Battle of Elmina (1625)
The Battle of Elmina was a minor conflict of the Dutch-Portuguese War, fought off the castle of São Jorge da Mina in the Portuguese Gold Coast in 1625. It was fought between 1,200 soldiers of the Dutch West India Company who landed and assaulted the Portuguese garrison of the castle, the garrison was reinforced by 200 African allies put in service of the governor Sottomayor by the local caciques. The Dutch opened the battle by bombarding the castle, the Dutch began to march to the castle, but they were ambushed by the Portuguese and their African allies from hidden positions and were almost totally massacred. Among the dead were the commander-in-chief and all his officers, the Portuguese had very few casualties and took 15 flags,15 drums and more than 1,000 muskets, pikes and dresses. The Dutch ships fired over 2,000 cannonballs at the castle before they withdrew, Battle of Elmina Glete, Warfare at Sea, 1500-1650, maritime conflicts and the transformation of Europe. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery, Volume 1, boxer, C. R.
Fidalgos in the Far East. Taylor, Capoeira, the Jogo de Angola from Luanda to cyberspace, graham Dann, A. V. Seatton, Contested Heritage, and Thanatourism. Johannes Postma, V. Enthoven, Riches from Atlantic Commerce, Dutch transatlantic trade and shipping, lewis H. Gann, Peter Duignan and the World, an introduction to the history of sub-Saharan Africa
Battle of Albrolhos
The naval Battle of the Abrolhos took place on 12 September 1631 off the coast of Bahía, during the Eighty Years War. A joint Spanish-Portuguese fleet under Admiral Oquendo defeated the Dutch after a naval battle. On 5 May 1631 Basque Spanish Admiral Oquendo left Lisbon with a fleet of about 20 men-of-war and he carried reinforcements to Paraíba, Pernambuco and Bahia. On his way back to Portugal, he was to convoy ships loaded with sugar, so as to allow the Dutch extra time to get ready, he headed first for Bahia. Once the Dutch learned of his coming, their fleet in Pernambuco, led by admiral Adrian Pater, despite Pater had 33 ships at Pernambuco, he left 17 in port as he considered only 8 of Oquendo’s to be battleworthy. Finally, on September 12, the two fleets met around the cays and these Spanish men-of-war are accompanied by the 28-gun Portuguese warship São Jorge, 20-gun Santiago,19. This force was protecting ten unarmed Brazilian caravels bearing 1,200 troops under the Neapolitan-born Cmdr, giovanni Vincenzo de San Felice, Conde de Bagnuoli, intended to reinforce the town of Paraíba in addition to 20 Lisbon-bound sugar merchantmen.
Standing away from the coast, the formation was driven southeast by contrary winds. On the evening of 11 September the Iberian fleet was sighted by Admiral Pater, at first light the admiral summoned his captains for final instructions, drank a toast of Brunswick beer to the days success. The Dutch admiral Pater had formed his fleet in two lines, Its place was taken by the much larger Concepción of Capt. Juan de Prado, Buenaventura, San Carlos, and San Bartolomé lag astern. Fighting began around midmorning, when Vice Admiral de Vallecillas San Antonio opened fire on Thijssens advancing Geunieerde Provintien, about 15 minutes de Oquendo and four other galleon opened fire on Paters flagship, which steered directly toward Santiago de Oliste with Walcheren. The Dutch held their opening broadsides until point-blank range and grappled, a murderous engagement erupted around each flagship and vice-flag, both sides firing repeatedly into their opponents and yet unable to board. Its place was taken by the much larger Concepción of Capt.
Juan de Prado, a chance shot from de Oquendos flagship started a blaze aboard Prins Willem, which the Spanish admiral cleverly directed his musketeers to fire at, so as to hamper Dutch fire-fighting efforts. The flames gained hold and finally drove Pater into the water, along with a few survivors, the remaining Dutch vessels were content to fire from long range –Hollandia and Fortuijn being the only others to become closely engaged-while the Spaniards responded in kind. The day ended in a Spanish victory, although depending on the sources Spanish losses may have somewhat greater. According to David Marley, a Vice-flagship and galleon were sunk and another was taken, with 585 dead, the Dutch flagship and another man-of-war disappeared beneath the waves, leaving 350 dead and missing plus more than 80 seriously wounded. According to Miguel Esquerdo Galiana, the Dutch fleet lost 2,000 men, thijssen showed no inclination to renew action the next day, preferring to limp back to Recife with his mauled fleet on 21–22 September.
De Oquendo meanwhile deposited his reinforcements at Barra Grande of Porto Calvo –only 700 of them actually reach Fort Arrail do Bom Jesus– before continuing toward Europe with his sugar convoy, the Dutch garrison at Pernambuco subsequently evacuated Olinda in November in order to concentrate its strength around Recife
Slaves, especially those brought from Africa, provided most of the working force of the Brazilian export economy after a brief period of Indian slavery to cut brazilwood. The boom and bust economic cycles were linked to export products and diamonds were discovered and mined in southern Brazil through the end of the colonial era. Brazilian cities were largely port cities and the administrative capital was moved several times in response to the rise. Unlike Spanish America that fragmented in many republics, Brazil remained as an administrative unit with a monarch. Like Spanish America with European Spanish, Brazil had linguistic integrity of Portuguese, both Spanish America and Brazil were Roman Catholic. The Portuguese identified brazilwood as a red dye and an exploitable product. Its maritime exploration proceeded down the coast of West Africa and they sought the sources of gold and African slaves that were high value goods of the African trade. The Portuguese set up fortified trading factories, whereby permanent, fairly small commercial settlements anchored trade in a region, the initial costs of setting up these commercial posts was borne by private investors, who in turn received hereditary titles and commercial advantages.
From the Portuguese crowns point of view, its realm was expanded with relatively little cost to itself, the most decisive of these treaties was the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494, that created the Tordesillas Meridian, dividing the world between those two kingdoms. All land discovered or to be discovered east of that meridian was to be the property of Portugal, the Tordesillas Meridian divided South America into two parts, leaving a large chunk of land to be exploited by the Spaniards. The Treaty of Tordesillas was arguably the most decisive event in all Brazilian history, the present extent of Brazils coastline is almost exactly that defined by the treaty of Madrid, which was approved in 1750. On April 22,1500, during the reign of King Manuel I, although it is debated whether previous Portuguese explorers had already been in Brazil, this date is widely and politically accepted as the day of the discovery of Brazil by Europeans. Álvares Cabral was leading a fleet of 13 ships and more than 1000 men following Vasco da Gamas way to India.
The place where Álvares Cabral arrived is now known as Porto Seguro, after the voyage of Álvares Cabral, the Portuguese concentrated their efforts on the lucrative possessions in Africa and India and showed little interest in Brazil. Between 1500 and 1530, relatively few Portuguese expeditions came to the new land to chart the coast, in Europe, this wood was used to produce a valuable dye to give color to luxury textiles. Over time, the Portuguese realized that some European countries, especially France, were sending excursions to the land to extract brazilwood. Worried about foreign incursions and hoping to find riches, the Portuguese crown decided to send large missions to take possession of the land. In 1530, an expedition led by Martim Afonso de Sousa arrived in Brazil to patrol the entire coast, ban the French, at first, Brazil was set up as fifteen private, hereditary captaincies
Battle of Cape Rachado
The Battle of Cape Rachado, off the present day Malaccan exclave of Tanjung Tuan in 1606, was an important naval engagement between the Dutch East India Company and Portuguese fleets. It marked the beginning of a conflict between the combined Dutch/Johor forces against the Portuguese and it was the biggest naval battle in the Malay Archipelago between two naval superpowers of the time with 31 ships. 130 years of Portuguese supremacy in the region ended with the fall of the city and fortress of Malacca, almost 30 years later, the Dutch East Indies Company decided that to expand further to the east, the Portuguese monopoly and especially Malacca must first be neutralised. The Oranje lead with Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge in command, the Dutch fleet set sail from Texel, Holland on 12 May 1605. The fleet departed with the sailors told that they were on a voyage as de Jonge was ordered to keep his true mission a secret. They passed Malacca on April 1606 and arrived at Johor on 1 May 1606 where de Jonge proceeded to negotiate for a term of alliance with Johor.
The pact was concluded on 17 May 1606 in which Johor had agreed to a combined effort with the Dutch to attempt to dislodge the Portuguese from Malacca. Unlike the Portuguese, the Dutch and Johor agreed to each others religion, the Dutch would get to keep Malacca. The Dutch would not attempt to interfere or wage war against Johor, in effect, the agreement served to limit Dutch influence on the Malay Peninsula in contrast to the islands of the archipelago which would become the Dutch East Indies. Matelief de Jonge started the assault by besieging the fortress and city of Malacca and he was hoping that by blockading and cutting the supplies to the Portuguese, prolonged hunger and direct assault would force them to capitulate. The Dutch, with few soldiers, could not afford a land offensive against their well-entrenched opponent, the Dutch maintained the siege for a time and the situation started to get worse for the Portuguese until 14 August 1606 when a Portuguese fleet from Goa arrived. Led by the Viceroy of Goa, Dom Martim Afonso de Castro, the two fleets traded cannon fire and the Portuguese ships began to move northward, drawing the Dutch away from Malacca.
On 16 August 1606, off the Portuguese lighthouse at Cape Rachado, heavy cannons salvoes opened the battle with each side trying to weaken the opponent before the ships closed on each other and the battle would have to be fought hand-to-hand. After a couple of days of cannon duels, on the morning of 18 August, with the wind in favour of the Portuguese, seeing the danger, ordered his ships to turn sail away from the oncoming ships to evade boarding. But for some reason, the VOC ship Nassau, failed to turn quickly, the Portuguese ship Santa Cruz dashed forth and boarded the Nassau. Matelief de Jonge ordered his own ship, the Oranje, to turn around to rescue the hapless Nassau. While the Dutch captains were busy disentangling their ships, Martim de Castros ship, the Dutch crew of the Nassau managed to jump into a lifeboat, leaving the fiercely burning Nassau behind. The entangled duo had now become a quartet, a furious battle raged between the hopelessly entangled ships, with point-blank cannonades quickly setting the ships ablaze, as much a danger to one as the other
First Battle of Guararapes
On April 18,1648, around forty five hundred Dutch soldiers and five artillery pieces marched south, coming from Recife. On their way south, they eliminated a small defensive outpost on the village of Barreta, the few survivors regrouped at the village of Arraial Novo do Bom Jesus, headquarters of the Pernambucana resistance, where they reported the incident. Commanders of the called for a march of 2,000 combatants towards the Guararapes Hills against an enemy better equipped. His plan was to isolate the resistance troops from reserves and supplies that might have come from the South and this was a bold move, considering they were in half the numbers of their adversaries, and had no artillery. At this point, information sent from the fallen Barreta outpost had come to them, at the beginning of the fight, Von Schoppe may have realized that he would have to fight a much stronger force than the one he had defeated in Barreta. Also, the opportunity to choose the place to meet a superior force was crucial for the Portuguese victory.
The terrain was damp, mostly swamp, and did not allow for the classical formation of European armies. Forced into a front, the Dutchs advantages had been almost nullified. The Portuguese forces were divided in five terços commanded by Barreto de Menezes, Fernandes Vieira, Filipe Camarão, andré Vidal de Negreiros was the commander of the fifth terço kept in reserve. Barreto de Menezes concentrated his efforts on the space between the East face and the main swamp, in the center, Fernandes Vieiras terço had the mission to penetrate as deep possible into the enemys formation. On the right flank, Filipe Camarão would use the experience of the natives in fighting in the swamped terrain. Henrique Dias would use the terço dos negros to keep the Dutch from advancing, limited by the lack of space for maneuver, Von Schoppe concentrated most of his forces on the space between the east face and the main swamp. Two Dutch battalions would not be allowed to maneuver and would stay back, the closed space did not allow the use of firearms to its full potential and maximized the use of native weapons and the short sword
It preceded the Batavian Republic, the Kingdom of Holland, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, and ultimately the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands. Alternative names include the United Provinces, Seven Provinces, Federated Dutch Provinces, most of the Low Countries had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg. In 1549 Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles was succeeded by his son, King Philip II of Spain. This was the start of the Eighty Years War, in 1579 a number of the northern provinces of the Low Countries signed the Union of Utrecht, in which they promised to support each other in their defence against the Spanish army. This was followed in 1581 by the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence of the provinces from Philip II. In 1582 the United Provinces invited Francis, Duke of Anjou to lead them, but after an attempt to take Antwerp in 1583. After the assassination of William of Orange, both Henry III of France and Elizabeth I of England declined the offer of sovereignty, the latter agreed to turn the United Provinces into a protectorate of England, and sent the Earl of Leicester as governor-general.
This was unsuccessful and in 1588 the provinces became a confederacy, the Union of Utrecht is regarded as the foundation of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces, which was not recognized by the Spanish Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Anglo-French war, the territory was divided into groups, the Patriots, who were pro-French and pro-American and the Orangists. The Republic of the United Provinces faced a series of revolutions in 1783–1787. During this period, republican forces occupied several major Dutch cities, initially on the defence, the Orangist forces received aid from Prussian troops and retook the Netherlands in 1787. After the French Republic became the French Empire under Napoleon, the Batavian Republic was replaced by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Holland, the Netherlands regained independence from France in 1813. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 the names United Provinces of the Netherlands, on 16 March 1815, the son of stadtholder William V crowned himself King William I of the Netherlands.
Between 1815 and 1890 the King of the Netherlands was in a union the Grand Duke of the sovereign Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. After Belgium gained its independence in 1830, the state became known as the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The County of Holland was the wealthiest and most urbanized region in the world, the free trade spirit of the time received a strong augmentation through the development of a modern, effective stock market in the Low Countries. The Netherlands has the oldest stock exchange in the world, founded in 1602 by the Dutch East India Company, while Rotterdam has the oldest bourse in the Netherlands, the worlds first stock exchange, that of the Dutch East-India Company, went public in six different cities. Later, a court ruled that the company had to reside legally in a city so Amsterdam is recognized as the oldest such institution based on modern trading principles
Recapture of Bahia
The recapture of Bahia was a Spanish-Portuguese military expedition in 1625 to retake the city of Salvador da Bahia in Brazil from the forces of the Dutch West India Company. In May 1624, Dutch WIC forces under Jacob Willekens captured Salvador Bahia from the Portuguese, philip IV, king of Spain and Portugal, ordered the assembly of a Spanish-Portuguese fleet with the objective of recovering the city. The town was besieged for weeks, after which it was recaptured. This resulted in the expulsion of the Dutch from the city, the city was a strategically important Portuguese base in the struggle against the Dutch for the control of Brazil. In addition they would control much of the production in the region. These intentions to invade Brazil were soon reported to the court of Madrid by the Spanish spies in the Netherlands, on May 8 the Dutch fleet appeared off Salvador. The port was protected by sea by two forts, Fort Santo António from the east and Fort São Filipe from the west, additionally a six-gun battery was erected on the beach and the streets were barricaded.
The Dutch fleet entered the bay divided into two squadrons, one sailed towards the beach of Santo António and disembarked the soldiers commanded by Colonel Johan van Dorth. The other anchored off the town and opened fire over the coastal defenses, at dawn the city was surrounded by more than 1,000 Dutch soldiers with 2 pieces of artillery. Intimidated, the Portuguese militia threw their weapons and fled, leaving Mendonça with 60 loyal soldiers, Salvador had been captured at a cost of 50 casualties among the attackers. Willekens and Heyn installed a garrison under the command of Dorth before departing on new missions, four ships were sent to Holland carrying booty and news back, and instructions to call for reinforcements to secure Salvador. However, the Dutch garrison soon began to be harassed by the local guerrilla organized by Bishop Dom Marcos Teixeira and he managed to assemble a force of 1,400 Portuguese and 250 Indians auxiliaries, who built fortifications and organized ambushes against the Dutch acting under woodland.
In an attempt to drive off the attackers from the outskirts, Dorth himself was killed and he was replaced by Albert Schoutens, who perished in another ambush, being replaced by his brother Willem. On November 22, the Portuguese fleet under Manuel de Menezes, with Francisco de Almeida as second in command and it was composed by 22 ships and about 4,000 men. The Spanish fleet left the port of Cadiz on January 14 after the delay caused by bad weather and it was composed by 38 ships belonging to the armadas of Castile, Biscay and Cuatro Villas, among them 21 galleons. It had 8,000 sailors and soldiers on board, being those latter divided in three Tercios, of one was Italian and the other two Spanish. Its commanding officers were the maestros de campo Pedro Osorio, Juan de Orellana and Carlos Carraciolo, the commander-in-chief of the joint army was Pedro Rodríguez de Sebastián, seconded by Sargento Mayor Diego Ruiz. After passing through the Canary Islands on January 28, the Spanish fleet arrived at Cape Verde on February 6 and this one had lost a ship and 140 men drowned in the shoals of the Isle of Maio
The Dutch Empire comprised the overseas colonies and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies and subsequently, the Dutch Republic and the modern Netherlands. This was reflective of the fact that the network of the Dutch Empire was commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over a homogeneous landmass. The companies brief domination of global commerce contributed greatly to a commercial revolution, in their search for new trade passages between Asia and Europe Dutch navigators explored and charted vast regions such as New Zealand and parts of the eastern coast of North America. Shortly after reaching its zenith, the Dutch Empire began to decline as a result of the Anglo-Dutch Wars, in which it lost many of its colonial possessions and trade monopolies to the British Empire. Nevertheless, some portions of the empire survived until the advent of global decolonisation following World War II, namely the East Indies, three former colonial territories—Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten—are retained as constituent countries within the Netherlands.
In 1566, a Protestant Dutch revolt broke out against rule by Roman Catholic Spain, led by William of Orange, independence was declared in the 1581 Act of Abjuration. The revolt resulted in the establishment of an de facto independent Protestant republic in the north by Treaty of Antwerp, the coastal provinces of Holland and Zeeland had for centuries prior to Spanish rule been important hubs of the European maritime trade network. Their geographical location provided convenient access to the markets of France, Germany, efficient access to capital enabled the Dutch in the 1580s to extend their trade routes beyond northern Europe to new markets in the Mediterranean and the Levant. In the 1590s, Dutch ships began to trade with Brazil and the Dutch Gold Coast of Africa, and towards the Indian Ocean, by attacking Portuguese overseas possessions, the Dutch forced Spain to divert financial and military resources away from its attempt to quell Dutch independence. Thus began the several decade-long Dutch-Portuguese War, in 1594, the Compagnie van Verre was founded in Amsterdam, with the aim of sending two fleets to the spice islands of Maluku.
The first fleet sailed in 1596 and returned in 1597 with a cargo of pepper, the second voyage, returned its investors a 400% profit. The success of these led to the founding of a number of companies competing for the trade. The competition was counterproductive to the interests as it threatened to drive up the price of spices at their source in Indonesia whilst driving them down in Europe. As a result of the caused by inter-company rivalry, the Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602. The directors of the company, the Heeren XVII, were given the authority to establish fortresses and strongholds, to sign treaties. The company itself was founded as a joint stock company, similarly to its English rival that had founded two years earlier, the English East India Company. The Spanish-Dutch War was for the Dutch part of their struggle for independence and religious freedom, the Netherlands became part of the domains of the Spanish branch of the Habsburg dynasty when Emperor Charles V divided the holdings of the Habsburg Empire following his abdication in 1555.
From 1517, the port of Lisbon in Portugal was the main European market for products from India that was attended by other nations to purchase their needs
Battle in the Bay of Matanzas
The Battle in the Bay of Matanzas was a naval battle during the Eighty Years War in which a Dutch squadron was able to defeat and capture a Spanish treasure fleet. In 1628, Admiral Piet Hein, with Witte de With as his flag captain, with him was Admiral Hendrick Lonck, and he was joined by a squadron of Vice-Admiral Joost Banckert. After some musket volleys from Dutch sloops, these ships surrendered also, Hein captured 11,509,524 guilders of booty in gold and expensive trade goods, such as indigo and cochineal, without any bloodshed. The Dutch didnt keep their prisoners, they gave the Spanish crews ample supplies for a march to Havana, the taking of the treasure was the Dutch West India Companys greatest victory in the Caribbean. The money funded the Dutch army for eight months, allowing it to capture the fortress s-Hertogenbosch, Hein returned to the Netherlands in 1629, where he was hailed as a hero. He was the first and last to capture such a part of a Spanish silver fleet from the Americas