During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from 22 April – 25 May 1915 for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium. The First Battle of Ypres had been fought the previous autumn; the Second Battle of Ypres was the first mass use by Germany of poison gas on the Western Front. It marked the first time a former colonial force defeated a European power in Europe; the eminent German chemist Walther Nernst, in the army in 1914 as a volunteer driver, saw how trenches produced deadlock. He proposed to Colonel Max Bauer, the German general staff officer responsible for liaison with scientists, that they could empty the opposing trenches by a surprise attack with tear gas. Observing a field test of this idea, the chemist Fritz Haber instead proposed using heavier than air chlorine gas; the German commander Erich von Falkenhayn agreed to try the new weapon, but intended to use it in a diversionary attack by his 4th Army. The gas would be released by siphoning liquid chlorine out of cylinders.
5,730 gas cylinders, the larger weighing 90 pounds each, were manhandled into the front line. Installation was supervised by Haber and the other future Nobel prize winners Otto Hahn, James Franck and Gustav Hertz. Twice cylinders were breached by shell fire, the second time three men were killed and fifty wounded; some of the Germans were protected by miner's oxygen breathing apparatus. The Ypres salient was the selected for the attack, it followed the canal. North of the salient, the Belgian army held the line of the Yser and the north end of the salient was held by two French divisions; the eastern part of the salient was defended by two British divisions. The II Corps and V Corps of the Second Army comprised the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Cavalry Divisions and the 4th, 27th, 28th, Lahore and 1st Canadian divisions. In A record of the Engagements of the British Armies in France and Flanders, 1914–1918 E. A. James used The Official Names of the Battles and Other Engagements Fought by the Military Forces of the British Empire during the Great War, 1914–1919, the Third Afghan War, 1919: Report of the Battles Nomenclature Committee as approved by the Army Council to provide a summary of each engagement and the formations involved.
In The Battles of Ypres, 1915 six engagements involving the Second Army were recorded, four during the Second Battle. Battle of Gravenstafel: Thursday 22 April – Friday 23 April Battle of St. Julien: Saturday 24 April – 4 May Battle of Frezenberg: 8–13 May Battle of Bellewaarde: 24–25 May On 22 April 1915 at about 5:00 p.m. the 4th Army released 168 long tons of chlorine gas on a 6.5 km front between the hamlets of Langemark and Gravenstafel on the Allied line held by French Territorial and Troupes coloniales of the French 45th and 87th divisions. The French troops in the path of the gas cloud suffered 2–3,000 casualties, with 800 to 1,400 fatalities. Troops fled in all directions...haggard, their overcoats thrown off or opened wide, their scarves pulled off, running like madmen, shouting for water, spitting blood, some rolling on the ground making desperate efforts to breathe. A 4 mi gap in the French front was left undefended. German infantry followed well behind the cloud, breathing through cotton pads soaked with sodium thiosulfate solution and occupied the villages of Langemark and Pilken, where they dug in though they might have occupied Ypres unopposed.
They had taken 51 guns. Canadian troops defending the southern flank of the break-in identified chlorine because it smelled like their drinking water; the Germans released more chlorine gas at them the following day. Casualties were heavy for the 13th Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, enveloped on three sides and had over-extended its left flank after the Algerian Division broke. At the Battle of Kitcheners' Wood, the 10th Battalion of the 2nd Canadian Brigade was ordered to counter-attack in the gap created by the gas attack, they formed up after 11:00 p.m. on 22 April, with the 16th Battalion of the 3rd Brigade arriving to support the advance. Both battalions attacked with over 800 men, in waves of two companies each, at 11:46 a.m. Without reconnaissance, the battalions ran into obstacles halfway to their objective. Engaged by small-arms fire from the wood, they began an impromptu bayonet charge; the attack cleared the former oak plantation of Germans at a 75-percent casualty rate.
The British press were confused by the attack: The Germans set fire to a chemical product of sulphur chloride which they had placed in front of their own trenches, causing a thick yellow cloud to be blown towards the trenches of the French and Belgians. The cloud of smoke advanced like a yellow low wall, overcoming all those who breathed in poisonous fumes; the French were unable to see what was happening. The Germans charged, driving the bewildered French back past their own trenches; those who were enveloped by the fumes were not able to see each other half a yard apart. I have seen some of the wounded who were overcome by the sulphur fumes, they were progressing favourably; the effect of the sulphur appears to be only temporary. The after-effects seem to be a bad swelling of the eyes, but the sight is not dam
The women's triple jump at the 2015 World Championships in Athletics was held at the Beijing National Stadium on 22 and 24 August. The returning champion Caterine Ibargüen looked like the favorite, the most consistent jumper year round; the world leader was the returning silver medalist Ekaterina Koneva and her world leading jump lost the competition to a wind aided jump by Ibargüen. The Olympic Champion Olga Rypakova had beaten Ibargüen both in the Olympics and at the 2011 World Championships, but not in the last three years. Gabriela Petrova took the early lead with her first jump 14.52. Former Ukrainian Hanna Knyazyeva-Minenko made a big improvement to her own National Record of her new country Israel with a 14.78. Her lead lasted through two jumpers before Ibargüen took the lead with her second round 14.80. That wasn't her best jump of the day, but it was enough to beat any other athlete in the competition. In the fourth round Ibargüen jumped 14.90 for the winner. Rypakova moved into third position with a 14.59 in the fourth round.
Petrova answered with a 14.66 on her fifth attempt. Rypakova came back on her final attempt, her 14.77 tickled Knyazyeva-Minenko's second place mark but was a cm short putting her in the bronze medal after Petrova was unable to answer a second time. All of the first five performers had season bests. Knyazyeva-Minenko's medal was the first World Championship medal for an Israeli woman. Prior to the competition, the records were as follows: All times are local times Qualification: 14.25 m or at least best 12 performers The final was started at 19:30
USS Kite was the lead ship of her class of minesweepers of the United States Navy during World War II. The ship was laid down on 18 June 1928 as the fishing trawler M/V Holy Cross by the Bath Iron Works, Maine, for F. J. O'Hara and Sons, Inc. Boston, Massachusetts. Launched on 24 November 1928, delivered on 27 November 1928. Renamed Kite on 14 August 1940, acquired by the U. S. Navy on 11 September 1940. Conversion to a minesweeper began on 12 September 1940 by the Bethlehem Steel Co. East Boston, commissioned as USS Kite on 3 March 1941, conversion completed in April 1941. Kite cleared Boston, Massachusetts, 27 March 1941. Five months she sailed for Newfoundland arriving at Argentia on 31 August for minesweeping operations in the North Atlantic. From August 1941 to 3 May 1944, Kite swept sea lanes in frigid Newfoundland waters. Clearing Argentia, Kite arrived Boston, Massachusetts on 7 May and was decommissioned on 14 August 1944 at Quincy and struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 22 August 1944.
Transferred to the War Shipping Administration on 2 March 1945 and sold. Fate unknown; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Photo gallery of USS Kite at NavSource Naval History
Casper Olesen is a Danish footballer who plays as a winger for German club SC Weiche Flensburg 08. At the age of 19, Olesen was promoted to the first team squad in January 2015. Olesen got his Superliga debut on 6 December 2015. Olesen started on the bench, but replaced Andreas Oggesen in the 85th minute in a 1–0 victory against Esbjerg fB in the Danish Superliga. Olesen extended his contract in May 2016 until the summer 2018; the winger broke his leg in the beginning of August 2017, was out the rest of the year. On 22 July 2019, Olesen moved abroad to Germany and joined Regionalliga Nord club SC Weiche Flensburg 08. Casper Olesen at SønderjyskE at the Wayback Machine Casper Olesen at Soccerway Casper Olesen at DBU
Cheadle and Gatley is an electoral ward in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport. It elects three Councillors to Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council using the first past the post electoral method, electing one Councillor every year without election on the fourth. Together with Bramhall North, Bramhall South, Cheadle Hulme North, Cheadle Hulme South, Heald Green and Stepping Hill Wards it makes up the Cheadle Parliamentary Constituency; the ward contains the Cheadle College, part of the Cheadle and Marple Sixth Form College. Cheadle and Gatley electoral ward is represented in Westminster by Mary Robinson MP for Cheadle; the ward is represented on Stockport Council by three councillors: Iain Roberts Graham Greenhalgh Keith Holloway indicates seat up for re-election. Indicates seat won in by-election. Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council
Z-Rock Hawaii is the name of the debut self-titled album by Z-Rock Hawaii, released in 1996. The group features Gene Ween, Dean Ween and Claude Coleman Jr. of Ween collaborating with Yamantaka Eye, Seiichi Yamamoto, Yoshimi P-We, Yoshikawa Toyohito of Boredoms. In 1994, during the recording of Chocolate & Cheese, Gene Ween, Dean Ween and Claude Coleman Jr. of Ween collaborated with Japanese noise rock band Boredoms on a project released two years as Z-Rock Hawaii. Melchiondo had become a big fan of Boredoms upon seeing them live in Philadelphia in 1993, calling them "the heaviest band had seen since the Butthole Surfers". Boredoms frontman Yamantaka Eye had released an album that sampled Ween's The Pod. "Chuggin'" "Bad to the Bone" "In the Garden" "Love like Cement" "Tuchus" "Piledriver" "I Get a Little Taste of You" "God in My Bed" "The Meadow" "Sunset over Osaka" "Hexagon"