Battle of Fort Sumter
Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the U. S. Army abandon its facilities in Charleston Harbor. On 26 December 1860, Major Robert Anderson of the U. S, an attempt by U. S. President James Buchanan to reinforce and resupply Anderson using the unarmed merchant ship Star of the West failed when it was fired upon by shore batteries on 9 January 1861. South Carolina authorities seized all Federal property in the Charleston area except for Fort Sumter, during the early months of 1861, the situation around Fort Sumter increasingly began to resemble a siege. In March, Brigadier General P. G. T. Beauregard, Beauregard energetically directed the strengthening of batteries around Charleston harbor aimed at Fort Sumter. Conditions in the fort, growing ever dire due to shortages of men, the resupply of Fort Sumter became the first crisis of the administration of the newly inaugurated U. S. President Abraham Lincoln following his victory in the election of November 6,1860.
Beginning at 4,30 a. m. on April 12, although the Union garrison returned fire, they were significantly outgunned and, after 34 hours, Major Anderson agreed to evacuate. There were no deaths on either side as a result of this engagement. Following the battle, there was support from both North and South for further military action. Lincolns immediate call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion resulted in an additional four southern states declaring their secession, on February 7, the seven states adopted a provisional constitution for the Confederate States of America and established their temporary capital at Montgomery, Alabama. A February peace conference met in Washington, D. C. the remaining eight states declined pleas to join the Confederacy. The seceding states seized numerous Federal properties within their boundaries, including buildings, President James Buchanan protested but took no military action in response. Several forts had been constructed in Charlestons harbor, including Fort Sumter and Fort Moultrie, Fort Moultrie on Sullivan Island was the oldest—it was the site of fortifications since 1776—and was the headquarters of the U. S.
Army garrison. When the garrison began clearing away the dunes, the papers objected, Major Robert Anderson of the 1st U. S. Artillery regiment had been appointed to command the Charleston garrison that fall because of rising tensions, Anderson had served an earlier tour of duty at Fort Moultrie and his father had been a defender of the fort during the American Revolutionary War. Throughout the fall, South Carolina authorities considered both secession and the expropriation of property in the harbor to be inevitable. S. In contrast to Moultrie, Fort Sumter dominated the entrance to Charleston Harbor and, South Carolina authorities considered Andersons move to be a breach of faith. Buchanan, a former U. S. Secretary of State and diplomat, had used carefully crafted ambiguous language to Pickens, from Major Andersons standpoint, he was merely moving his existing garrison troops from one of the locations under his command to another. He had received instructions from the War Department on December 11, written by Major General Don Carlos Buell, Assistant Adjutant General of the Army and you are to hold possession of the forts in this harbor, and if attacked you are to defend yourself to the last extremity
Battle of Tampa
On April 13,1862, at 11 a. m. the alarm went up when a Union schooner anchored behind an island two miles from Tampa. Confederate pickets were posted on all the roads into town to sound the alarm because it was feared the ship was a decoy. ”After an hour the schooner launched a boat under a flag of truce and it was met by two Confederate boats. The Federals demanded the surrender of Tampa, according to Watson, “Major Thomas told them that he would not surrender it. The Yankee officer gave him twenty-four hours to take the women and children out of the town as they would attack the place at the end of that time. Our men gave three cheers at the prospect of having a fight made the men in the Yankee boat look down in the mouth as they expected to see us all look frightened. Capt. Smith told us to all of our clothing and carry them up the river as the enemy might come too strong for us. A strong picket guard on all day and night. ”On April 14 Watson wrote, “No sign of the enemy, on June 30, USS Sagamore, a Union gunboat, came into Tampa Bay, opened her ports, and turned her broadside on the town.
The gunboat launched a boat with 20 men flying a flag of truce, in his post-action report, Captain John William Pearson, CSA, reported to Gen. Joseph Finegan, CSA, what transpired. My reply to him was that we did not understand the meaning of the surrender, there was no such letter in our book. He said they would commence shelling the town at 6 o’clock and we gave three hearty cheers for the Southern Confederacy and the Federal boat crew said nothing…. At 6 o’clock they promptly opened fire on us with heavy shell and shot, and after two from them we opened from our batteries, consisting of three 24-pounder cannon. Both parties kept up a fire until 7 p. m. ”On July 1. After a two-hour break for lunch, USS Sagamore fired two rounds, weighed anchor, and sailed away. Capt. Pearson’s after-action report singled out Capt. James Gettis of Hillsborough County, the Battle of Fort Brooke was another small action fought in Tampa the following October. In this engagement, Union forces landed and destroyed Confederate blockade runners hidden up the Hillsborough River, two cannons from Ft.
Brooke are displayed in Plant Park at the University of Tampa. CWSAC Report Update and Resurvey, Individual Battlefield Profiles
William B. Taliaferro
William Booth Taliaferro, was a United States Army officer, a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. William Booth Taliaferro was born in Gloucester County, Virginia, to a prominent family of English-Italian origin who settled in Virginia in the 17th century. He was the nephew of James A. Seddon, who would become Secretary of War for the Confederate States of America under Jefferson Davis, Taliaferro attended Harvard University and The College of William and Mary, graduating from the latter in 1841. Taliaferro joined the U. S. Army during the Mexican-American War, after the war, Taliaferro entered public life, serving as a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and as a prominent backer of James Buchanans presidential campaign in 1856. He continued his service as commander of a division of the Virginia state militia. Later he took command of the 23rd Virginia Infantry as a colonel and he fought several engagements in 1861 and by the end of the year had ascended to brigade command, where he led Confederate forces at the Battle of Greenbrier River, in what is now West Virginia.
Taliaferros Brigade came under Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons command at the end of 1861 and he remained with Jackson for some months, rising to division command in 1862. Taliaferro was seriously injured at the Battle of Second Bull Run, Taliaferro was a strict and aloof commander who alienated many of his troops. There is at least one known circumstance when one of his troops actually assaulted him, Taliaferro chafed under the command of General Jackson, complaining to his political colleagues in Virginia about Jacksons tactics and treatment of the men. Jackson would select Taliaferro for temporary command in specific engagements. After Fredericksburg, Taliaferro was given command of the District of Savannah, in this capacity he led troops at the Battle of Fort Wagner on Morris Island, a battle which is depicted in the movie Glory. Taliaferro was commended for his service in that battle, in 1864, Taliaferro was given command of all forces in the Eastern district of Florida, which made him the overall commander at the Battle of Olustee that February.
He subsequently returned to South Carolina, where he was commander of all forces in that state. Taliaferro was still in command when Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman entered the state from Savannah, Taliaferro returned to Virginia when the Army of South Carolina and Florida surrendered that year. After the war, Taliaferro lived in Gloucester County and he served again in the state legislature and as a judge and sat on the board of the College of William and Mary and the Virginia Military Institute. He died at his home, Dunham Massie, aged 75 and his collected papers are located at the Special Collections Research Center at the College of William and Mary. Taliaferro is the namesake of a hall at William. Bartholomew Taliaferro married Joane Lane, January 1,1583, at St. Michaels, London, the couple are the common ancestors of cousins Brig. Gen. William Booth Taliaferro and Maj
Quincy Adams Gillmore
Quincy Adams Gillmore was an American civil engineer, and a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He earned a reputation as an organizer of siege operations. Gillmore was born and raised in Black River in Lorain County and he was named after the president-elect at the time of his birth, John Quincy Adams. He entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and he graduated in 1849, first in a class of 43 members. He was appointed to the engineers and was promoted to first lieutenant in 1856, from 1849 until 1852, he was engaged in constructing the fortifications at Hampton Roads in coastal Virginia. For the next four years, he was instructor of Practical Military Engineering at West Point, beginning in 1856, Gillmore served as a purchasing agent for the Army in New York City. He was promoted to captain in 1861, with the outbreak of the Civil War in early 1861, Gillmore was assigned to the staff of Brig. Gen. Thomas W. Sherman and accompanied him to Port Royal, after being appointed as a brigadier general, Gillmore took charge of the siege operations against Fort Pulaski. A staunch advocate of the new naval rifled guns, he was the first officer to effectively use them to knock out an enemy stone fortification.
More than 5,000 artillery shells fell on Pulaski from a range of 1,700 yards during the short siege, which resulted in the forts surrender after its walls were breached. The result of the efforts to breach a fort of such strength and at such a distance confers high honor on the engineering skill, failure in an attempt made in opposition to the opinion of the ablest engineers in the army would have destroyed him. Success, which in case is wholly attributable to his talent, energy. —New York Tribune Although he was one of the best artillerists, after an assignment in New York City, Gillmore traveled to Lexington, where he supervised the construction of Fort Clay on a hilltop commanding the city. Gillmore commanded a division in the Army of Kentucky the District of Central Kentucky, though long associated with engineering and artillery, Gillmores first independent command came at the head of a cavalry expedition against Confederate General John Pegram. Gillmore defeated the Confederates at the battle of Somerset for which he was given a promotion to colonel in the U. S.
Army. Gillmore was assigned to replace Maj. Gen. Ormsby M. Mitchel in charge of the X Corps after that death from yellow fever. In addition, Gillmore commanded the Department of the South, consisting of North and South Carolina and Florida, with headquarters at Hilton Head, from June 12,1863, to May 1,1864. Under his direction, the army constructed two forts in coastal South Carolina—Fort Mitchel and Fort Holbrook, located in the Spanish Wells area near Hilton Head Island
Battle of Forts Jackson and St. Philip
The Battle of Forts Jackson and St. Philip was the decisive battle for possession of New Orleans in the American Civil War. The two Confederate forts on the Mississippi River south of the city were attacked by a Union Navy fleet. As long as the forts could keep the Federal forces from moving on the city, it was safe, New Orleans, the largest city in the Confederacy, was already under threat of attack from the north when David Farragut moved his fleet into the river from the south. The Confederate Navy had already driven off the Union blockade fleet in the Battle of the Head of Passes the previous October. Men and equipment had been withdrawn from the defenses, so that by mid-April almost nothing remained to the south except the two forts and an assortment of gunboats of questionable worth. Without reducing the pressure from the north, President Abraham Lincoln set in motion a combined Army-Navy operation to attack from the south, the Union Army offered 18,000 soldiers, led by the political general Benjamin F.
Butler. The Navy contributed a large fraction of its West Gulf Blockading Squadron, the squadron was augmented by a semi-autonomous flotilla of mortar schooners and their support vessels under Commander David Dixon Porter. The expedition assembled at Ship Island in the Gulf, once they were ready, the naval contingent moved its ships into the river, an operation that was completed on April 14. They were moved into position near the forts, and on April 18 the mortars opened the battle, during the passage, one Federal warship was lost and three others turned back, while the Confederate gunboats were virtually obliterated. The subsequent capture of the city, achieved no further significant opposition, was a serious, even fatal. The forts remained after the fleet had passed, but the enlisted men in Fort Jackson mutinied and forced their surrender. Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip were a pair of closely associated forts on the Mississippi River and they were sited some 40 kilometers above Head of Passes, where the river divides before it finally enters the Gulf of Mexico, or about 120 kilometers downstream from New Orleans.
Fort Jackson was on the bank, while Fort St. Philip was on the left bank of the river. Because of the path of the river, Fort Jackson was actually somewhat east of Fort St. Philip. Although land-based forts had long considered to be invulnerable to attack by naval guns, some weaknesses had been exposed in the Battle of Port Royal, South Carolina. Following that battle, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Gustavus V, Fox began to press for expanded use of the United States Navy in attacking coastal Confederate positions. He particularly emphasized the desirability of assaulting New Orleans, the largest city in the Confederacy, Fox proposed that the two forts could be weakened if not completely destroyed by a mortar barrage, and a relatively small Army force could assault the weakened forts. Following the reduction of the forts, or even during the army assault, at first, the Army, in the person of General-in-Chief George B
Battle of Santa Rosa Island
The Battle of Santa Rosa Island was an unsuccessful Confederate attempt to take Union-held Fort Pickens on Santa Rosa Island, Florida. Santa Rosa Island is a 40-mile barrier island in the U. S. state of Florida, the 6th New York Volunteer Infantry, commanded by Col. William Wilson, was encamped outside the fort, a short distance east of it. After midnight on October 9, Brig. Gen. Richard Anderson crossed from the mainland to Santa Rosa Island with 1,200 men in two small steamers to surprise the Union camps and capture Fort Pickens. He landed on the beach about four miles east of Fort Pickens. After proceeding about three miles, the Confederates surprised the 6th Regiment, New York Volunteers, in its camp, Gen. Anderson adopted a defensive stance to entice the Federals to leave the fort and attack. Receiving reinforcements, Col. Harvey Brown sallied against the Confederates, the Union loss was 14 killed,29 wounded and 24 captured or missing. General Braxton Bragg and Lieutenant Hamel, commanding the Confederate forces at Pensacola, reported their loss as 30 or 40 killed and wounded, seeley a few days after the occurrence, gave the total casualties as 175.
Israel Vodges, of the 1st artillery, was captured, the camp of the 6th N. Y. was partially destroyed. Fort Pickens and the site are preserved within the Gulf Islands National Seashore. Department of Florida, Col. Harvey Brown 6th New York Zouave Infantry, Col. William Wilson Vodges Command – Major Israel Vogdes, hildt Company A, 1st Artillery – Lieutenant Frank E. Taylor Company E, 3rd Infantry – Captain John McL
Second Battle of Charleston Harbor
After being repulsed twice trying to take Fort Wagner by storm, Maj. Gen. Quincy Adams Gillmore decided on a less costly approach and began laying siege to the fort. In the days following the second battle of Fort Wagner. Union gunners made use of a new piece of artillery known as the Requa gun—25 rifle barrels mounted on a field carriage, while sappers dug zig-zag trenches toward Fort Wagner a second novelty was used—the calcium floodlight. The ground the Union sappers were digging through was shallow sand with a muddy base, the trenching efforts began to accidentally uncover Union dead from the previous assaults on Fort Wagner. Disease and bad water plagued soldiers on both sides, the Union army maintained a constant rotation of soldiers to man the forward trenches of the grand guard. During the evening of August 16 a Confederate artillery shell burst through the serving as the headquarters for Colonel Joshua B. Howell, commanding officer of the guard that evening. A shell fragment struck Colonel Howell wounding him severely in the head, despite Howells quick recovery the incident prompted the Union commander to exclusively use veteran troops in the forward trenches.
Confederates kept a constant rotation of soldiers through Fort Wagner, during the night rowboats would bring fresh troops from the mainland to replace the garrison. Even though they had won a victory at Fort Wagner the Confederates fully expected the campaign to continue. Having a large garrison to draw from Gen. P. G. T, Beauregard was prepared to continue the campaign. Immediately in command of Confederate forces surrounding Charleston was former army officer. Ripleys forces were spread throughout fortifications surrounding Charleston Harbor and included a division of local South Carolina militia and Admiral John A. Dahlgren requested reinforcements from General-in-Chief Henry Halleck. Halleck was reluctant but nevertheless a division from the Army of the Potomac was transferred to the south under George H. Gordon, despite the marshy conditions on Morris Island, Union forces had constructed powerful batteries to combat Fort Wagner. These batteries were often named in honor of leaders such as Batteries Strong, Kearny.
Others were named for high ranking officers such as Batteries Rosecrans. Inside Fort Wagner only one 10-inch Columbiad faced seaward and the few guns were in poor condition. During Colonel Lawrence M. Keitts tenure in command of the Confederate garrison he established stations on Fort Wagners west wall to coordinate with Confederate batteries on James Island
First Battle of Charleston Harbor
The First Battle of Charleston Harbor was an engagement near Charleston, South Carolina that took place April 7,1863, during the American Civil War. The striking force was a fleet of nine warships of the Union Navy. A Union Army contingent associated with the attack took no part in the battle. The ships, under command of Rear Admiral Samuel Francis Du Pont, Navy Department officials in Washington hoped for a stunning success that would validate a new form of warfare, with armored warships mounting heavy guns reducing traditional forts. Du Pont had been seven of the Passaic class monitors, the powerful New Ironsides. Other naval operations were sidetracked as their resources were diverted to the attack on Charleston, after a long period of preparation, conditions of tide and visibility allowed the attack to proceed. The slow monitors got into position rather late in the afternoon, firing had occupied less than two hours, and the ships had been unable to penetrate even the first line of harbor defense.
The fleet retired with one in a condition and most of the others damaged. One sailor in the fleet was killed and twenty-one were wounded, while five Confederate soldiers were killed, after consulting with his captains, Du Pont concluded that his fleet had little chance to succeed. He therefore declined to renew the battle the next morning, the war was not going well for the Union in late 1862 and early 1863. In the West, the campaign for control of the Mississippi River seemed to be bogged down before Vicksburg, the Confederates had actually managed to retake Galveston, Texas. A mood of war-weariness was evident throughout the North, and the fall elections, the Lincoln Administration therefore began to apply great pressure on its field commanders to achieve some success that would lift the national spirit. It was in this atmosphere that the Navy Department began to urge an attack on Charleston, Charleston in 1863 was already of only limited military significance, as the active centers of combat were mostly in Virginia and the interior of the country.
Its value as a port for blockade runners was not much greater than that of Mobile, Alabama or Savannah, however, it was selected as a target more for its symbolic worth than for its strategic importance. Among the most vocal proponents of the attack was Assistant Secretary of the Navy Gustavus Vasa Fox, Fox had an ulterior motive, in that he wanted the Navy to be free from domination by the Army. He was therefore not disturbed when General-in-Chief Henry W. Halleck would not agree to a part for the Army in the operation. Halleck was willing to commit only 10,000 to 15,000 untrained soldiers, the Navy Department supported the operation by assigning almost all of its armored vessels to the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, commanded by Rear Admiral Du Pont. These included the massive USS New Ironsides, New Ironsides would serve as Du Ponts flagship, in addition, the experimental armored gunboat Keokuk was added to the fleet
Robert Gould Shaw
Robert Gould Shaw was an American soldier in the Union Army during the U. S. Civil War. At the Second Battle of Fort Wagner, a beachhead near Charleston, South Carolina, Shaws story is dramatized in the 1989 film Glory, starring Matthew Broderick. Shaw was born in Boston to abolitionists Francis George and Sarah Blake Shaw, Shaw had four sisters— Anna, Josephine and Ellen. When Shaw was five years old, the moved to a large estate in West Roxbury. During his teens he traveled and studied for years in Europe. In 1847, the moved to Staten Island, New York, settling among a community of literati and abolitionists. From 1856 until 1859 he attended Harvard University, joining the Porcellian Club, but he withdrew before graduating. Early in the American Civil War, Shaw joined the 7th New York Militia as a private and on April 19,1861, marched down Broadway in lower Manhattan with it to the defense of Washington, D. C. Shaw was approached by his father while in camp in late 1862 to take command of a new all-black regiment, at first, he declined the offer, but after careful thought, he accepted the position.
Shaws letters clearly state that he was dubious about a black unit succeeding, but the dedication of his men deeply impressed him. On learning that black soldiers would receive less pay than white ones, the enlisted men of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry refused pay until Congress granted them full back pay at the white pay rate in August 1863. Shaw was promoted to major on March 31,1863, Shaw was initially ordered by Colonel James Montgomery to perform the burning but he refused. In theory it may seem all right to some, but when it comes to being made the instrument of the Lord’s vengeance, I myself don’t like it. He goes on to say, We are outlawed, and therefore not bound by the rules of regular warfare, the original Scottish founders of Darien had signed the first Petition against the Introduction of Slavery in the colony of Georgia. The 54th Regiment was sent to Charleston, South Carolina to take part in the operations against the Confederates stationed there, on July 18,1863, along with two brigades of white troops, the 54th assaulted Confederate Battery Wagner.
As the unit hesitated in the face of fierce Confederate fire, Shaw led his men into battle by shouting, Fifty-Fourth and he mounted a parapet and urged his men forward, but was shot through the chest three times and died almost instantly. According to the Colors Sergeant of the 54th, he was shot and killed trying to lead the unit forward. The victorious Confederates buried him in a grave with many of his men
Truman Seymour was a career soldier and an accomplished painter. He served in the Union Army during the American Civil War and he was present at the Battle of Fort Sumter. He commanded the Union troops at the Battle of Olustee, the only major Civil War battle fought in Florida, Seymour was born in Burlington, Vermont. The son of a Methodist minister, he attended Norwich University, after spending two years at Norwich, Seymour received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point. He graduated in 1846, ranked nineteenth in a class of fifty-nine graduates, after graduating, Seymour was assigned to the 1st U. S. Artillery. He immediately began his service in the Mexican-American War. During that war, he was brevetted captain for his performance in the battles of Contreras and Churubusco and was promoted to first lieutenant six days later. After returning to the United States following the war, he became an assistant professor of drawing at West Point from 1850 to 1853 and he was promoted to captain on November 22,1860.
In the months that led up to the Civil War Seymour served under Col. John L. Gardner at Fort Moultrie getting it prepared for the imminent war. When the Civil War began in 1861, Seymour commanded a company in the defense against the Confederate assault on Fort Sumter, after which he received the brevet of major. Major Seymour commanded the 5th Regiment of Artillery and the U. S, camp of Instruction at Harrisburg, from December 1861 to March 1862. He was Chief of Artillery for General George A. McCalls division of Pennsylvania Reserves from March 6,1862 and he became a brigadier general of volunteers on April 28,1862. Seymour served in the Army of the Potomacs V Corps during the Peninsula Campaign of April–July 1862, after the Peninsula Campaign, the Pennsylvania Reserves joined the III Corps of the Army of Virginia, I Corps in the Army of the Potomac. Seymour performed well at the battles of Second Bull Run, South Mountain, Seymour took command of the Reserves after Brig. Gen. George G. Meade became acting corps commander.
He received the brevet from the army of lieutenant colonel after South Mountain. After November 18,1862, General Seymour was sent to the Department of the South where he served as chief of staff to the general from January 8 to April 23,1863. He led a division on Folly Island, South Carolina, on July 4, participated in the attack on Morris Island on July 10, Seymour gained notoriety for this controversial attack. He had placed the famous 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, the black regiment about which the 1989 film Glory was made and he was seriously wounded by grapeshot there and saw little field duty for the rest of 1863
Battle of Fort McAllister (1863)
The First Battle of Fort McAllister was a series of naval attacks that took place from January 27 to March 3,1863, in Bryan County, during the American Civil War. The commander of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron Rear Adm. Samuel F, Du Pont decided to test operation of new monitors against Fort McAllister before conducting a major naval operation against Charleston, South Carolina. Fort McAllister was an earthen fort located along Genesis Point and armed with several heavy cannon to defend the Great Ogeechee River approach south of Savannah. It was expanded repeatedly by adding more guns and bombproofs, obstructions and eventually torpedoes completed the riverine defenses. In July 1862 the blockade runner Nashville ran up the river to escape blockaders, learning that the Nashville was lying near the fort, Adm. Du Pont ordered Commander Charles Steedman to make a reconnaissance in force and to destroy the fort if possible. At this time the garrison was commanded by Capt. Alfred L. Hartridge of Co.
A, 1st Georgia Volunteer Infantry, the DeKalb Riflemen. The main battery consisted of five 32-pounder and one 42-pounder smoothbore, on July 29, Steedman led the wooden gunboats USS Paul Jones, Unadilla and Madgie against the work in a 90-minute long-range exchange. Steedman found that approaching the fort would cause unacceptable losses and withdrew, an 8 Columbiad was added to the fort in August and the garrison was replaced with the Emmett Rifles and the Republican Blues. John L. Davis the Federal gunboats USS Wissahickon and Dawn, the fort did not reply to the initial long-range bombardment and waited until the warships ascended the river to the guns effective range. When the lead vessels reached 3,000 yards the garrison opened fire and immediately scored a hit, damage to the fort was minor and readily repaired and only three men were slightly wounded in the fortifications. Adm. Du Pont dispatched an ironclad in an attempt to capture the fort, sink the Nashville and burn the Atlantic and Gulf railway bridge farther up the river.
This would provide the first test of the new Passaic class of ironclad monitor armed with the massive new 15 Dahlgren cannon, the single turret of the new class contained one 11 Dahlgren in addition to the 15. On January 27,1863 the monitor USS Montauk, three gunboats, and a mortar schooner engaged the fort. Commander John L. Worden of the Montauk shelled the fort for five hours at a range of 1, 500-1,800 yards and tearing up the parapets, but causing no lasting damage or casualties. Likewise, thirteen hits scored by the artillery did little beside denting the monitors plate. The defenders simply repaired the damaged earthworks during the night, on February 1, Worden tried again to silence the fort. The prior night Federal scouts had removed several mines from the channel so that the vessels could more closely approach, the Montauk spent another five hours bombarding at only 600 yards distance. The garrison commander, Maj. John B, was killed and seven were wounded
Attack on USS New Ironsides
The attack on USS New Ironsides in October 1863 was one of the first successful torpedo boat engagements in history. Confederate forces in Charleston, South Carolina deployed the newly built semi-submersible CSS David to attach a spar torpedo to the hull of USS New Ironsides, though the attack is regarded as a rebel victory, the Union ship was saved from serious damage. Because it was an impediment to Confederate commerce and warfare, there was no choice. CSS David was one of the Souths secret weapons, similar to the submarine H. L. Hunley, the boat was designed to destroy enemy ships by stealthily sneaking up to their sides and placing an explosive on their hulls. The David was only fifty feet long with a beam of six feet and her crew consisted of just four officers and men. She was under the command of Lieutenant William T. Glassell during her three year career. On the night of 5 October, at about 8,00 am the torpedo boat headed out from the pier toward the fourteen gun ironclad USS New Ironsides and she had survived a failed torpedo boat attack in August 1863.
An hour the rebels were approaching the ironclad when lookouts spotted them fifty yards away, the Union commander Captain Stephen C. Rowan reported the following, At 9 p. m. W, when the water fell back, some of it went down the Davids smokestack and put out the fire in her engine. The explosion ripped a large fissure in the starboard quarter and her crew had to quickly repair the hole. Damage was inflicted to the ships armory bulkhead and some storerooms, there were two wounded, one of whom died, and a third man who suffered from confusions. CSS David was heavily damaged, enough for her commander to order his men to abandon ship, ensign C. W. Cannon could not swim so he remained aboard and after the others left they tried to swim for nearby Morris Island under fire. It was at this time Assistant Engineer J. H. Tomb decided to go back to the boat where he restarted the fire. The remaining two Confederates, including Lieutenant Glassel, surrendered to the men of New Ironsides after evacuating the David, New Ironsides was apparently not in threat of sinking and the damage proved to be mostly superficial.
She returned to duty after taking a short time in Philadelphia to make repairs. CSS David was repaired as well and she made attacks on USS Memphis. Several torpedo boats of the David class were captured at the end of the war, the David may have been among them. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, the Neglected Ironclad, A Design and Constructional Analysis of the U. S. S