazzo Porcinari. His son cardinal Ascanio Colonna had as secretary Phillipe I Rubens, brother of Peter Paul