SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Second Balkan War

The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies and Greece, on 16 / 29 June 1913. Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian counter-attacked, entering Bulgaria. With Bulgaria having engaged in territorial disputes with Romania, this war provoked Romanian intervention against Bulgaria; the Ottoman Empire took advantage of the situation to regain some lost territories from the previous war. When Romanian troops approached the capital Sofia, Bulgaria asked for an armistice, resulting in the Treaty of Bucharest, in which Bulgaria had to cede portions of its First Balkan War gains to Serbia and Romania. In the Treaty of Constantinople, it lost Edirne to the Ottomans; the political developments and military preparations for the Second Balkan War attracted an estimated 200 to 300 war correspondents from around the world. During the First Balkan War, the Balkan League succeeded in driving out the Ottoman Empire from its European provinces, leaving the Ottomans with only East Thrace.

The Treaty of London, signed on 30 May 1913, which ended the war, acknowledged the Balkan states' gains west of the Enos–Midia line, drawn from Midia on the Black Sea coast to Enos on the Aegean Sea coast, on an uti possidetis basis, created an independent Albania. However, the relations between the victorious Balkan allies soured over the division of the spoils in Macedonia. During the pre-war negotiations that had resulted in the establishment of the Balkan League and Bulgaria signed a secret agreement on 13 March 1912 which determined their future boundaries, in effect sharing northern Macedonia between them. In case of a postwar disagreement, the area to the north of the Kriva Palanka–Ohrid line, had been designated as a "disputed zone" under Russian arbitration and the area to the south of this line had been assigned to Bulgaria. During the war, the Serbs succeeded in capturing an area far south of the agreed border, down to the Bitola–Gevgelija line. At the same time, the Greeks advanced north, occupying Thessaloniki shortly before the Bulgarians arrived, establishing a common Greek border with Serbia.

When Bulgarian delegates in London bluntly warned the Serbs that they must not expect Bulgarian support on their Adriatic claims, the Serbs angrily replied that, a clear withdrawal from the prewar agreement of mutual understanding according to the Kriva Palanka-Adriatic line of expansion, but the Bulgarians insisted that in their view, the Vardar Macedonian part of the agreement remained active and the Serbs were still obliged to surrender the area as agreed. The Serbs answered by accusing the Bulgarians of maximalism, pointing out that if they lost both northern Albania and Vardar Macedonia, their participation in the common war would have been for nothing; when Bulgaria called upon Serbia to honor the pre-war agreement over northern Macedonia, the Serbs, displeased at the Great Powers' requiring them to give up their gains in northern Albania, adamantly refused to alienate any more territory. The developments ended the Serbo-Bulgarian alliance and made a future war between the two countries inevitable.

Soon thereafter, minor clashes broke out along the borders of the occupation zones with the Bulgarians against the Serbs and the Greeks. Responding to the perceived Bulgarian threat, Serbia started negotiations with Greece, which had reasons to be concerned about Bulgarian intentions. On 19 May/1 June 1913, two days after the signing of the Treaty of London and just 28 days before the Bulgarian attack and Serbia signed a secret defensive alliance, confirming the current demarcation line between the two occupation zones as their mutual border and concluding an alliance in case of an attack from Bulgaria or from Austria-Hungary. With this agreement, Serbia succeeded in making Greece a part of its dispute over northern Macedonia, since Greece had guaranteed Serbia's current occupation zone in Macedonia. In an attempt to halt the Serbo-Greek rapprochement, Bulgarian Prime Minister Geshov signed a protocol with Greece on 21 May agreeing on a permanent demarcation between their respective forces accepting Greek control over southern Macedonia.

However, his dismissal put an end to the diplomatic targeting of Serbia. Another point of friction arose: Bulgaria's refusal to cede the fortress of Silistra to Romania; when Romania demanded its cession after the First Balkan War, Bulgaria's foreign minister offered instead some minor border changes, which excluded Silistra, assurances for the rights of the Kutzovlachs in Macedonia. Romania threatened to occupy Bulgarian territory by force, but a Russian proposal for arbitration prevented hostilities. In the resulting Protocol of St. Petersburg of 8 May 1913, Bulgaria agreed to give up Silistra; the resulting agreement was a compromise between the Romanian demands for the entire southern Dobruja and the Bulgarian refusal to accept any cession of its territory. However the fact that Russia failed to protect the territorial integrity of Bulgaria made the Bulgarians uncertain of the reliability of the expected Russian arbitration of the dispute with Serbia; the Bulgarian behavior had a long-term impact on the Russo-Bulgarian relations.

The uncompromising Bulgarian position tο review the pre-war agreement with Serbia during a second Russian initiative for arbitration between them led Russia to cancel its alliance with Bulgaria. Both acts made conflict with Serbia inevitable. In 1912 Bulgaria's nati

Happy Working Song

"Happy Working Song" is a song written by composer Alan Menken and lyricist Stephen Schwartz for Walt Disney Pictures' musical film Enchanted. Recorded by American actress Amy Adams in her starring role as Giselle, the uptempo pop song both parodies and pays homage to a variety of songs from several Disney animated feature films "Whistle While You Work" from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Produced by Menken and Danny Troob, the song appears on the film's soundtrack Enchanted: Original Soundtrack. "Happy Working Song" takes place in Robert's untidy apartment in Manhattan, New York, in which Giselle spends her first night in the city after having been magically transported there from the fictional Andalasia. The next morning, Giselle awakens to find the apartment in a state of neglect and decides to clean it, summoning several animals to her aid. Additionally, the musical number references similar scenes from Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and Cinderella. Based on 1950s music, "Happy Working Song"'s bridge deliberately references the song "Belle" from Disney's Beauty and the Beast.

Musically, "Happy Working Song" shares similarities with the songs "Heigh-Ho" from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, "The Work Song" from Cinderella and "Something There" from Beauty and the Beast. The song has garnered vastly positive reviews, with both film and music critics praising its humorous, witty lyrics and references to previous Disney films and songs, as well as Adams' performance. "Happy Working Song" was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song at the 80th Academy Awards in 2008 alongside Enchanted's own "That's How You Know" and "So Close", making the film one of only four to achieve this feat. The song lost to "Falling Slowly" from Once, while the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences subsequently decided to limit the total number of Best Original Song nominations to only two per film. Veteran Disney composer Alan Menken became creatively involved with Enchanted in 2006, subsequently inviting his longtime collaborator, lyricist Stephen Schwartz, with whom Menken had worked on Disney's Pocahontas and The Hunchback of Notre Dame, to co-write the songs and musical numbers for Enchanted alongside him.

Menken said of the general songwriting process, "the first challenge for us was finding that musical palette and lyrical palette and performance palette that spoke to everybody and said that we are in the world of early Walt and to have that place to start." When it came to writing "Happy Working Song", Menken and Schwartz were directly influenced by the song "Whistle While You Work" from Disney's first full-length animated feature film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, with Schwartz describing "Happy Working Song" as a "spoof" and "one of the funniest sequences of the film". According to Schwartz, "Happy Working Song" was written rather having come " fast". Schwartz elaborated, "'Happy Working Song' is... pretty much out of Snow White and'Whistle While You Work' and that little thing where they do the dishes and Dopey with the soap bubbles and everything." In addition to this, "Happy Working Song" features references to both the musical number "The Work Song" and "the busy little mice" from Disney's Cinderella, but to a lesser extent.

Lyrically, Schwartz decided to approach the song comically as demonstrated by its phrase "Even though you are vermin."Conceptually, Menken explained that "As the characters become sort of three dimensional, songs become more contemporary." Menken believes that, melodically, "Happy Working Song" is much similar to the songs "Belle" and "Something There" from Beauty and the Beast. Additionally and arranger Danny Troob revealed the bridge of "Happy Working Song" is directly based on the bridge of "Belle" serving as "a deliberate reference on part." Addressing the musical similarities between "Happy Working Song" and "Something There", Troob explained that the former occupies a different "drive" and "attitude", additionally sounding "a little bit more brisk... because working." Troob elaborated, "Beauty and the Beast was, for its time forward-looking, and'Happy Working Song' is deliberately retro." Troob decided to alter and deliberately steer the song away from Menken and Schwartz's original 1970s-inspired musical arrangement in an attempt to "make it feel like the 1950s" by "manipulating instruments textures."American actress Amy Adams, who portrays Giselle, had "worked in musical theater before moved to Los Angeles" in order to pursue a career as a film actress, was therefore "very comfortable with the idea of singing".

Citing both actress and singer Julie Andrews and several Disney Princesses as musical inspiration, Adams decided to perform the film's first song, "True Love's Kiss", in the style of an operetta before replacing this with a more Broadway musical-style voice for "Happy Working Song". Having just arrived in New York City after having been magically transported there from her fantastical world of Andalasia, a lost and hopelessly confused Giselle is discovered wandering around by Robert, a single father and divorce attorney, his daughter Morgan. Robert decides to offer his assistance to Giselle by inviting her to spend a night's shelter in the safety of their apartment; the following morning, Giselle awakens to find Robert's apartment in a complete state of disarray. During the "Happy Working Song" musical sequence, described as one of the film's "large scale production numbers", much appalled by the untidy state of Robert's Manhattan apartment, decides to "repay... the favour" by taking the

Sicilian Defence, Alapin Variation

In chess, the Sicilian Defence, Alapin Variation is a response to the Sicilian Defence characterised by the moves: 1. E4 c5 2. C3It is named after the Russian master Semyon Alapin. For many years, it was not held in high regard, since 2...d5 was thought to allow Black easy equality. Today, the Alapin is considered to be one of the most solid and respectable Anti-Sicilians, it is championed by grandmasters such as Evgeny Sveshnikov, Eduardas Rozentalis, Sergei Tiviakov, Duško Pavasovič, Drazen Sermek, it has been played by World Champions Viswanathan Anand, Garry Kasparov, Anatoly Karpov, Veselin Topalov, Vladimir Kramnik. Deep Blue played the Alapin Variation against Kasparov in their 1996 match in order to avoid a main line Sicilian that would walk into Kasparov's lifetime of experience with the opening; the Alapin is seen in deferred form when Black chooses an unusual second move after 2. Nf3. For example, after 2. Nf3 a6 or 2. Nf3 Qc7, 3.c3 is seen, since neither...a6 nor... Qc7 are useful moves against the Alapin.

The main line in current practice is 2... Nf6 3. E5 Nd5 and can arise if White offers, Black declines, the Smith–Morra Gambit. White has a number of options including 4.d4, 4. Nf3, 4.g3 and 4. Bc4; this is the main alternative to 2... Nf6 for Black; the usual continuation is 3. Exd5 Qxd5, a line known as the Barmen Defense. 3.e5 may transpose to the Advance Variation of the French Defence if Black responds with 3...e6, but Black can develop his c8-bishop before playing e6. This leads to a favourable version of the French for Black, since the bishop is no longer hemmed in by the pawn chain. If White plays 3.exd5, 3... Nf6 is possible; the main options revolve around: 4. D4 Nc6 and now 5.dxc5 or 5. Nf3 4. D4 Nf6 5. Nf3 when after both 5...e6 and 5... Bg4 White can try a number of different moves; this is Black's most solid response, preparing 3...d5. It is related to the French Defense, to which it transposes. White can transpose to the Advance Variation of the French Defense with 3.d4 d5 4.e5. Alternatively, White can transpose to a sort of Tarrasch French with 3.d4 d5 4.

Nd2, or try to demonstrate a slight advantage with 3.d4 d5 4.exd5 exd5 5. Be3; this is a sharp response. Black offers a gambit with 3.d4 Nf6 4.dxc5 Nc6 5.cxd6 Nxe4. White can instead play however, with 3.d4 Nf6 4. Bd3, occupying the centre and maintaining a spatial advantage; this move makes it hard for White to play d4, but weakens the d5-square. Play continues 3. Nf3 Nc6 4. Bc4, with a solid edge for White. List of chess openings List of chess openings named after people Rozentalis and Harley, Play the 2.c3 Sicilian ISBN 1-901983-56-0 Collins, Sam. Chess Explained: The c3 Sicilian. Gambit Publications. ISBN 978-1904600718. Chandler, Murray; the Complete c3 Sicilian. Intl Chess Enterprises. ISBN 1879479508. Emms, John. Starting Out: The c3 Sicilian. Everyman Chess. ISBN 1-85744-570-8. Sveshnikov, Evgeny. Sicilian Defence B22. Chess Informant. ISBN 8672970292. Sveshnikov, Evgeny; the Complete C3 Sicilian: The Alapin Variation by Its Greatest Expert. New in Chess. ISBN 9056913298. Chess openings Sicilian, Alapin An Interesting Idea in the Alapin Sicilian