Secession in the United States

In the context of the United States, secession refers to the voluntary withdrawal of one or more states from the Union that constitutes the United States. Threats and aspirations to secede from the United States, or arguments justifying secession, have been a feature of the country's politics since its birth; some have argued for secession as a constitutional right and others as from a natural right of revolution. In Texas v. White, the United States Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession unconstitutional, while commenting that revolution or consent of the states could lead to a successful secession; the most serious attempt at secession was advanced in the years 1860 and 1861 as eleven southern states each declared secession from the United States, joined together to form the Confederate States of America. This movement collapsed in 1865 with the defeat of Confederate forces by Union armies in the American Civil War; the Declaration of Independence states: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness.—That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed,—That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Historian Pauline Maier argues that this narrative asserted "... the right of revolution, which was, after all, the right Americans were exercising in 1776". The right of revolution expressed in the Declaration was followed with the observation that long-practised injustice is tolerated until sustained assaults on the rights of the entire people have accumulated enough force to oppress them; this reasoning was not original to the Declaration, but can be found in many prior political writings: Locke's Two Treatises of Government. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing... a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, to provide new Guards for their future security. Gordon S. Wood quotes John Adams: "Only repeated, multiplied oppressions placing it beyond all doubt that their rulers had formed settled plans to deprive them of their liberties, could warrant the concerted resistance of the people against their government".

With origins in the question of states' rights the issue of secession was argued in many forums and advocated from time to time in both the North and South in the decades after adopting the Constitution and before the American Civil War. Historian Maury Klein described the contemporary debate: "Was the Republic a unified nation in which the individual states had merged their sovereign rights and identities forever, or was it a federation of sovereign states joined together for specific purposes from which they could withdraw at any time?" He observed that "the case can be made that no result of the war was more important than the destruction and for all... of the idea of secession". Historian Forrest McDonald argued that after adopting the Constitution "there were no guidelines, either in theory or in history, as to whether the compact could be dissolved and, if so, on what conditions". However, during "the founding era, many a public figure... declared that the states could interpose their powers between their citizens and the power of the federal government, talk of secession was not unknown".

But according to McDonald, to avoid resorting to the violence that had accompanied the Revolution, the Constitution established "legitimate means for constitutional change in the future". In effect, the Constitution "completed and perfected the Revolution". Whatever the intentions of the Founders, threats of secession and disunion were a constant in the political discourse of Americans preceding the Civil War. Historian Elizabeth R. Varon wrote:... one word contained, stimulated, their fears of extreme political factionalism, regionalism, economic decline, foreign intervention, class conflict, gender disorder, racial strife, widespread violence and anarchy, civil war, all of which could be interpreted as God's retribution for America's moral failings. Disunion connoted the dissolution of the republic—the failure of the Founders' efforts to establish a stable and lasting representative government. For many Americans in the North and the South, disunion was a nightmare, a tragic cataclysm that would reduce them to the kind of fear and misery that seemed

Jindřichohradecké místní dráhy

Jindřichohradecké místní dráhy is the company which operates the narrow gauge railway lines from Jindřichův Hradec to Nová Bystřice and Obrataň in the Czech Republic. Both lines are 760 mm gauge; the line to Nová Bystřice was opened on 1 November 1897 and the line to Obrataň followed on 24 December 1906. Both lines were operated with steam locomotives and there were engine sheds at Jindřichův Hradec, Kamenice nad Lipou, Nova Bystřice und Obrataň. Soon after opening a goods service with roll-blocks was established. Following the founding of Czechoslovakia the railway became part of ČSD in 1924 and during World War II they came under the control of the Deutsche Reichsbahn In 1998 both lines were privatised and they are now owned and operated by JHMD. Near Jindřichův Hradec there is a section of dual gauge track on the 1,435 mm standard gauge České dráhy line between Veselí nad Lužnicí and Jihlava; the maximum permitted speed today is 50 km/h and the steepest gradient is 2.6% near Kamenice nad Lipou.

Most trains consist of one carriage. During the summer steam trains with historic carriages are operated for tourists. For the opening of the line to Nova Bystřice there were three 0-6-2 steam locomotives, like those used on the Murtalbahn; these were classified as class U by the kkStB and were numbered U.1 - U.3. After the opening of the line to Obrataň in 1906 two more class U locomotives were acquired and numbered U.33 and U.34. In 1908 another locomotive, numbered U.41, was acquired. After World War I only U.1, U.34 and U.41 remained in Jindřichův Hradec and in 1924 when ČSD took over the railway they were reclassified as U 37 and renumbered U 37.001, U 37.005 and U 37.006. ČSD bought three class U 47 Mallet locomotives and rented a further two identical locomotives for use on the lines. A U 37 and a U 47 are used on the railway today for tourist trains. In addition to these a Romanian Reșița locomotive, numbered U 46.001 by JHMD, a Polish Px48, now numbered U46.101, have been bought by JHMD for tourist trains.

Since 1955 traffic has been handled by ČSD class T 47.0 diesel locomotives. In the 1970s more of these locomotives were transferred to Jindřichův Hradec when the Frýdlant–Heřmanice and Ružomberok–Korytnica narrow gauge railways were closed. A PKP class Lxd2 locomotive, now numbered T 48.001, a PKP class MBxd2, now numbered M 27.001, are in use by JHMD. From 1929 two ČSD class M 11.0 railcars, which were narrow gauge versions ČSD Class M 120.4, were introduced. In 1939 two further railcars, this time ČSD class M 21.0 were acquired. Railcar services continued until shortly after World War II. Railcar M 21.004 is at Čierny Balog on the Čierny Hron Railway. Four modernised. At first two-axled carriages manufactured by Ringhoffer in Prague were used. In the 1960s several four-axled carriages from Saxony were brought to Jindřichův Hradec from the Frýdlant-Heřmanice Railway, where they had been used since 1945; these carriages remained in use until the end of the 1970s. The class Balm/u carriages in use today were manufactured by ČKD in the 1960s.

When they were built these were modern carriages with wooden benches, oil heating, fluorescent lights and toilets. In the 1980s the last remaining two-axled carriages were used to form a museum train, used in summer for the tourist steam trains. Goods traffic was carried in two-axled goods wagons, most of which were built by the Grazer Wagen- und Waggonfabrik AG. Roll-blocks are still used today; the newest roll-blocks were built by Poprad Wagon Factory in the 1980s. Narrow gauge railways in the Czech Republic Official Website of JHMD

Renato Sellani

Renato Sellani was an Italian jazz pianist and composer. Born in Senigallia, Sellani started his professional career in 1954, when he entered the Basso-Valdambrini Quintet. In 1958 he started a long collaboration with his longtime friend Franco Cerri, he was part of the RAI National Symphony Orchestra directed by Gorni Kramer. As a pianist, he collaborated with Chet Baker, Billie Holiday, Dizzie Gillespie, Lee Konitz, Bill Coleman, Gerry Mulligan, Enrico Rava and Tony Scott, among others. Sellani was an incidental music composer for stage plays, his works include several scores for the Piccolo Teatro in Milan and a long collaboration with the stage company of Tino Buazzelli. Renato Sellani at AllMusic Renato Sellani at Discogs Renato Sellani on IMDb